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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Wiel Frins, Joris van Ruysseveldt, Karen van Dam and Seth N.J. van den Bossche

Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older employees’ desired retirement age, through an energy-depletion and a motivational process. Furthermore, the importance of gain and loss cycles (i.e. recursive effects) for the desired retirement age was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A two wave full panel design with 2,897 older employees ( > 50) served to test the hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the measurement and research model. Cross-lagged analyses tested the presence of gain and loss cycles.

Findings

Results from cross-lagged analyses based on two waves over a one-year period indicated the presence of both a gain and a loss cycle that affected the desired retirement age.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first longitudinal study applying the JD-R model to a retirement context. Limitations relate to employing only two waves for establishing mediation, and using self-reports.

Practical implications

Because work conditions can create a cycle of motivation as well as a cycle of depletion, organizations should pay special attention to the job resources and demands of older workers. The findings can inspire organizations when developing active aging policies, and contribute to interventions aimed at maintaining older employees within the workforce until – or even beyond – their official retirement age in a motivated and healthy way.

Originality/value

This is the first longitudinal study applying the JD-R model to a retirement context and finding evidence for gain and loss cycles.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Carsten Christoph Schermuly, Victoria Büsch and Carolin Graßmann

The desired retirement age (DRA) becomes more important because some countries adapt their strict retirement regulations to it. A process is tested for how psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

The desired retirement age (DRA) becomes more important because some countries adapt their strict retirement regulations to it. A process is tested for how psychological empowerment influences the DRA mediated by psychological and physical strain and how the DRA is connected to the expected retirement age (ERA). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured interviews with 1,485 German employees (55 years and older) were conducted via telephone.

Findings

Psychological and physical strain mediated both the relationship between psychological empowerment and the DRA. DRA and ERA were positively associated. The control variables – age, net income, and organizational size – also significantly affected the DRA.

Research limitations/implications

The results are only valid for the German job market. All variables were collected at one measurement point.

Practical implications

The strengthening of psychological empowerment can be one measure to motivate older employees to delay their retirement and finally keep them longer in the labor force.

Originality/value

A large sample was collected and interviewed via telephone, which helps to overcome some limitations of questionnaire research. The process model helps to understand how job characteristics are connected with the DRA and the ERA.

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2017

Dirk Hofäcker, Simone Braun and Matt Flynn

This chapter explores whether and how does the interplay of institutional context and management interventions lead older workers to delay retirement in Germany, the…

Abstract

This chapter explores whether and how does the interplay of institutional context and management interventions lead older workers to delay retirement in Germany, the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. The most important factors that influence retirement plans are placed on three analytical levels: the individual, the workplace and the institutional levels. It explores the importance of these factors and their cross-national variation in three different countries, namely Germany, the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. Using three national datasets we explore the relationship between the aforementioned factors via descriptive statistics and linear regression models. Institutional regulations seem to matter for retirement plans. But within countries, plans show varying patterns across social groups (lower educated, financially disadvantaged). The comparative design does not allow analysing specific institutional features directly, but findings are indicative for the fact that individuals take institutional frameworks into account when planning retirement transitions. The findings call for regime-specific solutions and future policies, for example, age-friendly workplace conditions and opportunities for requalification and mobility in Germany, rising retirement ages and greater financial security via more generous universal pension rights in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.

Details

Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-639-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Rafael Gomez, Morley Gunderson and Andrew Luchak

Issues associated with retirement in general, and phased transitions into retirement in particular, are taking on increased importance for a variety of reasons. Outlines…

