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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2020

Deborah J. Morris, Elanor Lucy Webb, Emma Parmar, Grace Trundle and Anne McLean

People with developmental disorders are significantly more likely to experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), although the impact of ACEs on this population is not…

Abstract

Purpose

People with developmental disorders are significantly more likely to experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), although the impact of ACEs on this population is not well understood. Furthermore, considerably less is known about the exposure to, and impact of, ACEs in detained adolescents with complex developmental disorder needs. This paper aims to explore the exposure to ACEs in an adolescent population detained in a secure specialist developmental disorder service.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective file review was used to explore ACEs and placement histories within a specialist developmental disorder inpatient service. Data was collated for a convenience sample of 36 adolescents, 9 of whom were female, aged 13–20 years (M = 17.28 years).

Findings

A total of 33 participants (91.7%) had experienced at least 1 ACE, with 58% experiencing 4 or more ACEs and 36% experiencing 6 or more ACEs. The most common ACEs reported were physical abuse (61.6%), parental separation (58.3%) and emotional abuse (55.6%). The majority of participants had also experienced high levels of disruption prior to admission, with an average of four placement breakdowns (range 1–13, standard deviation = 3.1). ACEs held a significant positive association with the total number of placement breakdowns and total number of mental health diagnoses.

Practical implications

Adolescents detained in specialist developmental disorder secure care had, at the point of admission, experienced high levels of adversities and had been exposed to high levels of experienced and observed abuse. The level of exposure to adversity and ongoing disruptions in care suggests that Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services’ developmental secure services should consider adopting dual treatment frameworks of developmental disorder and trauma-informed care.

Originality/value

This study explored the early-life and placement experiences of a marginalised and understudied population.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Marco O. Bertelli, Kerim Munir, James Harris and Luis Salvador-Carulla

The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health…

Abstract

Purpose

The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is being finalized. Defining ID as a health condition is central to retaining it in ICD, with significant implications for health policy and access to health services. The purpose of this paper is to include some reflections on the consensus document produced by the first WHO Working Group on the Classification of MR (WHO WG-MR) and on the process that was followed to realize it. The consensus report was the basis for the development of official recommendations sent to the WHO Advisory Group for ICD-11.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed qualitative approach was followed in a series of meetings leading to the final consensus report submitted to the WHO Advisory group. These recommendations combined prior expert knowledge with available evidence; a nominal approach was followed throughout with face-to-face conferences.

Findings

The WG recommended a synonym set (“synset”) ontological approach to the conceptualisation of this health condition underlying a clinical rationale for its diagnosis. It proposed replacing MR with Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDD) in ICD-11, defined as “a group of developmental conditions characterized by a significant impairment of cognitive functions, which are associated with limitations of learning, adaptive behaviour and skills”. The WG further advised that IDD be included under the parent category of neurodevelopmental disorders, that current distinctions (mild, moderate, severe and profound) be continued as severity qualifiers, and that problem behaviours removed from its core classification structure and instead described as associated features.

Originality/value

Within the ID/IDD synset two different names combine distinct aspects under a single construct that describes its clinical as well as social, educational and policy utilities. The single construct incorporates IDD as a clinical meta-syndrome, and ID as its functioning and disability counterpart. IDD and ID are not synonymous or mirror concepts as they have different scientific, social and policy applications. New diagnostic criteria for IDD should be based on a developmental approach, which accounts for the complex causal factors known to impact the acquisition of specific cognitive abilities and adaptive behaviours. The paper focuses on a new clinical framework for the diagnosis of IDD that also includes and complements the existing social, educational and policy components inherent in ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Emily J. Solari, Nancy S. McIntyre, Jaclyn M. Dynia and Alyssa Henry

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent…

Abstract

Academic outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain poor, especially in the area of reading, in particular, reading comprehension. In recent years, researchers have begun to investigate subcomponent skills of reading comprehension for children with ASD in order to better understand its development and potential interventions to enhance outcomes. This chapter highlights the current knowledge in the field in regards to the key cognitive and language skills associated with reading development for individuals with ASD. These include emergent-literacy skills, word-reading and decoding, reading fluency, oral language, and social cognition. Additionally, the chapter makes suggestions for future research in this area, in particular the need to conduct research to establish evidence-based practices to better support the syndrome-specific reading needs for this population.

