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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Dhruv Gupta

In this paper, the author develops a game theoretical model to understand why Union Government of India, as a third party, has used different schemes at different times in…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the author develops a game theoretical model to understand why Union Government of India, as a third party, has used different schemes at different times in history to assist the State Governments in fighting the Naxalite insurgency. Comparing across schemes, it was found that though Matching Security Grants scheme was preferred in general, during asymmetric information scenario it led to an emergency situation wherein the Union Government had to provide the less preferred Bulk Security Grants. Later, it became difficult to withdraw these grants as the State Governments free rode by reducing own security contribution. The author finds that instead, in this scenario, Matching Development Grants are more suitable, as they incentivize the State Governments to reveal private information and help the Union Government exit its third-party role. For a practitioner involved in conflict resolution, these conclusions imply that as the desirability of policies can change diametrically overtime, Union Government must spend resources only on those heads of expenditure that provide both security and development benefits provided they aid in preventing flow of resources to Naxalites. Further, to end its assistance, the Union Government’s expenditures should also complement the capabilities of the State Government rather than substituting them. These results can also guide policy in other protracted civil wars with substantial third-party intervention, which are common these days.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an historical analysis of strategies used by Union and State Governments and Naxalites. The analysis is based on game theoretic tools supported with examples.

Findings

The Union Government must provide matching grants instead of bulk grants such as Central Armed Police Forces, and the grants should be aimed at building complementarities with the state governments’ security contributions. Under asymmetric information scenario, the Union and State Governments reduce their expenses incurred to fight the Naxalites. A Matching Development Grants scheme would have done better. Union Government must spend resources on heads of expenditure that provides both Development and Security benefits, to curb flow of resources to Naxalites, besides complementing the Security Contributions of the State Government.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by disaggregated data to test the hypotheses. It is also limited by the data on hidden variables like the contribution of the Naxalites to fighting. The research is also limited to the extent that individual groups in the war like police commanders, politicians and Naxalite commanders are not incorporated. Multiple asymmetric parties are also not considered; that may generalize the model to other theaters of insurgency.

Practical implications

Certain heads of expenditure such as roads, mobile communication, improving quality of investigation, preventing human rights violations by the security forces, etc. are both security and development enhancing. The Union Government's expenditures must be directed toward this end. Therefore, from a practitioner's perspective, the debate between greed and grievances exists not as a limitation but as a guide. The relevant articles of Constitution of India must be redrafted on these principles. Third-party interventions in other insurgencies may be revisited under these conclusions.

Social implications

Security and Development policies are tools for controlling Naxalite insurgency, which can also be used to prevent flow of resources to Naxalites. Security and development policies to resolving insurgencies are useful at different information scenarios. Therefore, information neutral policies should be preferred.

Originality/value

This paper has contributed theoretically in modeling continuing conflicts like Naxalite insurgency, explicitly. The author also shows that though the field of civil wars may have evolved along the Greed vs Grievance debate (Collier and Hoeffler, 2004), for a practitioner, the lines blur when it comes to solutions, as many heads of expenditures have features of both security and development. This paper also shows that when the Union Government faced asymmetric information scenario, the policy of matching development grants would be beneficial in long run though of limited value in short run. This is an important conclusion as the most intense period of violence was preceded by the asymmetric information scenario. Besides, it has relevance for the other civil wars with third-party intervention, such as NATO in Afghanistan.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 April 2015

Karen L. Sanzo and Jay Paredes Scribner

In this chapter we used a content analysis process (Sanzo, 2012) on select 2010 and 2013 funded grant projects that focus specifically on leadership preparation and…

Abstract

In this chapter we used a content analysis process (Sanzo, 2012) on select 2010 and 2013 funded grant projects that focus specifically on leadership preparation and development in small and mid-sized urban school districts. The purpose of this analysis was to better understand how School Leadership Program (SLP) grant projects approach leadership preparation and development in small to medium-sized districts. Specifically, we explored how and in what ways did these grant-funded partnerships propose to recruit, structure partnerships, and mentor/coach participants. We discovered that SLP projects in this analysis utilize innovative means of recruiting and selecting program participants in a variety of ways, do not utilize a “one-size-fits” all model in their approach to preparing and developing school leaders, and employ authentic partnerships utilize a variety of collaborative mechanisms.

Details

Leading Small and Mid-Sized Urban School Districts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-818-2

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Abstract

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Government for the Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-852-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Robert Blair, Jerome Deichert and David J. Drozd

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this…

Abstract

A partnership of the federal government and the states implement rural community development policy today, yet researchers rarely examine the nature and efficacy of this extensive intergovernmental collaboration. The authors collected data on Community Development Block Grant awards made by one state to small and rural communities for a variety of development projects over a period of more than ten years, and using a modified rural classification system detected patterns and trends in allocation. This study seeks to determine if a federally funded program assists states address the development needs of a diverse mix of rural communities. Do federal block grant programs help states meet rural community development policy objectives? This information should be helpful to local, state, and national government policy makers as they ponder proposals to reorganize dramatically the funding and implementation of community and economic development resources. Perhaps most importantly, this study will also help policy makers understand the complexity of the federal-state-local partnership for rural community development.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1973

There is growing evidence that‐ investment grants are being either misused or shunned by an increasing number of companies. Parliament is investigating, as Paul Whiting…

Abstract

There is growing evidence that‐ investment grants are being either misused or shunned by an increasing number of companies. Parliament is investigating, as Paul Whiting reports from Runcorn, a hard hit development area.

