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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Francesco Ciabuschi and Oscar Martín Martín

Purpose – To explore the influence of autonomy on subsidiaries' development and transfer intensities and their interrelationship.Methodology/approach – We develop a…

Abstract

Purpose – To explore the influence of autonomy on subsidiaries' development and transfer intensities and their interrelationship.

Methodology/approach – We develop a theoretical model that we test on a sample of 85 innovation projects developed in 63 subsidiaries in 14 countries. The data were collected by personal interviews and analysed using the Partial Least Squares technique.

Findings – Autonomy is an important driver of subsidiaries' innovation intensity although, surprisingly, we find no influence on transfer intensity. We confirm the positive relationship between subsidiary innovativeness and its role as provider of new competence to sister units within the multinational enterprise (MNE).

Research limitations/implications – In line with previous studies, we can say that autonomy is a desirable result of subsidiary evolution. We can also suggest that overall subsidiary autonomy is beneficial not just to the subsidiary but to the rest of the MNE, since the more the subsidiary innovates the more related competence will be transferred. In other words, innovation efforts at subsidiary level are critical to sustain MNEs' overall competitive advantage.

Practical implications – First, it seems that the more a subsidiary's innovativeness is fostered, the more transfers to other units will occur. Second, we have seen how autonomy is beneficial to the innovative activity of the subsidiary and that it does not seem to harm transfer intensity.

Originality/value – Following studies that point out the potential trade-off between the output of development and transfer activities by subsidiaries, our research contributes by empirically testing the relationship between the intensities of subsidiary innovation development and transfer.

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Rob van Tulder, Ana Teresa Tavares-Lehmann and Alain Verbeke

The scholarly attention devoted to entrepreneurship in the international business (IB) literature has been relatively modest. Most of the ‘mainstream’ literature on…

Abstract

The scholarly attention devoted to entrepreneurship in the international business (IB) literature has been relatively modest. Most of the ‘mainstream’ literature on entrepreneurship in management studies (Casson, 1982; Covin & Slevin, 1991; Lumpkin & Dess, 1996; Shane, 2000) has focused on issues such as the determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour and the characteristics of individual entrepreneurs, thereby only occasionally addressing the international context in which entrepreneurial ventures may develop, and the ways in which this international context influences entrepreneurial decision making.

Details

Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-115-2

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Xiaolong Feng, Jianjun Tang and Huanguang Qiu

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact mechanism of grassland transfer on herders' production behaviour in pastoral areas. The impact of grassland transfer

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact mechanism of grassland transfer on herders' production behaviour in pastoral areas. The impact of grassland transfer on herders' livestock production and grazing intensity is quantified.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the survey data collected for 356 herder households from Inner Mongolia and Gansu, China, quantile regression is employed to assess the heterogeneous effects of grassland transfer on livestock production and grazing intensity. To correct the potential self-selection bias of grassland transfer, the propensity score matching technique is used.

Findings

Results show that labour, percentage of livestock income and livestock stock are the main factors affecting herders' choice to transfer grassland. The positive effect of grassland transfer on livestock numbers on behalf of those who rented additional grassland is statistically significant but declines with livestock numbers. The sustainability-enhancing effect of grassland transfer on grazing intensity is significant, and the effect becomes larger amongst herder households with higher grazing intensity. The analysis on the impact mechanism shows that grassland transfer significantly promotes the adoption of sustainable grazing modes, such as rotational and seasonal rest grazing, which in turn increases herders' livestock numbers and decreases grazing intensity.

