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This article describes the use of the National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement (NHIS-D) to estimate the prevalence and general characteristics of persons…
This article describes the use of the National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement (NHIS-D) to estimate the prevalence and general characteristics of persons with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities in the non-institutionalized U.S. population. It provides estimates of the populations of non-institutionalized persons with intellectual disability (defined categorically), with developmental disabilities (defined functionally) and with both. It describes how the prevalence of intellectual and/or developmental disabilities varies by age, poverty status and other demographic variables. It describes how intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities are operationally different, and how the people identified in those groups differ substantially both in number and in demographic characteristics. An analysis of poverty status among adults reveals that poverty is significantly more common for women, people who were not white, people with intellectual or developmental disabilities, adults with less than 12 years of education, and people living with a spouse or alone (as compared to people living with relatives such as parents or siblings).
People with developmental disabilities have persistent levels of low employment and employment rates among the working-aged disabled are declining (see Bound & Waidmann…
People with developmental disabilities have persistent levels of low employment and employment rates among the working-aged disabled are declining (see Bound & Waidmann, 2002). For example, the average employment rate of those graduating with a four-year degree is just under 90% while employment rates for those graduates with a disability hover around 50% (The Center for an Accessible Society, n.d.). Subsequently, people with disabilities often have a difficult time becoming economically self-sufficient (see National Council on Disability, 2000; Sowers, McLean, & Owens, 2002). The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) is one notable attempt to help provide those with a disability to employment access. While the ADA has been a champion of the cause, people with developmental disabilities still face a host of employment-related barriers (e.g., biases associated with the disability) (see DiLeo, 2007; Luecking & Mooney, 2002). Furthermore, while most people have concerns over retirement (e.g., social isolation) those concerns are exacerbated for people with developmental disabilities (see Hodges & Luken, 2006).
The transition from school to work or to post-secondary training is a critical period for all students (Gilmore, Bose, & Hart, 2001; Zaft, Hart, & Zimbrich, 2004). Thus, a challenge for educators is to develop educational programs and services that embrace the characteristics that is prevalent in highly successful adults with and without disabilities. For years, adolescents and adults with development disabilities did not receive much attention from general or special educators. Fortunately, special educators now are reorganizing the complex needs of these older individuals and are making progress in designing interventions to meet their diverse needs. However, they alone cannot ensure the success of these students in secondary and post-secondary situations (see Hart, Mele-McCarthy, Pasternack, Zimbrich, & Parker, 2004). Legislators and policymakers must consider the special needs of this population in reforming secondary education; and general and special educators must share the responsibility of preparing them for graduation and post-secondary planning (see Bailey, Hughes, & Karp, 2004). In addition, community services must join forces with educators and employers to provide individuals with developmental disabilities with a continuum of services throughout their life span. Many students with developmental disabilities find themselves unprepared at college entry in a number of areas including inadequate knowledge of subject content, underachieving in academic skills, poor organizational skills (e.g., time management and study skills), poor test taking skills, lack of assertiveness, and low self-esteem (Dalke & Schmitt, 1987; Mull, Sitlington, & Alper, 2001; Stodden & Whelley, 2004).
Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental…
Research on women’s health has increased substantially in the past decade, but this has not been paralleled in the area of developmental disabilities. In developmental disabilities research, there has been little attempt to disentangle the impact of age, intellectual disabilities, and other developmental disabilities on women’s health. The 1994–1995 Disability Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey, administered to a representative sample of the U.S. population, was used to describe the aging process in the community for women age 30 and older with mental retardation (MR), developmental disabilities (DD) or both (MR/DD). Definitions of MR and DD consistent with professional and legal standards were developed and adapted to the NHIS-D questions. Approximately 77 million civilian, non-institutionalized women in the United States were age 30 and older at the time of the survey. Among these women an estimated 0.56% have mental retardation or developmental disability. Compared with women in general, women with these disabilities were disproportionately absent in the community, had negative perceptions of their health status, and their health indicators tended to support these perceptions. Most women with these disabilities were independent in activities of daily living (ADL), but instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) posed more of a challenge, and limitations in major activities were common. Limitations in mobility were common among women with DD.
This paper examines how developmental risk factors associated with depression in typically developing adolescents may interact with the particular life experience of…
This paper examines how developmental risk factors associated with depression in typically developing adolescents may interact with the particular life experience of adolescents with intellectual disabilities and influence vulnerability to depression. We suggest that a consideration of developmental factors and their interaction with the person's social environment may offer a possible framework for prevention and early intervention with adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
Library programs for developmentally disabled adults are essential for community enrichment. When the author created a program for her local library in 2014, she was a…
Library programs for developmentally disabled adults are essential for community enrichment. When the author created a program for her local library in 2014, she was a little alarmed by how few programs existed. Over the past few years, the author has seen a greater interest in programming for adults with developmental disabilities, but librarians have questions about where to get started. There are programs currently that are already available for those who want to engage developmentally disabled adults; however, librarians may also opt to create a program from scratch. For librarians who have never worked with developmentally disabled adults, there is some training available although it may not be what librarians really desire or need. The best opportunity to create beneficial programs is to collaborate with community partners such as local day training centers and schools.
