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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

David Durling

Art and design has recently seen considerable growth in PhD studies and in the UK the sector has been at the forefront in developing practice‐based doctorates. There is an…

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2379

Abstract

Art and design has recently seen considerable growth in PhD studies and in the UK the sector has been at the forefront in developing practice‐based doctorates. There is an ongoing debate about the nature and quality of these PhDs. There are residual confusions about practice and research, and wide variations in requirements across universities. In the UK, design has a long tradition of vocational education arising from well respected art schools, which for the most part have been absorbed into the modern universities. Generally, the award of first degrees across mainstream design dates back only three decades, the award of PhDs less than one decade. There is still a shortage of experienced supervisors and examiners who themselves hold the PhD and have deep knowledge of the process. A model specification defines clearly what is expected for the award of PhD in Art and Design.

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Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Nadeeshani Wanigarathna, Fred Sherratt, Andrew D.F. Price and Simon Austin

A substantial amount of research argues that built environmental interventions can improve the outcomes of patients and other users of healthcare facilities, supporting…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial amount of research argues that built environmental interventions can improve the outcomes of patients and other users of healthcare facilities, supporting the concept of evidence-based design (EBD). However, the sources of such evidence and its flow into healthcare design are less well understood. This paper aims to provide insights to both the sources and flow of EBD used in three healthcare projects, to reveal practicalities of use and the relationships between them in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Three healthcare case study projects provided empirical data on the design of a number of different elements. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify the source and flow of evidence used in this design, which was subsequently quantised to reveal the dominant patterns therein.

Findings

Healthcare design teams use evidence from various sources, the knowledge and experience of the members of the design team being the most common due to both ease of access and thus flow. Practice-based research and peer-reviewed published research flow both directly and indirectly into the design process, whilst collaborations with researchers and research institutions nurture the credibility of the latter.

Practical implications

The findings can be used to enhance activities that aim to design, conduct and disseminate future EBD research to improve their flow to healthcare designers.

Originality/value

This research contributes to understandings of EBD by exploring the flow of research from various sources in conflation and within real-life environments.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Telmo Antonio Henriques and Henrique O’Neill

The purpose of this research paper is to present a pragmatic and systematic approach to conduct and document Design Science Research (DSR) activities with Focus Groups…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to present a pragmatic and systematic approach to conduct and document Design Science Research (DSR) activities with Focus Groups (FGs), exploring its continuous usage and providing traceability between problem, requirements, solutions and artefacts.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to conduct the research and produce the meta-model for DSR with FG, a DSR approach was adopted using a conceptual model for Action Design Research already available. The artefact is the result from a specific literature review to define requirements, a careful design and a refinement stage where it was widely used and tested in real IS implementation projects.

Findings

Rigorous and committed stakeholder engagement is a critical success factor in complex projects. The main outcome of this research is a specific meta-model for DSR with FG that delivers new insights and practical guidelines for academics and professionals conducting and documenting real-world research and development initiatives deep-rooted in stakeholders' participation.

Research limitations/implications

The meta-model has been endorsed as a practical and useful artefact by the stakeholders participating in the IS projects where it was adopted. However, to fully demonstrate its capabilities and to become more robust, the model has to be further used and tested in other application situations and environments.

Originality/value

The usage of FGs in DSR has already been proposed as an effective way, either to study artefacts, to propose improvements in its design or to acknowledge the utility of those artefacts in field use. The paper provides a sound contribution to this line of research by presenting a meta-model that integrates process and data, as well as a set of practical templates and forms that may be used by researchers and practitioners to conduct their projects.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Jeanette Kirk, Thomas Bandholm, Ove Andersen, Rasmus Skov Husted, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Per Nilsen and Mette Merete Pedersen

The aim of this study is to explore and discuss key challenges associated with having stakeholders take part in co-designing a health care intervention to increase…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore and discuss key challenges associated with having stakeholders take part in co-designing a health care intervention to increase mobility in older medical patients admitted to two medical departments at two hospitals in Denmark.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative design to investigate the challenges of co-designing an intervention in five workshops involving health professionals, patients and relatives. “Challenges” are understood as “situations of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person's ability” (Cambridge Dictionary). Thematic content analysis was conducted with a background in the analytical question: “What key challenges arise in the material in relation to the co-design process?”.

