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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Ida Gremyr and Mattias Elg

The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of a developmental learning view on implementation of quality management (QM) concepts. QM concepts are common in various…

1308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of a developmental learning view on implementation of quality management (QM) concepts. QM concepts are common in various organizations; some implement them smoothly, others struggle and sometimes even abandon the initiatives. What is then a successful implementation – is it the use a specific QM method as a standard problem solving approach, or is it that learning has occurred during implementation?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an illustrative case study carried out at a hospital in western Sweden. The data have been collected through about 130 hours of participation in project work by the first author and through seven face-to-face interviews of about one hour each.

Findings

It is shown that a Design for Six Sigma pilot project with a narrow view on implementation could be regarded as a failure, but it gave rise to much learning and new improved ways of working. Hence, it is argued that a developmental view on implementation can support learning by an emergent and experimental approach to implementation processes.

Originality/value

Much research has been done on how to increase the success rate of implementations of QM initiatives, e.g. procedures to follow to reach an outcome where the new way of working is standard procedure. Less research has problematized the implementation process, questioning what a successful outcome of an implementation is.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Dunren Che and Wen‐Chi Hou

Efficient processing of XML queries is critical for XML data management and related applications. Previously proposed techniques are unsatisfactory. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Efficient processing of XML queries is critical for XML data management and related applications. Previously proposed techniques are unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to present Determined – a new prototype system designed for XML query processing and optimization from a system perspective. With Determined, a number of novel techniques for XML query processing are proposed and demonstrated.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology emphasizes on query pattern minimization, logic‐level optimization, and efficient query execution. Accordingly, three lines of investigation have been pursued in the context of Determined: XML tree pattern query (TPQ) minimization; logic‐level XML query optimization utilizing deterministic transformation; and specialized algorithms for fast XML query execution.

Findings

Developed and demonstrated were: a runtime optimal and powerful algorithm for XML TPQ minimization; a unique logic‐level XML query optimization approach that solely pursues deterministic query transformation; and a group of specialized algorithms for XML query evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

The experiments conducted so far are still preliminary. Further in‐depth, thorough experiments thus are expected, ideally carried out in the setting of a real‐world XML DBMS system.

Practical implications

The techniques/approaches proposed can be adapted to real‐world XML database systems to enhance the performance of XML query processing.

Originality/value

The reported work integrates various novel techniques for XML query processing/optimization into a single system, and the findings are presented from a system perspective.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Fathul Wahid and Maung K. Sein

While institutional theory is used widely in the information system (IS) literature to study implementation of systems, the actual process of institutionalization has…

1077

Abstract

Purpose

While institutional theory is used widely in the information system (IS) literature to study implementation of systems, the actual process of institutionalization has received less attention. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature by using three concepts drawn from the theory, namely, institutional isomorphism, institutional logic and institutional entrepreneurship, and the interplay between them to explore the role of the dominant institutional entrepreneur in the institutionalization of a public system, as an instance of e‐government initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

In an interpretive case study, this study examined the institutionalization process of an e‐procurement system over a four‐year period (2007‐2011) in the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta.

Findings

This study reveals that different institutional isomorphism mechanisms emerge during the process and institutional logics evolve over time. More interestingly, it uncovers the dominant role of an institutional entrepreneur, the city's mayor, who mobilized resources and support to drive the institutionalization process. At the beginning stage, institutionalization is best described as a process of instilling values, cultivated by the mayor, followed by a process of creating reality through a typification process, whereby the e‐procurement system is embedded in the existing practices and institutionalized.

Research limitations/implications

As an interpretive study, the findings are generalized to theoretical concepts rather than the population. The interrelationship between the three concepts of institutional theory represents plausible rather than deterministic links. It also offers practical insights, such as e‐procurement implementation strategy.

Originality/value

This paper goes beyond simply using institutional theory as an interpretive lens by examining the interrelationship between the mechanisms of institutionalization. It shows that the main catalyst of the institutionalization process is the institutional entrepreneur who managed the institutional isomorphism and was instrumental in changing the institutional logic. It also presents lessons from a successful case where corrupt practices were highly institutionalized at the beginning but were decreased through the system.

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Anas N. Al‐Rabadi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and optical domains to perform the required neural computing. The various implementations of the new NNs utilizing the introduced architectures are presented, and their extensions for the utilization in the non‐classical neural‐systolic networks are also introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

The introduced neural circuits utilize recent findings in the quantum, nano, and optical fields to implement the functionality of the basic NN. This includes the techniques of many‐valued quantum computing (MVQC), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and linear optics. The extensions of implementations to non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced neural‐systolic architectures are also presented.

