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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Marc van Veldhoven and Luc Dorenbosch

The purpose of this study is to shed more light on the role of employee proactivity (self‐starting, action‐orientated behaviours aimed at greater organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to shed more light on the role of employee proactivity (self‐starting, action‐orientated behaviours aimed at greater organisational effectiveness) in relation to aging and career development. It aims to do this in two ways. First, by investigating how age and HR practices for development initiated by the organisation influence proactivity. Here, proactivity it seeks to study as a career‐relevant outcome. Second, by examining how age, proactivity and HR practices for development influence employee experiences of career opportunities. Here, it aims to use proactivity as career‐relevant predictor.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 619 employees from 47 departments completed a questionnaire, including two scales on proactivity (on‐the‐job and developmental proactivity) as well as a scale on career opportunities. HR and line managers in these departments were interviewed about HR practices directed at career development of the employees. The data combine information from two levels (employee, department) as well as three different sources (employee, line manager, HR manager), and are analysed using multi‐level analysis.

Findings

First, the paper presents the results on proactivity as an outcome: age is positively related to proactivity on‐the‐job but has no association with proactivity towards development. HR practices targeted at career development are positively associated with both types of proactivity. Second, the results on proactivity as a predictor show that career opportunities have a negative association with age, a positive association with proactivity, and a positive association with career development‐orientated HR practices. An additional negative effect on career opportunities is found for the cross‐level interaction between HR practices and age.

Originality/value

This study is original as it combines individual, psychological, and HR perspectives in researching age‐related career issues. It contributes to the literature by showing that age has no negative, but rather a positive impact on proactivity. Proactivity furthermore is sensitive to HR practices for development, implying that organisations can influence the proactivity of their employees. For older employees the study implies that, although organisations tend to offer them fewer HR practices for development, they can offset this disadvantage to some extent by increased proactivity, and thus retain career opportunities.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Laura Innocenti, Silvia Profili and Alessia Sammarra

Drawing on social exchange theory, prior research suggests that the adoption of human resources (HR) practices in the areas of training and development helps to maximize…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social exchange theory, prior research suggests that the adoption of human resources (HR) practices in the areas of training and development helps to maximize employees’ positive work attitudes. However, while research has generally assumed that HR practices influence all employees in the same way, there is much evidence that employees’ motives and needs change with age, suggesting that older workers may react differently to the same HR practices as compared to younger colleagues. This study seeks to shed light on this important and under-explored issue, analyzing whether the effect of HR development practices on job satisfaction (JS) and affective commitment is moderated by age in a sample of 37 companies located in Italy, involving a total of 6,182 employees. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying a multilevel approach, the results confirm a positive influence of HR development practices in increasing JS and affective commitment and show that this positive relationship weakens with age.

Findings

Indeed, HR development practices were associated with lower JS and affective commitment for the oldest employees. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed suggesting the need to attribute greater consideration to age diversity when tailoring HR practices to improve their effect on employees’ positive work attitudes.

Originality/value

At the theoretical level, the paper contributes to the HRM literature debate, as the role of intervening variables – such as age – in the relationship between HR practices and employees’ attitudes is still an open issue. At the methodological level, the paper tested the hypotheses using a multilevel regression model. The paper combined data at individual and the organizational levels and adopted a multilevel approach in order to provide a better understanding of the way age can moderate the HRM-employee attitudes relationship.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Lin-Yang Yue and Wei-de Huang

This paper aims to examine the J-shaped relationship between age and job-specific skill obsolescence (JSSO), and the differential moderating effects of development and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the J-shaped relationship between age and job-specific skill obsolescence (JSSO), and the differential moderating effects of development and maintenance HR practices on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression models of survey data obtained from a sample of 722 Chinese knowledge workers were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that among women age and JSSO are J-shaped related and the relationship weakens under high development HR practices; while among men the J-shaped age-JSSO relation is significant only under low maintenance HR practices.

Research limitations/implications

This research is subject to the cross-sectional design, and the sample is restricted to knowledge workers.

Originality/value

This study advances previous studies that hold a linear (positive or negative) age-JSSO relationship by theorizing and testing a J-shaped one. The differentiated moderating effects of two bundles of HR practices proved improves our knowledge about how to use HR practices appropriately to sustain employee work competency in the context of workforce aging.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Ulrik Brandi and Rosa Lisa Iannone

With the purpose of promoting cross-field dialogue, this paper aims to review workplace learning (WPL) and human resource (HR) literature. The authors endeavour a…

Abstract

Purpose

With the purpose of promoting cross-field dialogue, this paper aims to review workplace learning (WPL) and human resource (HR) literature. The authors endeavour a conceptual examination and discussion of the bridges that link both research fields in relation to learning, in an effort to establish an integrated understanding of learning in workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a scoping review focused on how learning is approached in WPL and HR studies. An analysis of the selected literature reveals fundamental themes and dimensions that further our understanding of learning in the context of work.

