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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Faten F. Kharbat, Abdallah Alshawabkeh and M. Lynn Woolsey

Students with developmental/intellectual disabilities (ID/DD) often have serious health issues that require additional medical care and supervision. Serious health issues…

Abstract

Purpose

Students with developmental/intellectual disabilities (ID/DD) often have serious health issues that require additional medical care and supervision. Serious health issues also mean increased absence and additional lags in academic achievement and development of adaptive and social skills. The incorporation of artificial intelligence in the education of a child with ID/DD could ameliorate the educational, adaptive and social skill gaps that occur as a direct result of persistent health problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature regarding the use of artificial intelligence in education for students with ID/DD was collected systematically from international online databases based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The collected articles were analyzed deductively, looking for the different gaps in the domain. Based on the literature, an artificial intelligence–based architecture is proposed and sketched.

Findings

The findings show that there are many gaps in supporting students with ID/DD through the utilization of artificial intelligence. Given that the majority of students with ID/DD often have serious and chronic and comorbid health conditions, the potential use of health information in artificial intelligence is even more critical. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop a system that facilitates communication and access to health information for students with ID/DD, one that provides information to caregivers and education providers, limits errors, and, therefore, improves these individuals' education and quality of life.

Practical implications

This review highlights the gap in the current literature regarding using artificial intelligence in supporting the education of students with ID/DD. There is an urgent need for an intelligent system in collaboration with the updated health information to improve the quality of services submitted for people with intellectual disabilities and as a result improving their quality of life.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by highlighting the gaps in incorporating artificial intelligence and its service to individuals with ID/DD. The research additionally proposes a solution based on the confounding variables of students’ health and individual characteristics. This solution will provide an automated information flow as a functional diagnostic and intervention tool for teachers, caregivers and parents. It could potentially improve the educational and practical outcomes for individuals with ID/DD and, ultimately, their quality of life.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Maria Fafalios‐Dragonas

A large part of this paper is based on a presentation by Maria Fafalios‐Dragonas at the International Conference on Developmental/Intellectual Disabilities, ‘Bridging the…

Abstract

A large part of this paper is based on a presentation by Maria Fafalios‐Dragonas at the International Conference on Developmental/Intellectual Disabilities, ‘Bridging the Continents’, held in Cyprus, 27‐29 March 1998. The conference was organised by the North Dakota Centre for Persons with Disabilities, a university‐affiliated programme at Minot, North Dakota, and Cyprus University, Nicosia, Cyprus. The paper looks at vocational rehabilitation projects in Greece and is based on a questionnaire distributed (August 1996 to August 1997) to the directors of various sheltered workschemes throughout the country, for people with mental health problems, learning difficulties and physical disabilities. This survey ‐ unique in Greece, to our knowledge ‐ was carried out by Maria Fafalios‐Dragonas, Eleni Tsigara and Panayota Papamanoli, for Kaleidoscope social enterprise. The statistical analysis is by ORCO, Athens.

Details

A Life in the Day, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-6282

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2010

Elspeth Bradley and Thomas Cheetham

The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada…

Abstract

The paper provides a Canadian perspective on the use of psychotropic medication in the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities in Canada. Psychotropic medication and intellectual disabilities were explored in the context of Canadian health and social services, clinical practices, medical training and factors that have shaped these over the past few decades. Informal physician intellectual disabilities networks and the newly formed Canadian Network of the National Coalition on Dual Diagnosis provided the opportunity to survey the use of psychotropic medication for problem behaviours across the country. Geographic, political, cultural and other influences on the development of health and social services are described, as well as training requirements for physicians. Survey responses were received from all provinces and represented clinicians in mental health multidisciplinary teams, health and social services ministry representatives, agency staff (up to executive director level) and family members of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Psychiatry and family medicine perspectives of the authors from working in Canada and the UK with people with intellectual disabilities presenting with problem behaviours are described. In Canada there are no national, provincial or territorial policies or guidelines on use of psychotropic medication for the management of such behaviours. There are no requirements for physicians prescribing these medications to have training in the care of people with intellectual disabilities. Services for people with intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems in Canada appear to be more crisis‐reactive than those in the UK.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Preethy S. Samuel, Karen L. Hobden and Barbara W. LeRoy

Purpose – The goal of this chapter was to empirically describe the patterns and dimensions of community interaction of typically underserved families of children with…

Abstract

Purpose – The goal of this chapter was to empirically describe the patterns and dimensions of community interaction of typically underserved families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities within a family quality of life (FQoL) context.