Findings

Two key challenges were identified: engagement and facilitation. These consisted of five sub-themes: recruiting patients and relatives, involving physicians, adjusting to a new researcher role, utilizing contextual knowledge and handling ethical dilemmas.

Research limitations/implications

The population of patients and relatives participating in the workshops was small, which likely affected the co-design process.

Practical implications

Researchers who want to use co-design must be prepared for the extra time required and the need for skills concerning engagement, communication, facilitation, negotiation and resolution of conflict. Time is also required for ethical discussions and considerations concerning different types of knowledge creation.

Originality/value

Engaging stakeholders in co-design processes is increasingly encouraged. This study documents the key challenges in such processes and reports practical implications.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Lia Patrício, Daniela Sangiorgi, Dominik Mahr, Martina Čaić, Saleh Kalantari and Sue Sundar

This paper explores how service design can contribute to the evolution of health service systems, moving them toward people-centered, integrated and technology-enabled…

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1893

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores how service design can contribute to the evolution of health service systems, moving them toward people-centered, integrated and technology-enabled care; the paper develops a research agenda to leverage service design research for healthcare transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual study starts by analyzing healthcare challenges in terms of demographic trends and economic constraints, along with the problems of lack of people-centricity, dispersion of care and slowness in incorporating emerging technologies. Then, it examines the theoretical underpinnings of service design to develop a framework for exploring how a human-centered, transformative and service systems approach can contribute to addressing healthcare challenges, with illustrative cases of service design research in healthcare being given.

Findings

The proposed framework explores how a human-centered service design approach can leverage the potential of technology and advance healthcare systems toward people-centered care; how a transformative service design approach can go beyond explanatory research of healthcare phenomena to develop innovative solutions for healthcare change and wellbeing; and how a service systems perspective can address the complexity of healthcare systems, hence moving toward integrated care.

Originality/value

This paper systematizes and develops a framework for how service design can contribute to healthcare transformation. It identifies key healthcare application areas for future service design research and pathways for advancing service design in healthcare by using new interdisciplinary bridges, methodological developments and theoretical foundations.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Doug Arbogast, Peter Butler, Eve Faulkes, Daniel Eades, Jinyang Deng, Kudzayi Maumbe and David Smaldone

This paper aims to describe the transdisciplinary, multiphase, mixed methods, generative design research, participatory planning and social design activities developed and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the transdisciplinary, multiphase, mixed methods, generative design research, participatory planning and social design activities developed and implemented by the West Virginia University Rural Tourism Design Team and associated outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiphase methodology included quantitative and qualitative research in initial stages of the study (key informant interviews, resident attitudes toward tourism survey, visitor preferences survey, economic impact analysis) which informed social design activities at latter stages (asset mapping, landscape design/visualization of opportunities and sites targeted for development and cultural identity design) using generative design tools facilitating co-design with the communities and helping the destination take sequential steps toward achieving their goals and objectives.

Findings

Opportunities and challenges identified through multiple methods were triangulated and pointed to the same conclusions including the need for long term planning and managed growth; protecting community values; underutilized natural, cultural and historic assets; the opportunity to develop nature-based, cultural and historical attractions; and the need for a common vision and collective identity.

Research limitations/implications

This study makes a unique contribution to literature on sustainable tourism planning by incorporating social design activities to visualize findings of more traditional planning methods and provide tangible, visible outcomes of planning activities which can guide local stakeholders in rural destinations more directly to funding for planning recommendations and project implementation.

Practical implications

The transdisciplinary and social/generative/participatory approach provided a scaffolding of outputs to the community with citizen control and active involvement throughout the planning and design process. The incorporation of social design provided tangible outcomes including site designs and a cultural identity. Generative design research gives people a language with which they can imagine and express their ideas and dreams for future experiences.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the role of social design in a transdisciplinary, multiphase project to support sustainable tourism planning.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2007

Jill Franz

There is an urgent need in terms of changing world conditions to move beyond the dualist paradigm that has traditionally informed design research, education and practice…

