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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Karl Socher

The fast changes of the tourism markets make it necessary to adapt destination management organisations, their functions and financing. The paper tries to develop a model…

Abstract

The fast changes of the tourism markets make it necessary to adapt destination management organisations, their functions and financing. The paper tries to develop a model for an optimal, efficient destination management system, especially to cope with the problem of limiting the necessary government influence and transfer as many decisions as possible to the individual private entrepreneurs. In this model the two tasks of destination management organisations — product development and marketing — are separated and are financed by two different taxes or levies, which are necessary for the function of producing public goods on the one side and internalizing external effects on the other side. The distribution of the levy payments to the different purposes is left to a large extent to the free choice of the individual levy‐payer, the entreprises profiting from tourism. This will induce a competition process between different destination management organisations to find the most efficient system.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Sushma Bhat and Sanjaya S. Gaur

This paper aims to address the issue of balance of power among stakeholders in the context of destination marketing and to offer direction for managing its diverse set of…

1715

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the issue of balance of power among stakeholders in the context of destination marketing and to offer direction for managing its diverse set of stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach is used to provide a clearer insight into the phenomenon of stakeholder management in the context of destination marketing. This research uses a combination of three sources of evidence – interviews, documents and physical artefacts (in the sense of the actual web site) – and is based on the in‐depth study of the case of the development of the official web site of Tourism New Zealand (www.purenz.com).

Findings

This study shows that a wide variety of organizations and even the entire population of the country who are affected by destination marketing decisions should be recognized as destination stakeholders. Tourism New Zealand's leaders' understanding of cooperation and its value emerged as a major factor having an effect on the cooperation in the purenz development. The different objectives and perspectives of key stakeholders come through clearly in the case study which suggests that different approaches for managing the diverse stakeholders in the context of destination marketing are required.

Practical implications

A key finding that cooperation is not uniform has several implications for national tourism organizations (NTOs) around the globe. Study shows that the expectations of a cooperative process in destination marketing differ from group to group. This provides a useful guidance for Indian NTOs and NTOs in other countries who are responsible for tourism‐related policies in their country. The study makes the clear suggestion to Indian and global tourism practitioners and policy makers that management of various stakeholders in the context of destination marketing is not a given but a strategic choice which is affected by the existing network structure and climate.

Originality/value

This research is based on the data from one of the world's popular tourism destinations – New Zealand – and therefore, provides very valuable and practical guidance for national tourism organizations around the globe. Besides being of immense value to global as well as Indian practitioners, this study opens an avenue for students and academics to determine if there are differences in the understanding and expectations of cooperation among stakeholders of other tourism networks and to investigate the implications of different expectations of cooperation on the balance of power issues in inter‐organizational cooperation.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Youcheng Wang and Shaul Krakover

The purpose of this paper is to understand the business relationships among the tourism industry stakeholders in conducting collaborative destination marketing activities.

10463

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the business relationships among the tourism industry stakeholders in conducting collaborative destination marketing activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This research takes a case study approach by focusing on the investigation of the business relationships among tourism industry stakeholders in Elkhart County, Indiana. Interviews with five staff members from the Elkhart County Convention and Visitors Bureau as well as 32 tourism industry representatives were conducted in order to answer the research questions.

Findings

The interview results indicate that different relationships of cooperation, competition and coopetition coexist among the tourism stakeholders. Four cooperative relationships with various degrees of formalization, integration, and structural complexity are involved. In addition, four factors have been identified as affecting this relationship configuration. The perceived relationship between cooperation and competition was also found to be vital with reference to the marketing of a destination.

Research limitations/implications

Given the exploratory nature and case study approach of the research, caution is required in interpreting the results of the study, particularly in generalizing the study results to other destinations.