Methodology – We utilized the theoretical framework of FQoL to examine the community interactions of 149 families who voluntarily participated in this study. The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQoLS-2006) was used to collect data from the primary caregivers of the children with the disability, 92% of which were mothers. We conducted an in-depth examination of the six dimensions (importance, opportunities, initiative, attainment, stability, and satisfaction) of community interaction.

Findings – Most families viewed community interaction as very important to their FQoL and the majority (62%) were satisfied with their community interaction, although just over a third reported high attainment, and only 48% reported having adequate opportunities for community interaction. Families of children with autism reported lower attainment of community interaction when compared to families of children with other developmental disabilities (t=2.63, df=147, p=0.01). Some race-related and child-related differences were also observed in the initiative taken to pursue community interaction and discrimination experienced by families.

Limitations – Results must be interpreted with caution, as the participants in this study were all volunteers and the majority were mothers, and therefore may not be representative of all families of children with disabilities. Despite the limitations, findings from this study are a first step in understanding the multidimensional nature of community interaction of low-income, minority families.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Sheila Hollins, Jo Egerton and Barry Carpenter

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the social and scientific rationale for book clubs, whose members read wordless books together, and give examples of storytelling…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the social and scientific rationale for book clubs, whose members read wordless books together, and give examples of storytelling with picture books in libraries and other community settings for people with intellectual disabilities and autism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider the impact of book clubs reading picture books without words, alongside an understanding of the underlying neuroscience (see Table I for search strategy). The authors compare differences in the neuroscience of information and emotion processing between pictures and words. Accounts from book club facilitators illustrate these differences in practice.

Findings

Many readers who struggle with reading and comprehending words, find pictures much easier to understand. Book clubs support community inclusion, as for other people in society. A focus on visual rather than word literacy encourages successful shared reading.

Research limitations/implications

No research has been published about the feasibility and effectiveness of wordless books in community book clubs or shared reading groups. There is very little research on the impact of accessible materials, despite a legal requirement for services to provide reasonable adjustments and the investment of time and resources in developing storylines in pictures, or “translating” information into easy read formats.

Practical implications

Book clubs whose members read picture books without words are growing in number, especially in public libraries in the UK. Expansion is dependent on funding to pay for training for librarians and volunteer facilitators.

Social implications

There is a shortage of fully accessible activities for adults with intellectual disabilities in mainstream community settings with a primarily social purpose.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper describing the theory and impact of wordless book clubs for people who find pictures easier to understand than words.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2017

Deborah Taub, Megan H. Foster, Ann-Marie Orlando and Diane L. Ryndak

The purpose of this chapter is to examine what it means for students with extensive support needs (ESN) to have opportunities to learn (OTL), why OTL is inexplicably tied…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine what it means for students with extensive support needs (ESN) to have opportunities to learn (OTL), why OTL is inexplicably tied to inclusive practices, and the in-school and post-school outcomes when students have OTL. Research will be provided that supports positive in-school and post-school outcomes, when students are provided equitable learning opportunities in inclusive contexts. Given the difference in possible outcomes for students with ESN when they do and do not have OTL, excluding them from general education contexts, where they have the best access to the intended and enacted curricula, is both unethical and limiting to society as a whole.

Details

Ethics, Equity, and Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-153-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2015

Kuljit Heer, John Rose, Michael Larkin and Nidhi Singhal

India has one of the more progressive disability frameworks in the developing world which tends to adopt western philosophies and principles (e.g. parent participation and…

Abstract

Purpose

India has one of the more progressive disability frameworks in the developing world which tends to adopt western philosophies and principles (e.g. parent participation and advocacy) which to some degree mirrors the type of service delivery in the UK. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a cross-cultural perspective to explore caregiving amongst parents caring for a child with intellectual/developmental disabilities in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Three focus groups were used to interview parents at Action for Autism (AFA) located in Delhi, India. The focus groups explored how disability is encountered within an Indian context.

Findings

Two main themes were identified in the parents narratives which were “making the decision to get help” and “seeing disabilities in from a new perspective”. Family members played an important role in the decision to get help and acted as a platform for mothers to explore their own concerns. Seeing disability from a new perspective was a four stage process which included initially accepting the diagnosis and their child; regaining control through parenting skills training; witnessing positive changes in their children and themselves and reaping personal benefits as a result of their involvement with AFA.