Abstract

Issues associated with retirement in general, and phased transitions into retirement in particular, are taking on increased importance for a variety of reasons. Outlines those reasons, paying particular attention to the practice of mandatory retirement. Presents age dependency ratios for the OECD to highlight the importance of these issues in the context of an ageing and longer‐lived workforce relative to a smaller working age population. Then discusses the prevalence of mandatory retirement in Canada and the USA, and presents empirical evidence from Canada on variables associated with retiring because of mandatory retirement. The Canadian case is of particular interest, because mandatory retirement in Canada has generally not been banned, which is in marked contrast with the situation in the USA, where it has been banned as constituting age discrimination. The public and legal debate over the issue of mandatory retirement has also been extensive in Canada, and this debate may provide information for other countries dealing with the issue. Ends with an assessment of the extent to which mandatory retirement exerts a constraining influence on transitions into retirement. The essential argument is that its constraining impact is not as simple as it may initially appear. To the extent that mandatory retirement is an intricate part of the compensation and human resource function of firms, banning it can have important implications for those functions and, in turn, for transitions into retirement. The complexities of these issues and dramatically increasing old‐age dependency ratios will ensure that this is an area of growing importance for public policy and human resource management.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Dirk Buyens, Hans Van Dijk, Thomas Dewilde and Ans De Vos

The purpose of this study is two‐fold. The first is to relate the negative image of older workers to stereotype threat and to propose that effective retention management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is two‐fold. The first is to relate the negative image of older workers to stereotype threat and to propose that effective retention management should start by replacing this negative image. The second is to assess the needs, perceptions and preferences of older workers regarding their career‐ending.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 266 employer questionnaires and 1,290 older worker questionnaires identified the employers' perceptions of older workers and the career‐ending needs and preferences of older workers.

Findings

The results provide indirect support for the hypothesis that the negative image of older workers forms a self‐fulfilling prophecy due to the mechanisms of stereotype threat. Furthermore, the results indicate that job involvement plays a crucial role in the preference for retirement or to keep on working.

Research limitations/implications

Stereotype threat promises to be very important when it comes to career‐ending measures for older workers. However, the empirical design of the study limits the possibility of drawing direct inferences about the effects of stereotype threat on older workers.

Practical implications

Measures and policies aimed at prolonging the participation of older workers at the labor market should be tailored to the specific needs, perceptions and preferences of older workers.

Originality/value

The concept of stereotype threat has never been connected with the perceptions of older workers. Further, the assessment of the needs, perceptions and preferences related to the career‐ending of older workers has never before been examined in a European study.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Bart Vyncke and Baldwin Van Gorp

This study discusses the frames that were used in the public debate about raising the retirement age in Belgium from 65 to 67 years. The purpose of this paper is to gain…

Abstract

Purpose

This study discusses the frames that were used in the public debate about raising the retirement age in Belgium from 65 to 67 years. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the prevailing frames in order to develop counterframes that are less problematizing and can be used to bring more nuance to the debate.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive framing analysis was conducted, using articles from Flemish newspapers and magazines, published in a two-year period (March 2013-March 2015). This sample was complemented by a convenience sample of texts by various stakeholders. The total sample consisted of 182 texts.

Findings

The analysis yielded four problematizing frames and six deproblematizing counterframes. They cover both the meaning of work for the individual, and the effect that working longer has on society.

Practical implications

The overview of the frames can be used as a tool to analyze existing communication, and to bring more nuance to future communication by introducing deproblematizing perspectives into the debate regarding the need to work for a longer period of time.

Originality/value

In addition to giving an overview of existing frames, the study also constructed alternatives which can be used to deproblematize the issue of having to work longer.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Bomikazi Zeka

This study investigates the retirement funding adequacy of black South Africans and how it can be influenced by family structure, health status, financial literacy and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the retirement funding adequacy of black South Africans and how it can be influenced by family structure, health status, financial literacy and the role of the financial planner.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed sampling approach was applied to collect data from 441 black South Africans. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was undertaken and Cronbach's alphas were calculated to confirm the validity and reliability of the measuring instrument. Structural equation modeling was the main statistical procedure applied to test the hypothesised relationships in the research.