Originality/value

The paper provides practical implications to tourism businesses in their efforts to collectively market their destination, particularly in relation to how they balance the relationship between cooperation and competition, individual benefits and common benefits in order to achieve success for both the destination and their individual businesses.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Harald Pechlaner and Linda Osti

The destination as the area of movement of guests during their stay often leads to a cooperation among different tourism organizations and destinations: on the one hand…

Abstract

The destination as the area of movement of guests during their stay often leads to a cooperation among different tourism organizations and destinations: on the one hand, the co‐operation is necessary to be able to offer the products demanded by different guests, on the other hand, it is necessary to be able to guarantee a sensible appearance to the market. With an empirical research carried out in 1999 and 2000, the European Academy Bolzano took the Italian regional and sub‐regional tourism organizations into consideration to evaluate the progress in managing the destination Italy. Rigidity of the organizational structures, little cooperation and integration as well as insufficient market resources are some of the main results. Further developments in change management, stakeholder management, branding, and the setting of clear and measurable goals are some of the issues analyzed. In consideration of an analysis of the Italian regions with regard to their actual politics of destination development the paper concludes with the proposal of a new model of tourism organizational structure based on networks and on the distinction between territorializable basic tasks and deterritorializable product/market tasks. This paper is a conceptional work relevant for traditional destinations and valid as a case study.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 57 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Jeremy Fairley

The marketing environment is constantly changing due to political, economic, social and technological issues. Therefore, this chapter explains how practitioners in…

Abstract

The marketing environment is constantly changing due to political, economic, social and technological issues. Therefore, this chapter explains how practitioners in destination marketing can improve their internal capabilities, competences and resources whilst responding to the ongoing changes in the external environment. The strategic management of destination marketing organisations involves continuous decision-making processes due to the nature of the tourism product. Hence, the author underlines the importance of stakeholder management, organisational culture, employee satisfaction, leadership and corporate governance/political environment, as these variables may contribute to the effective strategic management of these organisations.

Details

The Branding of Tourist Destinations: Theoretical and Empirical Insights
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-373-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Hugues Seraphin, Anca C. Yallop, Alexandru Capatîna and Vanessa GB Gowreesunkar

The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between history (heritage) and tourism marketing (destination branding). More specifically, the paper focusses on how…

1187

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between history (heritage) and tourism marketing (destination branding). More specifically, the paper focusses on how heritage is used by private- and public-sector tourism organisations of post-colonial, post-conflict and post-disaster (PCCD) destinations in their branding strategy. In particular, the paper investigates how these organisations use heritage in their branding and logo design.

Design/methodology/approach

Within the paradigm of theory building and exploratory approach, this conceptual study is based on a narrative literature review and analysis of research and secondary data on Haiti. The study uses visual research methods to examine and reveal the basis and composition of logos of both private- and public-sector organisations in Haiti.

Findings

The findings of this paper suggest that capturing the essence of the destination is critical for any visual identification (i.e. logos), and that the visual identification can either adjust representation of past events to the time being (heritage) or move away from the past with clear expectations for the future. Such findings are reflected within the new marketing strategies adopted by the Haitian destination marketing organisation (DMO) and a private resort that we used as examples. Both moved from an idiosyncratic identity-based logo to a universal “sea-and-sun” stereotyped one that goes against heritage for which authenticity is the most important criterion.

Practical implications

The findings of this research may help destination managers in general, and DMOs in PCCD destinations in particular, to design logos aligned with their marketing and branding strategies. The findings of the paper may also assist industry experts in designing logos that communicate with potential tourists, by leveraging heritage to influence their emotion and decision making.

Originality/value

This paper represents one of the first papers in tourism research that examines branding strategies of both public and private sectors in the context of Haiti. The research contributes to the body of knowledge on heritage and destination marketing by exploring the role of heritage in the Caribbean area’s branding and marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

John Heeley

The purpose of this paper is to examine urban destination marketing from a mainly practitioner standpoint, though one of its principal observations is the gap between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine urban destination marketing from a mainly practitioner standpoint, though one of its principal observations is the gap between theory and practice; while the former is premised on related notions of difference and competitive advantage, in practice the greater part of urban destination marketing eschews competitive advantage, resulting in a pervasive marketing of “sameness”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is in three parts. The first set out the urban tourism context in respect of historical, market, supply, impact and definitional/measurement dimensions. Part two profiles the bespoke delivery mechanisms established for urban destination marketing, examining nomenclature, core purpose/mission, status, size and finances, as well as overhead and operating parameters.