Details

The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Marco O. Bertelli, Micaela Piva Merli, Elspeth Bradley, Roberto Keller, Niccolò Varrucciu, Chiara Del Furia and Nicola Panocchia

During the last few years the prevalence of autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased greatly. A recurring issue is the overlap and boundaries between…

6290

Abstract

Purpose

During the last few years the prevalence of autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased greatly. A recurring issue is the overlap and boundaries between Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD), ASD and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). In clinical practice with people with IDD, the alternative or adjunctive diagnosis of ASD or SSD is particularly challenging. The purpose of this paper is to define the boundaries and overlapping clinical characteristics of IDD, ASD and SSD; highlight the most relevant differences in clinical presentation; and provide a clinical framework within which to recognize the impact of IDD and ASD in the diagnosis of SSD.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic mapping of the international literature was conducted on the basis of the following questions: first, what are considered to be core and overlapping aspects of IDD, ASD and SSD; second, what are the main issues in clinical practice; and third, can key diagnostic flags be identified to assist in differentiating between the three diagnostic categories?

Findings

Crucial clinical aspects for the differentiation resulted to be age of onset, interest towards others, main positive symptoms, and anatomical anomalies of the central nervous system. More robust diagnostic criteria and semeiological references are desirable.

Originality/value

The present literature mapping provides a comprehensive description of the most relevant differences in the clinical presentation of ASD and SSD in persons with IDD.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Michele Frasier-Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography of books and journal titles to assist researchers, clinicians, educators and parents in need of…

267

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography of books and journal titles to assist researchers, clinicians, educators and parents in need of information on child and adolescent psychopathology.

Design/methodology/approach

Resources that include a wide range child and adolescent mental disorders were selected. Criteria for book selection was based on those that include evidence-based therapies. Journal titles were selected based on impact factor according to Journal Citation Reports.

Findings

The scholarship on child and adolescent psychopathology is immense. After a review of the literature, 15 books and eight journal titles that reflect the diverse nature of child and adolescent mental health disorders are included.

Originality/value

This is an original bibliography that will be helpful to librarians assisting patrons with information needs about child and adolescent mental health disorders.

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2014

Emily Boshkoff Johnson

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are…

Abstract

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are discussed include the following: diagnostic criteria and approaches; international perspectives of ASD; western and eastern assessment practices; cultural considerations of assessment of ASD; educational and medical interventions; behavioral and emotional interventions; complementary and alternative medical interventions; variations in educational services among countries; early intervention practices; adult services; national and international resources; and current needs and future directions.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2010

Jeremy Turk

Sleep disorders are extremely common in children and young people, and even more so in those with developmental disabilities. This client subgroup may prove refractory to…

Abstract

Sleep disorders are extremely common in children and young people, and even more so in those with developmental disabilities. This client subgroup may prove refractory to standard behavioural and other psychosocial interventions that usually help and it is frequent for clinicians to resort to medication approaches given the high levels of personal and family distress that result. There is a need not only for further well structured research in this field but also for efforts to tackle the frequent relative neglect by clinicians of more researched and considered approaches. This review examines these issues selectively, focusing on important clinical issues and predicaments, and attempts a start at an evidence‐based background for practical and rational prescribing in this area of common childhood psychopathology.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Cynthia A. Plotts

Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While…

Abstract

Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment measures. Assessment practice across school settings is greatly influenced by clinical guidelines such as the DSM-IV, which more specifically defines emotional and behavioral disorders and highlights the issue of co-morbidity. Before a student is assessed for special education eligibility under the IDEIA category of emotional disturbance, screening techniques and pre-referral interventions are needed. Positive Behavioral Supports and Response to Intervention models provide empirically supported frameworks for establishing the need for formal psychological assessment. Collaboration among members of the multidisciplinary team, including parents, helps to ensure that identification and intervention efforts have ecological validity. Tests and techniques vary considerably, but developmental histories, interviews, observations across settings, and behavioral checklists and rating scales are recommended, along with cognitive and achievement testing. While problems exist in the reliability and validity of projective techniques, they continue to be used in school-based assessment for EBD. Multitrait, multisetting, and multimethod approaches are essential for culturally fair assessment and reduction of bias in identification and placement.

Details

Behavioral Disorders: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction of Students with EBD
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-504-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Marty Sapp

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are a…

Abstract

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are a collection of chronic conditions that include Autistic Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Aspeger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Typically, ASD are often identified during infancy or the toddler years. Most individuals with ASD have some degree of mental retardation. According to Deisinger (2001), genetic factors, abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry, and complications during pregnancy have been implicated as possible causes of these disorders. Generally, students with ASD have difficulties with daily activities such as language, self-care, mobility, and independent functioning. The focus of this chapter examines the many features that must be considered before diagnosing and classifying individuals with ASD.

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

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