Findings

Overall, there are three learning dimensions where WPL and HR conceptually interrelate, namely, skills, incentives and work design. The scoping review also shows that HR is output-oriented and looks to learning as capital for enterprises, especially in light of enterprise performance for competence development. WPL centres more upon socio-cultural and practice-based configurations and the individual. It encompasses the human dimension of learning as something enriching the whole of life, including work life.

Originality/value

This paper contributes with a unique inquiry into the interrelations between WPL and HR approaches to learning, highlighting the complementarity between WPL theoretical features and HR practices. At the core of our findings is that WPL becomes analytically visible through how HR learning strategies are designed and deployed in the forms of skill development, incentive structures and work design, referring to both workplace structure and cultural features.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Kirk Chang, Bang Nguyen, Kuo-Tai Cheng, Chien-Chih Kuo and Iling Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between HR practice (four aspects), organisational commitment and citizenship behaviour at primary schools in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between HR practice (four aspects), organisational commitment and citizenship behaviour at primary schools in Taiwan. The four human resource (HR) aspects include: recruitment and placement (RP), teaching, education and career (TEC) development, support, communication and retention (SCR), and performance and appraisal (PA).

Design/methodology/approach

With the assistance from the school HR managers and using an anti-common method variance strategy, research data from 568 incumbent teachers in Taiwan are collected, analysed and evaluated.

Findings

Different from prior studies, highlighting the merits of HR practice, the study discovers that HR practice may not necessarily contribute to citizenship behaviour. Teachers with positive perceptions of RP and TEC are more likely to demonstrate citizenship behaviour, whereas teachers with positive perceptions of SCR and PA are not. In addition, the study finds three moderators: affective organisational commitment (AOC), rank of positions, and campus size. The analysis shows that teachers with more AOC, higher positions and from smaller campus are more likely to demonstrate organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB).

Originality/value

The study provides a closer look at the HR-OCB relationship in Taiwan. It reveals that a positive perception of HR practice may not necessarily contribute to OCB occurrence. In addition, the results indicate that teachers have different views about varying HR aspects. Specifically, aspects of RP and TEC development receive relatively higher levels of positive perception, whereas aspects of SCR and PA receive relatively lower levels of positive perception. Questions arise as to whether HR practice may lead to more OCB at primary schools. If this statement is true, school managers shall think further of how to promote OCB using other policies, rather than relying on the HR practice investigated here.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2010

Rebecca K. Givan, Ariel Avgar and Mingwei Liu

This paper examines the relationship between human resource practices in 173 hospitals in the United Kingdom and four organizational outcome categories – clinical…

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between human resource practices in 173 hospitals in the United Kingdom and four organizational outcome categories – clinical, financial, employee attitudes and perceptions, and patient attitudes and perceptions. The overarching proposition set forth and examined in this paper is that human resource management (HRM) practices and delivery of care practices have varied effects on each of these outcomes. More specifically, the authors set forth the proposition that specific practices will have positive effects on one outcome category while simultaneously having a negative effect on other performance outcomes, broadly defined.

The paper introduces a broader stakeholder framework for assessing the HR–performance relationship in the healthcare setting. This multi-dimensional framework incorporates the effects of human resource practices on customers (patients), management, and frontline staff and can also be applied to other sectors such as manufacturing. This approach acknowledges the potential for incompatibilities between stakeholder performance objectives. In the healthcare industry specifically, our framework broadens the notion of performance.

Overall, our results provide support for the proposition that different stakeholders will be affected differently by the use of managerial practices. We believe that the findings reported in this paper highlight the importance of examining multiple stakeholder outcomes associated with managerial practices and the need to identify the inherent trade-offs associated with their adoption.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-932-9

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Jie Huang, Chunyong Tang and Ting Deng

This research aims to examine the influence of developmental human resources (HR) practices on management innovation. Drawing on social exchange theory, this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the influence of developmental human resources (HR) practices on management innovation. Drawing on social exchange theory, this paper analyzes the mediating role of responsibility for change and the moderating role of resource availability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a scenario experiment using a sample of 329 part-time MBA students from various Chinese companies in Southwest China, using analysis of variance and regression to examine the hypotheses.