Findings

The final section comprises a state-of-the-art review, setting out a five variable model of purposeful urban destination marketing, concluding that “good” in urban destination marketing is atypical and currently in Europe is confined to only a handful of European cities.

Originality/value

This paper is intended to give the reader a better understanding of why, in such an important field of human endeavour, success is so problematic. It hopefully gives pointers to practitioners and academics as to how best in future there can be more winners and fewer losers, so that increasing numbers of towns and cities maximise the impact locally of the world's largest industry and at the same time become “known”.

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Mohamed E. Mohamed, Mahmoud Hewedi, Xinran Lehto and Magdy Maayouf

Given the increased importance of food in tourists’ travel experience, the purpose of this paper is to explore the current and future potential of local food and foodways…

1151

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased importance of food in tourists’ travel experience, the purpose of this paper is to explore the current and future potential of local food and foodways in marketing Egyptian destinations online.

Design/methodology/approach

The content of 20 Egyptian destination marketing organization (DMO) websites was subject to a content analysis. A checklist was developed based on literature analysis. The frequencies of information related to food culture and cuisine marketing were tallied, followed by a qualitative assessment of contents from the various websites. The results were further discussed with DMO representatives to provide contextualized insights as to the future potential of utilizing local food and food tourism initiatives as a component of DMOs website marketing in Egypt.

Findings

The study noted some initial efforts for Egyptian DMO websites to market food culture and gastronomic practices; however, the results suggest that the usage of food culture on Egyptian DMOs websites is still in its infancy. The study also highlights the challenges that need to be tackled as well as the resources required for food tourism development.

Practical implications

This study illustrates the need and potential capacity of Egyptian DMO websites to market food culture and local cuisines (including traditional foods and table manners). These results are expected to help Egyptian DMOs to strategically embrace local cuisine and food culture as a vehicle for destination marketing.

Originality/value

This case study provides insights for African and other developing economies in their destination marketing. The proposed framework and guidelines are intended to potentially serve as a framework for destination marketers and entrepreneurs to optimize the tourism potential of food culture.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Adrian Palmer and Patrick McCole

Co‐operation is crucial to the successful marketing of tourism destinations, and electronic commerce offers exciting new opportunities for co‐operation among tourism…

11217

Abstract

Co‐operation is crucial to the successful marketing of tourism destinations, and electronic commerce offers exciting new opportunities for co‐operation among tourism suppliers. This article examines the reciprocal linking of Websites to create “virtual” tourism destination organisations, whereby consumers can access information and purchase multiple components of a holiday online. A very simple starting point in the formation of a virtual destination marketing organisation is the linking of individual suppliers’ Websites, so that a visitor arriving at one site can click through to complementary sites which contribute to the total destination offer. This paper examines the theoretical and practical benefits of virtual co‐operation and reports on a survey, which examines the extent to which electronic commerce is superseding or complementing traditional hierarchical marketing organisations. Based on a sample of tourism suppliers’ Websites in Northern Ireland, very little co‐operation was observed. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made for future co‐operation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Thomas Bieger

Like most traditional forms of tourism also alpine tourism has lost its strategic success positions due to the ongoing globalisation of the tourism sector. The traditional…

Abstract

Like most traditional forms of tourism also alpine tourism has lost its strategic success positions due to the ongoing globalisation of the tourism sector. The traditional structures in tourism marketing — based on political and institutional boundaries — have to make place to a more market oriented structure. The association of swiss tourism managers decided to follow a destination management approach that will lead to corresponding tourism structures. A proposition for such structeres has been presented last year.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

Keywords

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