Originality/value

Few studies have empirically analysed the influence of grassland transfer on livestock numbers and grazing intensity. This study fills this gap by employing a quantile regression to assess the heterogeneous effects of grassland transfer on livestock numbers and grazing intensity, while accounting for self-selection bias. In addition, the authors have examined the influencing mechanisms under which grassland transfer impacts on livestock numbers and grazing intensity.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

65225

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

13386

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Lei Wen and Linlin Huang

Climate change has aroused widespread concern around the world, which is one of the most complex challenges encountered by human beings. The underlying cause of climate…

1301

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change has aroused widespread concern around the world, which is one of the most complex challenges encountered by human beings. The underlying cause of climate change is the increase of carbon emissions. To reduce carbon emissions, the analysis of the factors affecting this type of emission is of practical significance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identified five factors affecting carbon emissions using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition model (e.g. per capita carbon emissions, industrial structure, energy intensity, energy structure and per capita GDP). Besides, based on the projection pursuit method, this paper obtained the optimal projection directions of five influencing factors in 30 provinces (except for Tibet). Based on the data from 2000 to 2014, the authors predicted the optimal projection directions in the next six years under the Markov transfer matrix.

Findings

The results indicated that per capita GDP was the critical factor for reducing carbon emissions. The industrial structure and population intensified carbon emissions. The energy structure had seldom impacted on carbon emissions. The energy intensity obviously inhibited carbon emissions. The best optimal projection direction of each index in the next six years remained stable. Finally, this paper proposed the policy implications.

Originality/value

This paper provides an insight into the current state and the future changes in carbon emissions.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Thomas Lager and Johan Frishammar

The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical insight and practical guidance on how both process firms and equipment manufacturers can address the challenges posed…

1278

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical insight and practical guidance on how both process firms and equipment manufacturers can address the challenges posed by collaboration during the operational stage of the process technology/equipment life cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Motives and driving forces for entering collaborative projects far from always converge, and while some projects require deep and long‐lasting relationships, others call for pure transactions and arms‐length relationships. The questions of why, when and how collaboration should take place and be organised and managed are addressed and discussed in the light of the literature on technology diffusion and technology transfer, and supplemented by ideas from industry professionals.

Findings

A tentative list of potential pros and cons has been compiled to serve as an embryo for further creation of a more complete set of expected outcomes with a view to developing a firm benchmarking instrument for establishing new collaborative relationships. Subsequently, a conceptual model of the full life‐cycle of process technology/equipment is developed to create a platform for determining collaboration intensity and success factors during different phases. Finally, a matrix with the dimensions “type of capability” and “expected performance improvements” is introduced as a tool for selection of different forms of collaboration.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is that so far this is only a theoretical framework, but as such it will serve as a new platform and a guide for further empirical studies of this important yet under‐researched area.

Originality/value

This area of technology and innovation management research for the process industries has not been addressed before in depth. The new framework can already be deployed by industry professionals in their efforts to improve inter‐company collaboration and technology transfer, but also as a means of avoiding unintended technology diffusion.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Peder Veng Søberg

The purpose of this paper is to open a new research frontier concerning industry factors influencing R&D transfer to emerging markets within Western multinational…

2851

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to open a new research frontier concerning industry factors influencing R&D transfer to emerging markets within Western multinational companies (MNCs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a framework based on knowledge transfer, knowledge creation, and innovation theory, which is illustrated in two cases from globally leading MNCs from different industries and technological fields which have established R&D units in China. It addresses the issue of industrial influences on R&D transfer to emerging markets, and the importance of complementary assets for innovation performance.

Findings

The framework and empirical research suggest that R&D transfer to new R&D units in emerging markets is less challenging for companies within industries characterized by slow technological development. This is due to dynamics, which result in codification and diffusion of technical knowledge, whereby it is easier to transfer and absorb. When the transformation from exploration to exploitation of knowledge is simple rather than complex within an industry, R&D transfer is less challenging. Leverage of local complementary assets nurtures reverse R&D knowledge transfer – positively impacting innovation performance.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the gap in knowledge transfer theory concerning industrial R&D transfer differences. The paper provides a framework for innovation related industrial contingencies on R&D transfer concerning emerging markets, and it advances the argument that complementary assets are important for R&D in emerging markets. Implications for management in China are outlined. The term captive knowledge transfer is coined.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Artur Swierczek

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between interorganizational integration with respect to its intensity and span, as well as the propagation and

1396

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between interorganizational integration with respect to its intensity and span, as well as the propagation and amplification of disruptions alongside a supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using a survey of companies. In order to extract the constructs manifesting the span and intensity of integration between companies in supply chains, the principal component analysis was employed. The obtained factor scores were then used as classification criteria in the cluster analysis. It enabled to include similar organizations in terms of intensity and span of supply chain integration. In order to validate the obtained results, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted and regression models were developed.

