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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Khar Mang Tan, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Amin Noordin Bany-Ariffin and Norhuda Abdul Rahim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the firm efficiency or technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) in the selected…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the firm efficiency or technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE) in the selected developed and developing Asia-Pacific countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of a sum of 700 firms in selected developed and developing Asia-Pacific countries over the period from 2009 to 2015. The non-parametric data envelopment analysis under the production approach is used to investigate firm efficiency.

Findings

On average, this paper discovers that the firms in selected Asia-Pacific countries are moderately efficient. Scale inefficiency (SIE) is found to be the dominant source of firms’ technical inefficiency. The analysis of return to scale shows that the large firms tend to operate at decreasing return to scale level, while the small firms tend to operate at increasing return to scale level.

Practical implications

The findings from this paper provide significant insights to the policy makers and firm managers in promoting the efficient firms of Asia-Pacific countries.

Originality/value

The present paper conducts a critical analysis on return to scale in the firms sector of Asia-Pacific context, which is ignored by the past studies on firm efficiency since the analysis of return to scale is mostly emphasized on banking sector. The precise nature of SIE is important for a firm to be efficient in achieving the firm’s primary goals of profit maximization and sustaining market competitiveness.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Khar Mang Tan, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Amin Noordin Bany-Ariffin and Norhuda Abdul Rahim

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the long-debated impact of board busyness within a new framework of firm efficiency in the selected developed

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the long-debated impact of board busyness within a new framework of firm efficiency in the selected developed and developing Asia–Pacific countries, by assessing the moderation of directors' education towards the relationship between board busyness and firm efficiency. The extant literature on board busyness demonstrates to a lack of clarification of the relationship between board busyness and firm efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample for this paper comprises a panel data of 800 firms in a cross-country context of the selected developed and developing Asia–Pacific countries during the recent period of 2009–2015. This paper performs a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis to measure firm efficiency and panel regression analysis to examine the moderation of directors' education.

Findings

This paper provides support for the busyness hypothesis by documenting that the busy boards are likely to reduce firm efficiency. Moreover, this paper renders support to the upper-echelons theory by demonstrating that the impact of board busyness on firm efficiency is likely to turn positive in the presence of directors' education.

Practical implication

This paper highlights practical implication for managers especially in the Asia–Pacific region who seek to enhance firm efficiency, which is essential for firms in attaining the primary goal of profit maximization.

Originality/value

This paper builds on the extant literature by providing a contemporary research path regarding the moderation of directors' education to explain the long-debated impact of board busyness within a new framework of firm efficiency, based on a recent and significant sample of Asia–Pacific countries.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Pami Dua and Niti Khandelwal Garg

The study aims to empirically investigate the trends and determinants of labour productivity of the two broad sectors –industry and services – and their components…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to empirically investigate the trends and determinants of labour productivity of the two broad sectors –industry and services – and their components, namely, manufacturing and market services sectors, in the case of major developing and developed economies of Asia-Pacific over the period 1980-2014 and make a comparison thereof.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses econometric methodology of panel unit root tests, panel cointegration and group-mean full modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS).

Findings

The study finds that while capital deepening, government size, institutional quality, productivity of the other sector and financial openness affect productivity of all the sectors significantly, the impact of human capital and trade openness varies across sectors in the case of developing economies. Furthermore, the impact of technological progress becomes significant in the post-liberalization reforms period in the developing economies. The study further finds that capital deepening, human capital, government size, institutional quality, productivity of the other sector, government size and trade openness are significant determinants of productivity of all sectors of developed economies under consideration. However, the impact of technological progress is stronger for manufacturing sector than services and its components. Furthermore, while both equity and debt liabilities (as measures of financial openness) influence sectoral productivity of industry and manufacturing sectors positively and significantly in case of developed economies, only equity liabilities have a significant influence on the productivity of developing economies. This may indicate existence of more developed financial markets in the case of developed economies.

Originality/value

The study identifies important structural differences in determinants of productivity both across sectors and across developing and developed economies of Asia-Pacific.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Christopher Manu and Derek H.T. Walker

The purpose of this research is to investigate how lessons learned from a case study of a construction project undertaken in the Pacific Islands relates to the interaction…

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1813

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate how lessons learned from a case study of a construction project undertaken in the Pacific Islands relates to the interaction between social capital and knowledge transfer. The paper is reflective in nature focusing upon the experiences of one of the authors, being a Pacific Islander and trying to make sense of the role of social capital and the way that it impacts upon knowledge transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

Three theoretical frameworks are drawn upon in a pilot test of tools used to better understand and measure knowledge transfer including barriers to knowledge transfer to help explain the difficulty of knowledge transfer in a given context and the development of social capital for a foreign aid project. These tools allowed us to visualise project stakeholder outcomes for knowledge transfer and building social capital that were articulated by the aid recipient as being highly important. This was a pilot study and results reported upon in this paper were fed back to stakeholder representatives concerned for their comment and validation. Project documentation data, unstructured ad hoc interviews, together with personal reflection‐in‐practice, were gathered and used for the study.

Findings

The approach was found to be very useful in helping stakeholders better visualise and measure this project outcome, whereas experience from previous similar projects indicated that it was very difficult for stakeholders to find a tangible way of measuring this important element of success or failure.