Findings

The results find a positive relationship between developmental HR practices and management innovation and responsibility for change mediates this relationship. Moreover, it examines the moderating role of resource availability. Resource availability positively moderates the correlation between responsibility for change and management innovation and moderates the mediation effect of responsibility for change on the correlation between developmental HR practices and management innovation.

Practical implications

Organizations should enhance the actual use of developmental HR practices to ensure the provision of appropriate training and development opportunities for all levels of employees in a fair and equal environment. It is better to take up an individual approach when offering these practices. Organizations should provide enough resources for employees, such as financial, spatial and temporal, and ensure the fair distribution of these resources. Organizations should cultivate the responsibility for change of middle-senior managers who can serve as role models for subordinates.

Originality/value

This study broadens the research on developmental HR practices, confirming that it has a positive impact on management innovation. It also provides more insight into the “black box” of developmental HR practices affecting management innovation, namely, the mediating effect of responsibility for change. This study shows that resources are critical to understanding how developmental HR practices can contribute to management innovation through responsibility for change. Using social exchange theory, the research deduces the conditional indirect effect of the model and uses a scenario experiment method to conclude causality.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Liz Doherty and Ann Norton

The purpose of this paper is to understand how “good” HR practice is characterised in SMEs and what the drivers are for adopting this good practice. The paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how “good” HR practice is characterised in SMEs and what the drivers are for adopting this good practice. The paper also explores methods for measuring the impact of HR practice which are helpful and realistic in the context of an SME.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was carried out in one SME, a bakery based in South Yorkshire. It was an action research project which utilised semi-structured interviews, participant observation on the factory floor and analysis of company documentation in the diagnosis phase. In addition, reflections on action interventions have informed the findings, together with post-project, semi-structured interviews with key actors three years after the completion of the project.

Findings

The drivers of good HR practice were found to be size, market position, external “coercive networks”, presenting issues, the ideology of the managing director and the energy of an HR champion. The findings demonstrate that the impact of “good” HR practice can be best evaluated in SMEs through one-shot, cost-based metrics or more strategic qualitative measures.

Originality/value

The paper develops an original model to show the relationship between the drivers, the HR practices adopted and measurable outcomes. This makes an important contribution to the debate about HRM within SMEs and it has practical value for informing the development of good HR practice in SMEs.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Merel M.S. Kats, I.J. Hetty Van Emmerik, John Blenkinsopp and Svetlana N. Khapova

The conceptual framework developed in the present study aims to highlight the importance of human resource (HR) practices as a mediator between national culture and…

Abstract

Purpose

The conceptual framework developed in the present study aims to highlight the importance of human resource (HR) practices as a mediator between national culture and employees' careers.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken is a literature review and the development of a conceptual model.

Findings

The paper contributes to the literature by focusing on how culture via HR practices might influence career success. Drawing on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, five propositions are developed regarding the impact of culture on career‐relevant HR practices, and how these practices are likely to influence employee career success.

Research limitations/implications

Culture's effect should not be overstated. Looking at the propositions, it is possible that the influence of HR practices on career success is more pronounced than the direct effects of culture on career success. Future work is needed to measure and compare the relative strength of different associations as well as the possibility that other HR dimensions relevant to the study of career success may exist.

Originality/value

At a general level, there is ample evidence of the impact of culture on the effectiveness of a variety of individual outcomes. The paper focused on the mediating role of HR practices as opposed to advancing hypotheses about direct relationships between culture and career success.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Hwanwoo Lee, Joon Hyung Park, Shing-Chung Ngan and T. Siva Tian

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the human resources (HR) literature by using exploratory network analysis (ENA), a data-driven technique. This technique was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the human resources (HR) literature by using exploratory network analysis (ENA), a data-driven technique. This technique was employed to discover how the perceived effectiveness of HR practices interrelate with employee perceptions on organizational cultural factors to enhance organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from 1,459 employees of a large South Korean conglomerate and studied how individual HR practices could be enhanced by specific organizational cultural factors. The data were analyzed using ENA, which is an inductive approach.

Findings

The authors found that organizational commitment is associated with the positive perceptions of employees on the effectiveness of HR practices, such as performance appraisal, training and development, and compensation. Results show that when both HR practices and organizational cultural factors are considered, they appear to influence organizational commitment independently.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from a large conglomerate. The authors were limited by the use of the scales developed by a consulting firm. Therefore, readers should be cautious about the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

The application of a data-driven technique (ENA) highlights the potentially fertile methodological grounds for HR research. Literature on strategic HR management may benefit from inductive approaches, wherein data serve as primary foundation for the design and development of new theories.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

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