Research limitations/implications

The research is very small scale and focused on parents in a specific organisation, as a consequence the results cannot be generalised.

Originality/value

The discourses of these individuals do provide a useful insight into the provision of services to children in India and provide a starting point for cross-cultural understanding of parenting children with disabilities.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Liat Ben-Moshe

Purpose – This chapter focuses on notions of community as related to the discourse around “community living” for people with labels of developmental disabilities

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter focuses on notions of community as related to the discourse around “community living” for people with labels of developmental disabilities, especially as they emerged during and after deinstitutionalization. Following Foucault, this chapter asks whether institutionalization and community living should be conceived of as two separate epochs or as governed by similar logic. The second focus of the chapter is in the ways notions of “community” were evoked by various stakeholders such as parents of children with labels of mental retardation, professionals in the field of developmental disability, and those of formerly institutionalized peoples themselves.

Methodology/approach – This chapter employs the methodological aspects of the work of Michel Foucault and constructs a genealogy of notions of community in relation to deinstitutionalization and the field of developmental disabilities.

Findings – “Community” has been discursively produced in several forms: as a binary opposite of “institution,” as a set of human relationships, and as a paradigm shift in relation to the way developmental disabilities should be conceptualized. It remains unclear whether we have truly moved from an institutional model to a “community-based” model for those with developmental disabilities.

Originality/value of the chapter – Reconceptualizing deinstitutionalization and community living as discursive formations aids in the understanding of the difference between abolition of institutionalization as a mindset and other formulations of the concept of “community” in the field of developmental disabilities.

Details

Disability and Community
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-800-8

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2015

Gaelynn P. Wolf Bordonaro, Laura Cherry and Jessica Stallings

The relationship between learning and mental health, as well as a growing body of literature, underscores the need for art therapy in educational settings. This is…

Abstract

The relationship between learning and mental health, as well as a growing body of literature, underscores the need for art therapy in educational settings. This is particularly true for learners with special needs. Shostak et al. (1985) affirmed that “for children with special needs, art therapy in a school setting can offer opportunities to work through obstacles that impede educational success” (p. 19). School art therapy facilitates improved social interaction, increased learning behaviors, appropriate affective development, and increased empathy and personal well-being. It can be adapted to meet the specific developmental needs of individual students and to parallel students’ developmental, learning, and behavioral objectives. This chapter introduces the reader to the history and basic constructs of art therapy as a psychoeducational therapeutic intervention in schools. Model programs are identified, as well as the role of the art therapist within the context of K-12 education settings. Additionally, examples of special populations who benefit from art therapy intervention within school systems are provided, along with considerations for school-wide art therapy.

Details

Interdisciplinary Connections to Special Education: Key Related Professionals Involved
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-663-8

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Allen Copenhaver, Andrew S. Denney and Victoria Rapp

The purpose of this study is to ascertain law enforcement cadet general knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and practical knowledge in how to apply various aspects…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to ascertain law enforcement cadet general knowledge of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and practical knowledge in how to apply various aspects of their profession to persons with ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 341 law enforcement cadet surveys administered across ten individual law enforcement cadet classes were analyzed via two individual ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. These regression models were designed to predict changes in cadet scores on their (1) general knowledge of autism scale (i.e., general knowledge regarding autism spectrum disorder itself) and (2) interactional law enforcement knowledge of autism scale (i.e., how to apply various aspects of their job to persons with ASD).

Findings

Findings show that cadets who had a stronger confidence in their ability to interact with persons who have ASD actually knew less than their counterparts with lower reported overall confidence. However, one's confidence in their ability to identify persons with ASD was associated with having better overall general knowledge of ASD itself. Similarly, the greater one's overall confidence in interacting with persons with ASD was associated with lower interactional knowledge. In each model, general autism knowledge and interactional knowledge were positively associated.

Practical implications

The results of this study have implications for cadet and officer training on ASD as each need to be trained in both general knowledge of autism and interactional autism knowledge skills related to the job functions of being a LEO. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

The literature is sparse on law enforcement knowledge of and interaction with persons who have ASD. As such, this study has the potential to make a strong impact on the literature regarding law enforcement and their knowledge and/or interactions with persons who have ASD.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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