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The purpose of this paper is to establish a deterministic equivalent income model (DEIM) based on the risk cost (RC) and risk aversion of investors. The model fully…
The purpose of this paper is to establish a deterministic equivalent income model (DEIM) based on the risk cost (RC) and risk aversion of investors. The model fully considers both subjective and objective factors that affect risk investment and reasonably evaluates risk investment schemes to choose the correct investment scheme and gain greater investment returns.
The utility function is used to measure the extent to which an investor is satisfied by investment returns in various scenarios. Risk aversion expresses subjective attitude of investors to risk. RC represents risk loss in currency. This methodology is based on risk aversion function, utility function and RC theory to establish DEIM.
This study shows that investors with different risk preferences have different certainty equivalent returns (CER), so their choices of investment options change accordingly.
In this paper, the authors use DEIM to test an investment case and conclude that the CER and investment scheme both change with different risk preferences. At the same time, case analysis shows that DEIM is reasonable and stable when evaluating risk investment schemes.
In this study, the authors innovate by introducing both the RC and risk aversion degree into risk investment schemes evaluation and by deriving a utility function from the absolute risk aversion function to build a utility decision matrix and establish DEIM. The model combines the subjective and objective factors that influence risk investment decisions.
Most current modeling approaches identify very small gains from trade reform. In this chapter, we examine recent developments in the literature to assess whether standard…
Most current modeling approaches identify very small gains from trade reform. In this chapter, we examine recent developments in the literature to assess whether standard modeling approaches are mis-specifying, understating, or overstating the gains from trade reform. Key areas where the impacts of trade barrier reduction appear to be understated include the measurement of barriers; the aggregation of these barriers; process productivity gains, particularly those resulting from reallocation of resources between firms; product quality improvements and expansion of product variety; factor supply; and investment of gains from trade.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the advantages equity capitalization programs based on retained earnings from patronage sources may provide cooperatives and their…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the advantages equity capitalization programs based on retained earnings from patronage sources may provide cooperatives and their patrons that traditional equity financing methods do not offer.
The analysis is based on a model used to assess patron benefits from a cooperative that is financed by a combination of allocated equity acquired from noncash patronage refunds and unallocated equity acquired from retained earnings. The level of patron benefits is represented by the present value of the after-tax cash flow patrons receive from the cooperative, and the model is used to determine the combination of noncash patronage refunds and retained earnings that provides the greatest present value given the levels of those parameters that affect capitalization of the cooperative and the distribution of cash benefits to patrons.
The analysis demonstrates that only pure plans, i.e., plans based entirely on retained patronage refunds or entirely on retained earnings, will be associated with the greatest present value for any particular set of parameter values. Cooperatives that are characterized by low marginal tax rates and growth rates and whose patrons are characterized by high marginal tax rates and discount rates are those most likely to benefit from equity capitalization programs based on retained earnings.
The model is based on the assumption of constant parameter values and does not account for the existence of nonpatronage income.
A useful extension of this work would be the development of a decision aid capable of generating basic operating statement and balance sheet data and enabling cooperative decision makers to conduct experiments concerning alternative financing strategies based on retained earnings.
The analysis contained in this paper is based on an explicit model and extends across a broad range of values for various parameters that affect the level, timing, and present value of cash distributions from cooperatives. Because the cash flow received by patrons is determined after the cooperative’s planned equity growth is met, cash flow comparisons are equivalent with respect to the capital provided the cooperative. In addition, the revolving period is endogenously determined.
The mathematics of property valuations commonly used in practice exist in several formulations which have been adopted over the years. All are similar in that they represent simple discounted cash flow models equating the estimated future earnings capacity of a property to a net present (capital) value. The process, whilst appearing somewhat daunting, is in fact accomplished in a manner such that, under normal circumstances, the estimated future cash flow beyond the next rent review is not explicitly expressed. Instead of generating a future income flow (assuming some rate of rental growth) and discounting at a money rate of interest (suitably adjusted for risk), the estimated rental income at the next review is capitalised at a relatively low investment yield rate which merely implies a future rental growth rate.
This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of…
This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of industrial and economic democracy, which centres around the establishment of a new sector of employee‐controlled enterprises, is presented. The proposal would retain the mix‐ed economy, but transform it into a much better “mixture”, with increased employee‐power in all sectors. While there is much of enduring value in our liberal western way of life, gross inequalities of wealth and power persist in our society.
Means, medians and SD for available socio‐economic status (SES) black‐white differences are here substituted for those of IQ in a between‐groups model published by the author over a decade ago. The goodness of fit of the SES variables used is compared with that for the earlier IQ data. Even when SES variables are relatively successful this can be viewed as additional evidence of the importance of IQ differences to black‐white differences in delinquency.