Findings

Most of the respondents reside in informal urban areas or townships. The findings show a significant positive relationship between financial literacy and the retirement funding adequacy of black individuals. The study found that individuals who are concerned about the wellness of their family, health and finances are more likely to maintain their standard of living at retirement. However, the role of the financial planner, among black South Africans, does not influence their retirement funding adequacy.

Practical implications

Black South Africans are attentive to the wellness of their family, health and finances despite the necessity to support nuclear and extended family members. Financial institutions need to consider this aspect when providing financial advice to individuals who have many financial dependents.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited understanding on the factors that influence the retirement funding adequacy of black South Africans and it provides recommendations on improving retirement funding adequacy.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Jaap Oude Mulders

Social norms about the timing of retirement and stereotypes about qualities of younger and older workers are pervasive, but it is unclear how they relate to employers…

Abstract

Purpose

Social norms about the timing of retirement and stereotypes about qualities of younger and older workers are pervasive, but it is unclear how they relate to employers’ ageist preferences. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of employers’ retirement age norms and age-related stereotypes on their preferences for younger or older workers in three types of employment practices: hiring a new employee; offering training; and offering a permanent contract.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 960 Dutch employers from 2017 are analysed to study employers’ preferences for younger or older workers. Effects of organisations’ and managers’ characteristics, retirement age norms and stereotypes are estimated with multinomial logistic regression analyses.

Findings

Many employers have a strong preference for younger workers, especially when hiring a new employee, while preferences for older workers are highly uncommon. Higher retirement age norms of employers are related to a lower preference for younger workers in all employment decisions. When employers are more positive about older workers’ soft qualities (such as reliability and social skills), but not about their hard qualities (such as their physical capacity and willingness to learn), they rate older workers relatively more favourable for hiring and offering training, but not for providing a permanent contract.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to estimate the effects of retirement age norms and age-related stereotypes on ageist preferences for a diverse set of employment practices.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Eduardo Oliveira and Carlos Cabral Cardoso

Taking a social identity approach, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which age-based stereotype threat mediates the relationships between older…

Abstract

Purpose

Taking a social identity approach, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which age-based stereotype threat mediates the relationships between older workers’ negative age-based metastereotypes and two negative work attitudes: organizational disidentification and work disengagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-wave cross-sectional design was adopted to collect data from 423 blue-collar older workers of the Portuguese manufacturing sector. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model.

Findings

The analyses show that age-based stereotype threat partially mediates the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and negative work attitudes. Moreover, findings suggest that older workers respond to negative age-based metastereotypes through threat reactions, and undesirable work attitudes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by showing the importance of negative age-based metastereotypes and age-based stereotype threat in workplace dynamics. It also provides evidence that age threats impair the relationship older workers keep with their organization and their work.

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Mego Kuan-Lun Chen and Elliroma Gardiner

The purpose of this paper is to identify what work-related factors influence the continued participation of older workers in the workforce.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify what work-related factors influence the continued participation of older workers in the workforce.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic quantitative literature review of the workforce participation literature identified 27 publications from 1995 to 2016 that examined the impact of work-related factors on older workers’ intention to continue working.

Findings

Results show that work demands, learning and development opportunities, job autonomy, recognition and respect, mentoring opportunities, supportive organisational climate and social support were significant factors that predicted older workers’ workforce participation decisions. Interestingly, less evidence was found to support flexible work arrangements or salary as inducers of workforce participation. Results also show an overrepresentation of cross-sectional studies involving participants from western countries employed in healthcare and social assistance sectors.

Practical implications

Organisations should adjust their policies and practices to accommodate the needs of older workers, focusing specifically on increasing factors that encourage participation and removing obstacles to participation.

Social implications

Increasing the participation rates of older workers is a key goal for governments and organisations worldwide. This research identifies some specific factors that are likely to encourage continued participation.

Originality/value

A systematic evaluation of the extant research draws new conclusions and insights as to what work factors are more likely to influence the participation decisions of older workers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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