Findings

Novel NN implementations are introduced in this paper. NN implementation using the general scheme of MVQC is presented. The proposed method uses the many‐valued quantum orthonormal computational basis states to implement such computations. Physical implementation of quantum computing (QC) is performed by controlling the potential to yield specific wavefunction as a result of solving the Schrödinger equation that governs the dynamics in the quantum domain. The CNT‐based implementation of logic NNs is also introduced. New implementations of logic NNs are also introduced that utilize new linear optical circuits which use coherent light beams to perform the functionality of the basic logic multiplexer by utilizing the properties of frequency, polarization, and incident angle. The implementations of non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced quantum, nano, and optical neural architectures are also presented.

Originality/value

The introduced NN implementations form new important directions in the NN realizations using the newly emerging technologies. Since the new quantum and optical implementations have the advantages of very high‐speed and low‐power consumption, and the nano implementation exists in very compact space where CNT‐based field effect transistor switches reliably using much less power than a silicon‐based device, the introduced implementations for non‐classical neural computation are new and interesting for the design in future technologies that require the optimal design specifications of super‐high speed, minimum power consumption, and minimum size, such as in low‐power control of autonomous robots, adiabatic low‐power very‐large‐scale integration circuit design for signal processing applications, QC, and nanotechnology.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Mohammad Raoufi and Aminah Robinson Fayek

This paper aims to cover the development of a methodology for hybrid fuzzy Monte Carlo agent-based simulation (FMCABS) and its implementation on a parametric study of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to cover the development of a methodology for hybrid fuzzy Monte Carlo agent-based simulation (FMCABS) and its implementation on a parametric study of construction crew performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed methodology uses fuzzy logic, Monte Carlo simulation and agent-based modeling to simulate the behavior of construction crews and predict their performance. Both random and subjective uncertainties are considered in model variables.

Findings

The developed methodology was implemented on a real case involving the parametric study of construction crew performance to assess its applicability and suitability for this context.

Research limitations/implications

This parametric study demonstrates a practical application for the hybrid FMCABS methodology. Though findings from this study are limited to the context of construction crew motivation and performance, the applicability of the developed methodology extends beyond the construction domain.

Practical implications

This paper will help construction practitioners to predict and improve crew performance by taking into account both random and subjective uncertainties.

Social implications

This paper will advance construction modeling by allowing for the assessment of social interactions among crews and their effects on crew performance.

Originality/value

The developed hybrid FMCABS methodology represents an original contribution, as it allows agent-based models to simultaneously process all types of variables (i.e. deterministic, random and subjective) in the same simulation experiment while accounting for interactions among different agents. In addition, the developed methodology is implemented in a novel and extensive parametric study of construction crew performance.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Marie‐Claude Boudreau and Daniel Robey

Business process re‐engineering (BPR) promises to transform organizations by fundamentally altering their core processes, thereby achieving radical improvements in…

2213

Abstract

Business process re‐engineering (BPR) promises to transform organizations by fundamentally altering their core processes, thereby achieving radical improvements in performance. As the number of actual re‐engineering projects increases, the rhetoric surrounding BPR has shifted to reflect greater cynicism and discomfort over its claims. In the absence of compelling and trustworthy evidence about the success of BPR projects, critics have exposed logical contradictions within BPR’s “manifesto” for revolutionary change and insinuated that BPR’s utopian rhetoric masks political motives. This paper contributes to this discussion in three ways. First we examine two difficulties affecting the evaluation of BPR programmes: defining what process re‐engineering really is, and determining whether BPR has been applied successfully. Second, we examine four fundamental contradictions inherent in BPR’s analysis of organizations: the fallacy of its “clean‐slate” assumption, the paradox of information technology’s role as an enabler of organizational change, the hypocrisy of employee empowerment, and the irony of employee commitment. Third we propose that such contradictions be addressed in both research and practice by employing theoretical perspectives that are prepared to accommodate contradictory phenomena, in contrast to the simplistic, deterministic logic guiding current investigations of BPR’s effectiveness. We suggest theories of organizational learning and organizational politics to understand and resolve the contradictions embedded within BPR.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2021

Claudio de Araujo Wanderley, John Cullen and Mathew Tsamenyi

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) possesses an inherent duality, as it has been described as a carrier of institutions (i.e. the BSC is a “management ideology” or “mode of…

Abstract

Purpose

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) possesses an inherent duality, as it has been described as a carrier of institutions (i.e. the BSC is a “management ideology” or “mode of thinking”) and a flexibly interpretive boundary object at the same time. This study examines how this inherent duality of the BSC may influence the unfolding rationales surrounding its implementation and use.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical support for this investigation is gathered from an in-depth field study. The focal firm is a Brazilian electricity distribution company that transitioned from state to private ownership under hyper-regulation, and whose holding company experienced strategic and structural changes.

