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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Mohamed Amal and Huaru Kang

The main objective of the present chapter is to address empirically the impacts of institutional distance (ID) on the multinationality level of firms from developing

Abstract

The main objective of the present chapter is to address empirically the impacts of institutional distance (ID) on the multinationality level of firms from developing countries and interpret how the interaction between ID and firm resources affects firms from developing countries. Using data of firms from developing countries, we estimated an empirical cross-section model. The results show that while cultural distance was not found statistically significant, ID, on the other hand, was statistically significant. The higher the distance between home and host country, the higher the multinationality of firms from developing countries. We also found a positive and statistically significant correlation between intangible resource and multinationality, which suggests a tendency toward new pattern in the internationalization of firms from emerging economies.

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International Business in a VUCA World: The Changing Role of States and Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-256-0

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Anthony Ayakwah, Ellis L.C. Osabutey and Isaac Sakyi Damoah

A few decades ago, most research works on internationalisation were aligned to studies in developed economies. In recent times, business entrepreneurs in developing and

Abstract

A few decades ago, most research works on internationalisation were aligned to studies in developed economies. In recent times, business entrepreneurs in developing and emerging economies have shown their potential to permeate international markets. The current capability of business entrepreneurs in developing and emerging economies, which drives their ability to overcome the numerous barriers to internationalisation, particularly within clusters, requires a critical examination. As a result, the study situates the discussion on internationalisation within the theory of agglomeration in developing and emerging economies and argues that the gains enjoyed by business entrepreneurs from operating in close proximity in clusters are critical for overcoming the barriers of internationalisation. This research adopts a systematic review of secondary data to tease out the unique attributes of clusters in developing and emerging economies, which supports the internationalisation drive. The findings show that most emerging economy clusters are engaged in exports but there is minimal work on international entrepreneurs operating within clusters. The unique features that drive exporting clusters are the presence of multinational companies, public agencies and collaborative relationships. These unique features have the capacity to minimise the constraints to internationalisation and determine the export performance of businesses in the cluster.

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International Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Nature, Drivers, Barriers and Determinants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-564-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Florian Becker-Ritterspach, Katharina Simbeck and Raghda El Ebrashi

This paper aims to provide multinational corporations (MNCs) with a portfolio of corporate environmental responsibility (CER) responses that help curbing the exacerbated…

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1291

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide multinational corporations (MNCs) with a portfolio of corporate environmental responsibility (CER) responses that help curbing the exacerbated negative environmental externalities caused by their business activities in emerging and developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper transposes the market-related concept of institutional voids to the context of CER, that is, to the context of exacerbated negative environmental externalities as result of absent, weak or incoherent institutions.

Findings

This paper proposes that the transfer of products, processes and business models from developed to emerging or developing economies often gives rise to exacerbated negative externalities because of institutional voids in environmental protection. Thus, it suggests a portfolio of CER responses – circumventing, coping and compensating – that allow MNCs to mitigate the exacerbated negative environmental externalities caused by them.

Research limitations/implications

The authors present an analytical framework for identifying and navigating environment related institutional voids, which serves as a starting point for an action research approach. In tune with recent calls for critical performativity in critical management studies, the action research approach aims at tackling the real-life problem of exacerbated negative environmental externalities caused by MNCs’ activities in emerging and developing economies.

Social implications

This paper sensitizes scholars, policymakers and managers to exacerbated negative environmental externalities within the context of international business activities in emerging and developing economies. The contribution provides stakeholders with a better understanding of the causes as well as alternative responses to the problem.

Originality/value

This paper transposes the market-related concept of institutional voids and the strategic responses to dealing with them to the non-market context of CER. The authors argue that institutional voids can be seen as the absence or poor functioning of formal and informal institutions for environmental protection, resulting in exacerbated negative environmental externalities.

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critical perspectives on international business, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Gabriel Eweje

This chapter introduces this book’s topics, purpose, and key themes. It summarizes the main objective of this book which is to examine the trends in corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter introduces this book’s topics, purpose, and key themes. It summarizes the main objective of this book which is to examine the trends in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability in developing and emerging economies.

Methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the extant literature and chapters and offers conceptual development.

Findings

Discussion on CSR and sustainability concepts is growing in developing countries, and many stakeholders including businesses, governments, and universities are working toward achieving sustainability. In addition, it is well documented that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in developing economies contribute significantly to job creation, growth and development, and poverty alleviation. However, when compared to developed countries there is a general perception that companies, in particular MNEs, do not pay much attention to CSR and sustainability issues. The lack of sophisticated institutional developments and capability in many developing economies compound the situation. Thus, business CSR and sustainability practices play a major role in improving stakeholder relationships.

Practical and social implications

This chapter suggests that in order for developing and emerging economies to move forward and achieve the gains from globalization; businesses, governments, and other stakeholders should work together to benefit from the various initiatives on CSR and sustainability jointly put together for the betterment of the citizens and a prosperous economy.