Findings

The findings of the study show that there is a relationship between the intensity and span of supply chain integration and the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions. The obtained findings show that the span of supply chain integration is negatively associated with the strength of the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions. In addition, the results suggest that more intense supply chain integration contributes to the “snowball effect” in material flows in the forward and backward transmission of disruptions.

Research limitations/implications

Although the current study investigates the intensity and span of integration within the basic, extended and ultimate supply chain structure, it still lacks the broader analysis of the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions. The study investigates this phenomenon only within the basic supply chain structure, constituted by the primary members. Another challenge is to examine if the effects of external risk factors (e.g. natural disasters) may also be transferred to other links in the supply chain structure, and what are the similarities and differences (if any) between the mechanism of propagation and amplification of disruptions elicited by internal and external risk factors. Another future direction of study is to define other ways of identification and measurement of the “snowball effect” in order to make cross-industrial and international comparisons of disruptions amplified in the transmission more standardized and objective. In the current study, the phenomenon of the “snowball effect” is anchored in the subjective opinions of managers who may view the problem from different angles. Consequently, the study is limited to individual perceptions of the strength of disruptions affecting the solicited company, its customers and suppliers.

Practical implications

In practical terms, the findings provide crucial information for the framework of supply chain risk management and therefore enable its more efficient and effective implementation. The better the managers understand the nature of the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions, the easier it is for them to allocate resources and apply necessary managerial tools to mitigate the negative consequences of risk more effectively. The deliverables of the study also confirm that the interorganizational exchange of information accompanying the supply chain integration enables to mitigate the strength of the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions. Another important implication is the broadening of practical expertise concerning the use of integration not only as a means of obtaining and sustaining supply chain effectiveness and efficiency, but also as the way to mitigate the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions. Therefore, nowadays the supply chain managers are facing another challenging task – namely, how to balance supply chain integration in terms of span and intensity to ensure profits from integration and mitigate the negative risk consequences transmitted among the links in supply chains.

Originality/value

The paper elaborates on the underestimated issue of the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions and its drivers. In particular, the paper attempts at filling the gap in empirical studies concerning the relationships between the “snowball effect” in the transmission of disruptions and supply chain integration.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Ling Hin Li and Lang Gan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of adopting a market‐based land use model, Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), which is very popular in America…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of adopting a market‐based land use model, Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), which is very popular in America and other countries as a positive land use control mechanism for conservation, in an evolving socialist land economy, namely China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes a case study approach, supplemented by a cost‐benefit model, to estimate the feasibility of establishing a TDR model in Chongqing, China.

Findings

From the analysis, it is found that a market‐based land use mechanism can serve to maximize the benefits of all parties and can balance the interests between development pressures and conservation needs. However, this is based on a number of conditions, including: that a well‐developed legal framework should be set up, to clearly delineate property rights; that a good and enforceable planning system should be in place; and that a mature land market mechanism should be developed that allows open market prices to be realized in the trading of development rights.

Research limitations/implications

This case study is based on a hypothetical situation of one case. More data are needed to support the argument in the future.

Practical implications

Conservation is a major concern for the local governments in China, given the recent high speed economic growth. A model that can balance development pressure, while allowing the market to compensate fully for the infringement of property rights in the process of urban regeneration, is worthy of the authority's attention in future policy formulation.

Social implications

This paper shows that the society as a whole can strike a balance between the need for economic development and conservation of historic sites, provided some conditions can be met.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study the establishment of a market‐based land use model in the conservation policy of land in China.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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