Details

Industrial Management, vol. 73 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Vathsala Wickramasinghe

The purpose of this paper is to review historical developments in higher education in Sri Lanka, and review issues faced and strategies adopted to improve higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review historical developments in higher education in Sri Lanka, and review issues faced and strategies adopted to improve higher education in state universities in the country. The paper also reviews national and international forces that influenced to modernise and improve higher education in state universities in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews available published documents from the last two decades to present and discuss key national and international forces transforming the higher education of the country and strategies adopted to modernise and improve higher education in state universities in the country.

Findings

Historical development in general and higher education together with key characteristics of the Sri Lankan education system are discussed. The governing bodies of the state university education, donor agencies and strategies adopted for the development of higher education in the country during the recent history have been reviewed. Conclusions and challenges for the future are also presented.

Originality/value

The higher education of the country underwent rapid transformations over the past seven decades with the aim of strengthening the wider relationship between university, industry and society. A review on higher education in Sri Lanka could provide lessons valuable for academics and practitioners alike worldwide.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Gennaro Cuomo and Maria Vignali

This case study sets out the strategic options available to the Massone Group for its possible entry into the UK catering market. It outlines and summarises the contract…

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1666

Abstract

This case study sets out the strategic options available to the Massone Group for its possible entry into the UK catering market. It outlines and summarises the contract catering market including an analysis of the major players in the industry. There is little consolidation across the manufacturing and catering sectors and so it is necessary to examine the food manufacturing sector separately. With this background, we describe and illustrate the grants available from both the UK and EU to any potential investment. This section outlines the funds applicable to each strategic category (greenfield, premises or acquisition) described later in the case study. Included within the analysis of greenfield sites are two examples from nearby Merseyside and a specific evaluation of the specific grants or assistance available for such sites.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 100 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Kurt Squire

This paper aims to describe innovations at the Games + Learning + Society Center to explore the future of education.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe innovations at the Games + Learning + Society Center to explore the future of education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an overview of several published studies and design interventions.

Findings

Commercial partnerships, particularly generating copyrightable materials can maximize impact and diversify research funding, but they also run counter to the culture and purpose of many research universities.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers interested in forging new partnerships to maximize impact might explore relationships with commercial entities but be aware that they are running counter to the grain of most institutions and goals. Other universities of different sizes, ages and orientations may have different results.

Practical implications

Building private partnerships requires different staffing and skill sets than traditional research. Guidance for staffing key roles and projects are provided.

Originality/value

This paper is a reflection on unique research initiative that generated revenue and helped shape a subfield of education.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Lucy Cradduck, Georgia Warren-Myers and Bianca Stringer

This study aims to provide a development of the courts’ views of climate change risk in planning matters as related to inundation and suggest that valuers and others…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a development of the courts’ views of climate change risk in planning matters as related to inundation and suggest that valuers and others involved need to be aware of the implications these views have on property matters and valuation processes and reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

This study engages in a legal doctrinal analysis of primary law sources, being Australian case law. It analyses decisions from Queensland, New South Wales and Victorian courts and tribunals, to establish their views of climate change risk for coastal area developments, who bears the risk and responsibility and if risk is shared.

Findings

The analysis reflects that developers bear the onus of proving their proposal meets relevant planning requirements including management and mitigation of climate change risks. However, the risk of developing in “at risk” areas is a shared burden, as local government authorities remain responsible for appropriately assessing applications against those requirements.

Research limitations/implications

This study had several limitations, these included: only matters with a final determination were able to be reviewed and analysed; there is no one Australia-wide planning regime; state laws and policies are different and changing; and disputes are heard in different courts or tribunals, which can impact the weight and importance given to issues and the consistency of approaches.

Practical implications

This research informs valuers of climate change risk issues related to the inundation of new, and re-, developments, and the importance of court decisions as an additional information consideration to inform their valuations.

Originality/value

This paper is significant as it provides an understanding of the Australian courts’ current views on climate change risk, and by extension, the implications and considerations for valuations.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Sylvia D. Hall-Ellis

– The purpose of this study is to share insightful comments about the importance of librarians participating in external grant process.

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250

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to share insightful comments about the importance of librarians participating in external grant process.

Design/methodology/approach

Opinion and literature review.

Findings

Suggested readings listed.

Originality/value

Original column.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

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