Originality/value

This chapter contributes to the debate on trends in CSR and sustainability in developing/emerging economies by critically examines what the notions really mean in developing and emerging economies. It emphasizes that CSR and sustainability mean contributing to the well-being of citizens and respond positively to various stakeholder demands by improving the host countries and communities through participation in economic progress, social well-being, improvement in environmental practices, and involvement in citizens’ empowerment and institutional building.

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Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-152-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Abiodun Adegbile and David Sarpong

The authors aim to examine the potential opportunities and challenges multinationals operating in Africa are likely to encounter when they seek to pioneer disruptive…

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1464

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to examine the potential opportunities and challenges multinationals operating in Africa are likely to encounter when they seek to pioneer disruptive innovations at the base of the pyramid (BoP) in African emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the extant literature on the BoP, disruptive innovation and the African business context, the authors explore the pioneering of disruptive innovations in the African socio-economic context.

Findings

This study develops various hypotheses to extend our understanding of disruptive innovations at the BoP. The authors also delineate potential managerial and institutional challenges multinational corporations (MNCs) are likely to encounter in their efforts to pioneering disruptive innovations for BoP customers in African emerging markets.

Practical implications

The authors develop some recommendations for MNCs on how to create and capture value from disruptive innovations in African emerging markets

Originality/value

The authors delineate African context-specific managerial and institutional challenges that MNCs might encounter when seeking to develop disruptive innovation at the BoP.

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critical perspectives on international business, vol. 14 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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57265

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Mohammad Nurunnabi

The purpose of this study is to review a synthesis of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in developing countries in an attempt to provide…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to review a synthesis of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in developing countries in an attempt to provide directions for future research. The in-depth analysis was performed with the use of the data analysis tool available in the Scopus databases. The study initially reviewed 145 papers and in particular 35 papers were analysed. Fifteen articles (43%) were published in seven journals including International Journal of Accounting, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Advances in Accounting, International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, Asian Review of Accounting, Journal of Applied Accounting Research, and Asian Journal of Business and Accounting. Specifically, 89% citations were from 14 articles, but 9 (25%) articles were without any citations. Most of the studies focus on qualitative followed by quantitative, and very few studies were based on mixed methods. Researchers should focus on few areas for future research on IFRS implementation in developing countries including theory implications, policy prescriptions, and case of particular standard.

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International Financial Reporting Standards Implementation: A Global Experience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-440-4

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jun Wu, Anshu Saxena Arora and Amit Arora

Ambient advertising is a unique, intimate and non-traditional form of communication between the product and the consumer; and uses all physical and environmental elements…

Abstract

Purpose

Ambient advertising is a unique, intimate and non-traditional form of communication between the product and the consumer; and uses all physical and environmental elements leading to stronger customer engagement. The purpose of this paper is to explore the innovations in ambient advertising including flash mob dancing, use of structures, posters, props, bus tickets, supermarket floors, shopping carts, bank receipts, animals, and other strange and unusual venues in developed economies (e.g. the USA) vs emerging economies (e.g. India).

Design/methodology/approach

The research proposes relationship strength (R)-inherent drama (I)-prodigious execution (P) or R-I-P conceptual framework to measure ambient advertising and delves into the R-I-P constructs of ambient advertising.

Findings

The results of Study 1 demonstrate that consumers’ global consumption orientation positively influences their attitudes toward ambient advertising. Results from Studies 2 and 3 exhibit interesting comparisons of innovations in ambient advertising between the USA and India; which improves understanding of globalization of ambient advertising in both developed and emerging economies. Relationship strength (R) between the product and the customer strengthens ad believability in both developed and emerging economies; while inherent dramatic surprise (I) displays contrasting results for developed and emerging economies. Prodigious execution (P) results in ad irritation for developed economies while it has no impact for emerging economies.

Research limitations/implications

Overall R-I-P constructs of ambient advertising strengthen brand and ad attitudes and purchase intentions. The research has strong implications for advertising innovations in the USA vis-à-vis India, and demonstrates stronger implications of advertising internationalization across developed and emerging economies.

Originality/value

The research is valuable in the context of emerging and developed economies of the world with respect to ambient advertising. The research explores the trends in ambient advertising and develops measures for testing perceptions of consumers in various world markets toward ambient advertising. The world economies exhibit varying levels of acceptance and appreciation to the global emerging advertising trends, and this presents a huge challenge to the companies worldwide.

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International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Rajah Rasiah, Peter Gammeltoft and Yang Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from the emerging economies and if there exists a positive role for home…

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8912

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from the emerging economies and if there exists a positive role for home governments to coordinate them. The backdrop is the recent increases in OFDI from emerging economies and the emergence of several emerging economy firms, which have caught up to become global leaders in several industries. The paper focuses particularly on experiences from Asian economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies a multi method approach and relies on literature studies, investment statistics, government reports, press reports, company reports, and interviews with public officials.

Findings

Extending the motive‐based business theory, the paper first establishes the pronouncement of a third wave of OFDI from the mid‐1990s. Whereas the typical motives have remained important, the technology‐seeking motive has become significantly more important during the third wave. Typical policy prescriptions to liberalize government regulations have been called into question. Many home emerging country governments have acted to coordinate their activities by regulating proactively investment outflows. The evidence also shows that the successful investment outflows have benefited significantly from home governments addressing the characteristics and motives of target industries and locations abroad.