Abstract

There is an urgent need in terms of changing world conditions to move beyond the dualist paradigm that has traditionally informed design research, education and practice. Rather than attempt to reduce uncertainty, novelty and complexity as is the conventional approach, an argument is presented in this article that seeks to exploit these qualities through a reconceptualisation of design in creative as well as systematic, rigorous and ethical terms. Arts‐based research, which ‘brings together the systematic and rigorous qualities of inquiry with the creative and imaginative qualities of the arts’, is presented as being central to this reconceptualisation. This is exemplified in the application of art‐informed inquiry in a research unit for graduating tertiary‐level interior design students. The application is described in this article and is shown to rely substantially on the image and its capacity to open up and reveal new possibilities and meaning.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Sigrid Pauwels, Johan De Walsche and Dra. Lies Declerck

The authors reflect on the academic bachelor and master programs of architecture. From the perspective of higher education policy in Flanders, Belgium, they examine the…

Abstract

The authors reflect on the academic bachelor and master programs of architecture. From the perspective of higher education policy in Flanders, Belgium, they examine the intrinsic challenges of the academic educational setting, and the way architectural education can fit in and benefit from it, without losing its specific design oriented qualities. Therefore, they unravel the process of architectural design research, as a discipline-authentic way of knowledge production, leading to the identification of a number of implicit features of an academic architectural learning environment. The disquisition is based on educational arguments pointed out by literature and theory. Furthermore, the authors analyze whether this learning environment can comply with general standards of external quality assurance and accreditation systems. Doing so, they reveal the Achilles’ heel of architectural education: the incompatibility of the design jury with formalized assessment frameworks. Finally, the authors conclude with an advocacy for academic freedom. To assure the quality of academic architectural programs, it is necessary that universities maintain a critical attitude towards standardized policy frameworks.

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Mahbub Rashid

– This paper aims to present an integrative review of the research studies on nursing unit layouts.

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1392

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an integrative review of the research studies on nursing unit layouts.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies selected for review were published between 1956 and 2014. For the purpose of this review, a framework for integrative review was developed using research orientations. The three primary dimensions – technical, psychological and social – of the designed environment and various combinations of these dimensions were used to define the research orientations of these studies.

Findings

Of all the publications reviewed for the paper, 21 presented technical orientations, 16 psychological orientations, 3 social orientations, 20 psychotechnical orientations, 10 sociotechnical orientations, 2 psychosocial orientations and 13 presented psychosociotechnical orientations. With only a few exceptions, several issues related to nursing unit layouts were investigated no more than one time in any one category of research orientations. Several other seemingly important issues including patient and family behavior and perception, health outcomes and social and psychosocial factors in relation to unit layouts have not been studied adequately.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies on nursing unit layouts will need to focus on patient and family behavior and perception, health outcomes and social and psychosocial factors in different units. They will also need to focus on developing theories concerning the effects of layouts on the technical, psychological and social dimensions of nursing units.

Originality/value

Despite a long history of research on nursing unit layouts, an integrative review of these studies is still missing in the literature. This review fills in the gap using a novel framework for integrative review developed based on research orientations.

Details

Facilities, vol. 33 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Heide Lukosch and Tina Comes

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for research through game design and discuss how simulation games can be used to bridge the gap between operational…

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2240

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for research through game design and discuss how simulation games can be used to bridge the gap between operational exercises and simulation or analytical modelling and to provide guidelines on how simulation games can be designed for different research purposes in the context of humanitarian logistics.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combines a literature review on gaming as a research method with an analysis of requirements for humanitarian logistics research methods. Starting from this theoretical framework, the authors develop a design thinking approach that highlights how games can be used for different research purposes. To illustrate the approach, the authors develop two different game set-ups that are of increasing fidelity and complexity. Finally, the authors discuss the results of the evaluation of both approaches, reflect on the design choices and provide recommendations for research and practice.

Findings

Gaming is a suitable research method to explore and analyse behaviour and decisions in emergent settings that require team work and collaborative problem solving. Especially when safety and security concerns may hinder access and experimentation on site, gaming can offer a realistic and engaging quasi-experimental environment. The aspects of engagement and realism also make gaming a suitable tool to combine training and research.

Originality/value

Although the use of games has attracted some attention in commercial supply chain management and crisis response, there is no systematic overview of gaming as a research method in humanitarian logistics. This paper is set to make a headway in addressing this gap by proposing a concrete approach to design games for humanitarian logistics research.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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