Originality/value

Many projects of the type exemplified by the case studies are funded by aid agencies. This paper makes a contribution by presenting an evaluation tool for intangible project outcomes. The findings may influence the design of project success measures.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

George K. Chako

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries

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5454

Abstract

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

George K. Chacko

Develops an original 12‐step management of technology protocol and applies it to 51 applications which range from Du Pont’s failure in Nylon to the Single Online Trade…

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2485

Abstract

Develops an original 12‐step management of technology protocol and applies it to 51 applications which range from Du Pont’s failure in Nylon to the Single Online Trade Exchange for Auto Parts procurement by GM, Ford, Daimler‐Chrysler and Renault‐Nissan. Provides many case studies with regards to the adoption of technology and describes seven chief technology officer characteristics. Discusses common errors when companies invest in technology and considers the probabilities of success. Provides 175 questions and answers to reinforce the concepts introduced. States that this substantial journal is aimed primarily at the present and potential chief technology officer to assist their survival and success in national and international markets.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Bruno S. Sergi, Elena G. Popkova, Anastasia A. Sozinova and Olga V. Fetisova

This chapter models industrial, tech, and financial cooperation between Russia and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. We use several complex methods of economic and…

Abstract

This chapter models industrial, tech, and financial cooperation between Russia and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. We use several complex methods of economic and mathematical modeling to analyze specific features of such cooperation and determine critical factors in industrial, technological, and financial development. The preferable choice for the Asia-Pacific region is cooperation with Russia, which is ready for an increase in imports of industrial and high-tech products as well as joint industrial innovational entrepreneurship. Investments would lead to synergetic effects, ensuring simultaneous industrial, technological, and financial development.

Details

Tech, Smart Cities, and Regional Development in Contemporary Russia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-881-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Hue Hwa Au Yong, Keryn Chalmers and Robert Faff

This study investigates Asia Pacific banks' annual report disclosures on derivatives using the Basel Committee and IOSCO joint recommendations as the derivative and risk…

Abstract

This study investigates Asia Pacific banks' annual report disclosures on derivatives using the Basel Committee and IOSCO joint recommendations as the derivative and risk management disclosure benchmark. Based on our constructed disclosure index, the mean score is 35%, suggesting that many of the disclosure recommendations are not being adopted by the banks in our sample. Cross‐country and regional variation exists in the disclosure practices, with the variation associated with the extent to which accounting regulations for derivative instruments are operational. Hong Kong banks have the highest mean disclosure scores while the Philippines banks have the lowest mean disclosure scores. Australasian banks generally provide more disclosures than East Asian and South East Asian banks, and banks in developed countries generally have a higher level of disclosure relative to developing countries. The transparency of derivative activities by the banks is expected to improve as Asia Pacific countries promulgate accounting regulations congruent with international accounting standards.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Charles M. Wood

International development agencies claim that commercial applications of information and communication technology (ICT) have great potential to accelerate economic growth…

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5430

Abstract

International development agencies claim that commercial applications of information and communication technology (ICT) have great potential to accelerate economic growth in developing nations. This paper investigates this idea and proposes that the Internet expands the potential of marketing activities to help developing countries pursue development goals along a dual path, one that includes activities that are “top‐down” in nature (e.g. infrastructure development), and another that involves “bottom‐up” activities (e.g. entrepreneurship). Both paths involve the expansion of marketing efforts and represent significant opportunities for business development and investment. Attention is given to the Asia‐Pacific region and to the processes and outcomes of development springing from bottom‐up or “grassroots” approaches, and how enhanced marketing activities can help nations reach key development goals. Finally, an interdisciplinary conceptual model is advanced regarding how a blend of top‐down and bottom‐up approaches may be used to encourage the diffusion of online marketing activities and to help foster economic and social development in the emerging economies in the Asia‐Pacific region.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Wesley R. Teter and Libing Wang

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed the global outlook for international higher education. Given the rapid shift to online learning, the Tokyo Convention…

Abstract

Purpose

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed the global outlook for international higher education. Given the rapid shift to online learning, the Tokyo Convention in the Asia-Pacific entrusted to UNESCO has become an important policy framework to facilitate regional collaboration, authoritative information sharing and recognition of qualifications across diverse modes of learning. This paper examines the role of the Tokyo Convention to establish an inclusive platform for monitoring and collaborative governance of mobility and internationalization based on fair and transparent recognition policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific.

Design/methodology/approach

In August 2019, a standardized survey instrument was sent by the Secretariat of the Tokyo Convention Committee at UNESCO Bangkok to competent recognition authorities in 46 countries in the Asia-Pacific, including the eight State Parties to the Tokyo Convention that ratified the Convention as of the reporting period. In total, qualitative data from n = 27 countries/states was received and analyzed to assess implementation of the Tokyo Convention throughout the region. The research design illustrates how normative instruments such as the Tokyo Convention are monitored and assessed over time.

Findings

A multi-stakeholder approach based on collaborative governance is needed to effectively monitor implementation and implications of the Tokyo Convention for diverse higher education stakeholders in the Asia-Pacific region.

Research limitations/implications

Implications include establishing baseline data and methods for monitoring implementation of the Tokyo Convention. Based on collaborative governance theory, the paper explores potential for a multi-stakeholder approach to promote mutual accountability in the Asia-Pacific and to develop mechanisms for inclusive participation in the governance of the forthcoming Global Convention on recognition.

Originality/value

As the first systematic review of its kind, this paper includes a unique dataset and insights into UNESCO's methodology to monitor implementation of standard-setting instruments for qualifications recognition in the Asia-Pacific.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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