Practical implications

The analysis shows that contrary to mainstream prescriptions many home governments have successfully regulated strongly OFDI from the emerging economies. However, it is important for home governments to consider the broader interest of promoting capital flows to ensure the long‐term development of economies rather than narrow national interests. Home and host governments should seek to establish common and specific collaboration platforms to raise information flows and coordinate better the negotiations and execution of investment projects.

Originality/value

The paper provides a more thorough analysis of the implications for home country policies of the increasing outward investment flows from emerging economies and the increasing competitiveness and capabilities of their transnational firms. It proposes augmentations to prior frameworks of drivers and motives of OFDI and pushes deeper the home policy implications of increasing outward investment flows.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 5 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Chaturong Napathorn

This paper aims to contribute to the literature on global talent management by examining how multinational corporations (MNCs) from developed and emerging economies manage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the literature on global talent management by examining how multinational corporations (MNCs) from developed and emerging economies manage talented employees in other emerging economies. Specifically, it aims to understand why MNCs from developed economies are likely to face lower levels of challenge than MNCs from emerging economies when translating corporate-level talent management strategies to their subsidiaries located in emerging economies and how local contextual factors influence the translation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper undertakes a matched-case comparison of two MNCs, one from a developed economy and the other from an emerging economy, that operate in the emerging economy of Thailand. Evidence was obtained from semi-structured interviews field visits and a review of archival documents and Web resources.

Findings

Based on the obtained evidence, this paper proposes that MNCs from developed economies tend to face challenges in terms of skill shortages, and these challenges affect their translation of talent management strategies to the subsidiary level. By contrast, MNCs from emerging economies tend to face challenges in terms of both skill shortages and the liability of origin (LOR) (i.e. weak employer branding) in the translation process. Both groups of MNCs are likely to develop talent management practices at the subsidiary level to address the challenge of successfully competing in the context of emerging economies.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research is its methodology. Because this research is based on a matched-case comparison of an MNC from a developed economy and an MNC from an emerging economy, both of which operate in the emerging economy of Thailand, it does not claim generalizability to all MNCs and to other emerging economies. Rather, the results of this research should lead to further discussion of how MNCs from developed and emerging economies translate corporate-level talent management strategies into subsidiary-level practices to survive in other emerging economies. However, one important issue here is that there may be a tension between the use of expatriates and local top managers at MNCs’ subsidiaries located in other emerging economies as drivers for knowledge sourcing in that the importance of expatriates may diminish over time as the subsidiaries located in those economies age (Dahms, 2019). In this regard, future research in the area of global talent management should pay special attention to this issue. The other important issue here is that it is possible that the two case study MNCs are very different from one another because of their organizational development stage, history and current globalization stage. Thus, this issue may also influence the types of talent management strategies and practices that the two case study MNCs have developed in different countries. In particular, MNCs from emerging economies (ICBC) may not have developed their global HR strategies, as they have not yet operated globally as in the case of MNCs from developed economies (Citibank). This can be another important issue for future research. Additionally, both MNCs examined in this research operate in the banking industry. This study, therefore, omits MNCs that operate in other industries such as the automobile industry and the hotel and resort industry. Future researchers can explore how both groups of MNCs in other industries translate their talent management strategies into practices when they operate in other emerging economies. Moreover, this study focuses only on two primary contextual factors, the skill-shortage problem and LOR; future research can explore other local contextual factors, such as the national culture, and their impact on the translation of talent management strategies into practices. Furthermore, quantitative studies that use large sample sizes of both groups of MNCs across industries might be useful in deepening our understanding of talent management. Finally, a comparison of talent management strategies and practices between Japanese MNCs and European MNCs that operate in Thailand would also be interesting.

Practical implications

The HR professionals and managers of MNCs that operate in emerging economies or of companies that aim to internationalize their business to emerging economies must pay attention to local institutional structures, including national skill formation systems, to successfully implement talent management practices in emerging economies. Additionally, in the case of MNCs from emerging economies, HR professionals and managers must understand the concept of LOR and look for ways to alleviate this problem to ensure the success of talent management in both developed economies and other emerging economies.

Social implications

This paper provides policy implications for the government in Thailand and in other emerging economies where the skill-shortage problem is particularly severe. Specifically, these governments should pay attention to solving the problem of occupation-level skill shortages to alleviate the severe competition for talented candidates among firms in the labor market.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the prior literature on talent management in several ways. First, this paper is among the first empirical, qualitative papers that aim to extend the literature on global talent management by focusing on how MNCs from different groups of countries (i.e. developed economies and emerging economies) manage talented employees in the emerging economy of Thailand. Second, this paper demonstrates that the institutional structures of emerging economies play an important role in shaping the talent management practices adopted by the subsidiaries of MNCs that operate in these countries. In this regard, comparative institutionalism theory helps explain the importance of recognizing institutional structures in emerging economies for the purpose of developing effective talent management practices. Finally, there is scarce research on talent management in the underresearched country of Thailand. This study should, therefore, assist managers who wish to implement corporate-to-subsidiary translation strategies in Thailand and other emerging economies.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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