Findings

The study identified a misalignment between the characteristics of the firm (e.g. organizational logics) and the perceived BSC features. This misalignment initially produced tensions and institutional logics complexity for the organization forcing the BSC implementers to rationalize it to provide meaning regarding its implementation in the firm. The findings also show why and how the promoters of the BSC conducted its “strategy of translation” in order to disentangle and reassemble both the material and symbolic components of the BSC to facilitate its implementation and use. It was found that promoters of the BSC engaged in contextualization work, which featured two main actions: a combination of coupling and selective decoupling and a change of meaning.

Originality/value

This paper advances current understanding of the process of the unfolding rationales surrounding management accounting innovations (e.g. the BSC). The study shows that the BSC unfolds in more complex, time-related and simultaneous ways than has previously been reported in the literature. Moreover, the paper contributes by explaining how the management's rationales, relating to their historical understanding, perception of legitimation needs and social skills, contributed to the continuous unfolding of the BSC. In addition, four potentially interesting areas for further research were identified.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nima Gerami Seresht, Rodolfo Lourenzutti, Ahmad Salah and Aminah Robinson Fayek

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes…

Abstract

Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects, construction engineering and management involves the coordination of many complex and dynamic processes and relies on the analysis of uncertain, imprecise and incomplete information, including subjective and linguistically expressed information. Various modelling and computing techniques have been used by construction researchers and applied to practical construction problems in order to overcome these challenges, including fuzzy hybrid techniques. Fuzzy hybrid techniques combine the human-like reasoning capabilities of fuzzy logic with the capabilities of other techniques, such as optimization, machine learning, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) and simulation, to capitalise on their strengths and overcome their limitations. Based on a review of construction literature, this chapter identifies the most common types of fuzzy hybrid techniques applied to construction problems and reviews selected papers in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique to illustrate their capabilities for addressing construction challenges. Finally, this chapter discusses areas for future development of fuzzy hybrid techniques that will increase their capabilities for solving construction-related problems. The contributions of this chapter are threefold: (1) the limitations of some standard techniques for solving construction problems are discussed, as are the ways that fuzzy methods have been hybridized with these techniques in order to address their limitations; (2) a review of existing applications of fuzzy hybrid techniques in construction is provided in order to illustrate the capabilities of these techniques for solving a variety of construction problems and (3) potential improvements in each category of fuzzy hybrid technique in construction are provided, as areas for future research.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

Patrick Regnér

Strategic management theory has failed to explain the underlying principles of strategy processes and the relationships between strategy process and strategy content…

Abstract

Strategic management theory has failed to explain the underlying principles of strategy processes and the relationships between strategy process and strategy content. There seems to be no theory of strategy logic, i. e. the general process and management characteristics generating a certain strategy outcome. Strategy content research has presented a systematic analysis on the basis of competitive advantage, and strategy process research has provided careful in-depth descriptions and examinations of strategy making. However, the basic strategy logic, including the underlying procedures, activities and reasoning that generate a particular type of strategy, has been less commonly evaluated. In particular, principles and details of strategy making in complex situations seem less clear.

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Andreas Diedrich and Gustavo Guzman

This paper aims to examine the complexities emerging in the attempts to develop a sophisticated IT-based knowledge management system (KMS) for sharing knowledge. Using…

1489

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the complexities emerging in the attempts to develop a sophisticated IT-based knowledge management system (KMS) for sharing knowledge. Using actor-network theory, the authors conceptualise this as continuous processes of translation, whereby heterogeneous human and non-human (e.g. technologies, methods and plans) elements are drawn together and mobilised to produce stable networks through associations between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method was adopted using a narrative approach that studies the ways of organising work in organisations. Shadowing, field notes, diary studies and participant observation were the main data collection methods used.

Findings

The development and introduction of a KMS is a contingent and local process shaped by messy translations whereby the original idea, human and other non-human elements are reconfigured. By considering humans and non-humans symmetrically, the intended and unintended actions, and the role of unexpected events, this approach overcomes the deterministic view of human nature of the conventional KMS approaches.

Research limitations/implications

A conceptual framework is presented as a means to improve the understanding of the complex associations emerging within networks of people, objects and machines during the development and introduction of KMS.

Practical implications

The translation approach helps practitioners to consider their taken-for-granted assumptions about people, machines and the associations among them. This assists practitioners to uncover emerging conflicting issues between human and machines, among machines and among humans. Furthermore, this allows practitioners to recognise the different identities humans and non-humans take, overtime, as a result of emerging associations.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in the use of alternative conceptual lenses to understand KMS development and introduction as processes of translation. Additionally, rather than exploring the success stories, it focuses on a failed attempt to introduce a KMS.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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