In the field of autism spectrum research, there has been a tendency to examine autistics without intellectual disabilities. This focus has come at the expense of examining…
In the field of autism spectrum research, there has been a tendency to examine autistics without intellectual disabilities. This focus has come at the expense of examining their peers with intellectual disabilities, who are generally regarded as needing more assistance due to more complex support needs. This chapter begins by defining intellectual disability, followed by an examination of the literature about the prevalence of intellectual disability in the autistic population. The results from the American Government's Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Autism and Developmental Monitoring (ADDM) Network about the proportion of autistics with intellectual disabilities are then outlined. Following this, the results from studies about the proportion of autistics with intellectual disabilities are presented. The goal of this section is to show that despite there being evidence that about a quarter of the autistic population have an intellectual disability, this cohort is underrepresented within research about the autism spectrum. Two reasons for this discrepancy are then outlined. This chapter concludes with three suggestions for where more research can be conducted into autistics who have an intellectual disability.
The original contribution that this chapter makes to the field of autism research is to highlight the lack of literature about members of the autistic community who have an intellectual disability as well as presenting several reasons for this lack of research and directions for research in the future.
In this paper, the authors summarize the empirical and theoretical gaps in understanding of police contact with individuals with intellectual and/or developmental…
In this paper, the authors summarize the empirical and theoretical gaps in understanding of police contact with individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities at the individual, interactional, organizational and systems level and introduce the special issue papers which address these gaps. The authors close with a discussion of future directions for research in this area.
The authors’ objective in producing this issue was to create a platform to generate and facilitate research in this area. The authors chose papers that represented research that could “move the needle” around the understanding of policing and intellectual and/or developmental disabilities.
The papers in this special issue reflect four thematic areas: (1) the nature of interactions between the police and individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities; (2) police interactions about individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities with criminal justice systems, social services and mental health services, (3) experiences of the police when encountering individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities and finally, (4) the experiences within police encounters of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities.
Research on intellectual and/or developmental disabilities is still in its infancy, particularly within the field of criminology and criminal justice. This special issue brings together innovative international research that adds critical information surrounding the nature of interactions between the police and individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, the experience for both parties during that interaction and the context of these interactions in the larger organizational ecosystem of criminal justice organizations and social service agencies.
The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health…
The debate as to whether intellectual disability (ID) should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is being finalized. Defining ID as a health condition is central to retaining it in ICD, with significant implications for health policy and access to health services. The purpose of this paper is to include some reflections on the consensus document produced by the first WHO Working Group on the Classification of MR (WHO WG-MR) and on the process that was followed to realize it. The consensus report was the basis for the development of official recommendations sent to the WHO Advisory Group for ICD-11.
A mixed qualitative approach was followed in a series of meetings leading to the final consensus report submitted to the WHO Advisory group. These recommendations combined prior expert knowledge with available evidence; a nominal approach was followed throughout with face-to-face conferences.
The WG recommended a synonym set (“synset”) ontological approach to the conceptualisation of this health condition underlying a clinical rationale for its diagnosis. It proposed replacing MR with Intellectual Developmental Disorders (IDD) in ICD-11, defined as “a group of developmental conditions characterized by a significant impairment of cognitive functions, which are associated with limitations of learning, adaptive behaviour and skills”. The WG further advised that IDD be included under the parent category of neurodevelopmental disorders, that current distinctions (mild, moderate, severe and profound) be continued as severity qualifiers, and that problem behaviours removed from its core classification structure and instead described as associated features.
Within the ID/IDD synset two different names combine distinct aspects under a single construct that describes its clinical as well as social, educational and policy utilities. The single construct incorporates IDD as a clinical meta-syndrome, and ID as its functioning and disability counterpart. IDD and ID are not synonymous or mirror concepts as they have different scientific, social and policy applications. New diagnostic criteria for IDD should be based on a developmental approach, which accounts for the complex causal factors known to impact the acquisition of specific cognitive abilities and adaptive behaviours. The paper focuses on a new clinical framework for the diagnosis of IDD that also includes and complements the existing social, educational and policy components inherent in ID.
In this chapter, my aim is to describe and analyse conceptually and provide direction for the identification, selection and use of assistive technologies (ATs) to support…
In this chapter, my aim is to describe and analyse conceptually and provide direction for the identification, selection and use of assistive technologies (ATs) to support the education and development of young children with disabilities. The chapter discusses the quality of early intervention practices and the pragmatic role of ATs in delivering effective early intervention impacts. In making this case, the chapter draws upon Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory to illuminate how ATs can be selected and used effectively in schools to enable all young children to thrive in their learning and development in inclusive classrooms.