Bus‐side advertising is highly effective, the medium reaching significant numbers of the general population and providing levels of opportunities‐to‐see (or “repetitions”…
Bus‐side advertising is highly effective, the medium reaching significant numbers of the general population and providing levels of opportunities‐to‐see (or “repetitions”) surpassing those of virtually all other media, at a relatively low cost. Research conducted around five advertisements (each different) in four cities (Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow and Newcastle‐upon‐Tyne) indicates that a minimum campaign weight of 15 per cent is necessary to ensure adequate repetition across all population sectors for an eight‐week duration. Bus sides require their own creative treatment, the characteristics of the medium (moving display, size limitations and, possibly, bus colour) must be considered. No definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding effectiveness of the three different types of bus‐side advertising (side, superside and T‐shape) but advertisers should beware of “losing” elements presented on the stalk of the T. Buses are effective as a solus medium and as part of a multi‐media campaign; they can act as “reminder” advertising, carry emotive messages, link product and retail outlets in the city in which they operate, and they can also brand.
The literature on collection development largely discusses all kinds of managerial and practical issues. There appears to be a noteworthy gap in LIS literature regarding…
The literature on collection development largely discusses all kinds of managerial and practical issues. There appears to be a noteworthy gap in LIS literature regarding the philosophical and conceptual underpinning of the subject. The paper aims to attempt to explore the developments in the theoretical foundations of collection management practices in libraries.
An extensive review of the available literature was made to synthesise the study. It illustrates the impacts of the developments in civilization, from ancient times to modern, on the collection management services of libraries.
It was found that the philosophy underlying collection management work has expanded through the ages due to various factors.
The paper provides an overview of social and technological changes on the philosophy of managing collections through the ages.
Logistics managers are faced with greater customer volatility, higher customer service expectations and pressure to reduce costs. If these conflicting pressures are to be reconciled, increased supply chain flexibility is vital. Enhanced flexibility is achieved through two types of changes to the supply chain: structural changes, including processes, physical resources and linkages/relationships; and, system changes, including how information is used and decisions taken. Structural changes include reducing lead‐times from suppliers, JIT manufacture, and holding stocks at customers' sites. System changes may include speeding information flow and deploying information technology to improve planning and control of the supply chain.
Considers why different explanations of the same event can be produced and discusses the characteristics of a good explanation. It identifies and analyses a wide range of…
Considers why different explanations of the same event can be produced and discusses the characteristics of a good explanation. It identifies and analyses a wide range of different published explanations of a seminal public administration policy‐change. It separates those accounts of that event into families of explanations and describes their common underlying presuppositions. These shared presuppositions are used to construct four models of public policy‐making: sovereign policy‐makers; policy‐makers as relays; policy‐making as the personal; and the discursive construction of policy. Each explanation (and its conceptual model) is challenged by historically grounded counter‐evidence. Based on this analysis the paper suggest ways in which analysis of public management changes might be more fruitfully orientated.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through metaphor analysis, the complex nature of the work undertaken by waiters and pursers on-board cruise ships. This is an…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through metaphor analysis, the complex nature of the work undertaken by waiters and pursers on-board cruise ships. This is an under-researched field and empirical research has produced some interesting perceptions that these groups of workers have of themselves, of others, and of the world in which they work and live.
A total of 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone from a sample of international participants. The data were analysed using a metaphor analysis.
There were three clusters of metaphorical illustration found: metaphors of the ship, metaphors of the environment, and metaphors of their occupation. The metaphors of the environment were split into two sub-clusters. One explored how participants understood the ship's space or work setting, and the second identified the strategies used as participants negotiated their way through their working and social lives. The stories collected from the workers have produced a very different but realistic perspective of the working lives of waiters and pursers.
Metaphors can only offer a partial view of a social phenomenon, rather than an all-encompassing view, which are furthermore specific to the research setting. Notably, for half of all participants English was not their first language, and consequently this may have had an impact upon their use of metaphors.
This research highlights the socio-employment relationship and complexities of working on cruise ships. In particular, it recognises behavioural learning practices and organisational bureaucratic utilities, which the industry relies upon for managing employees.
This study contributes new knowledge in an under-researched context exploring the sociological lives of hospitality cruise ship workers. The use of metaphor analysis has provided an interesting and useful route to extend understanding of cruise ship work.
HERALDED by a leading article in The Times which appeared on the morning of its publication, the Report on the Public Libraries System of Great Britain by Mr. Lionel R. McColvin is now available. It will, without doubt, be the most carefully read current work in its own field, and its suggestions will be subjected to the closest scrutiny. Our correspondent in “Letters on Our Affairs” makes the first step in our pages in this direction, although, as he indicates, his views are merely preliminary. Last month we suggested that if such a report were issued by the Library Association, it should be made quite clear that it is the pronouncement of an individual and not an official document in the strict sense. Already, of course, as The Times leader seems to suggest, the distinction between Mr. McColvin's work and the views of the Library Association have been confused in the public mind. That was inevitable. But we understand that the Association at a later time will issue its own considered statement of what it thinks to be necessary and practicable in the re‐construction of the library service—if, indeed, it is reconstructed—to meet after‐war needs. On the whole, the book is quite readable and betrays very little of the hurry in which it must have been written: its facts seem to be sound and marshalled with considerable skill; its general outlook is generous. With much of it there will not only be agreement; there will be enthusiastic agreement. In so far as it is a proposed system for post‐war organization, it follows the lines already suggested by the Regional Systems created for Civil Defence, involving larger library areas administered from what Mr. McColvin believes to be the central town or other focus of each area. The counties as such disappear, the smaller towns and villages merge into the central town, and so we get in one way or another a cohesive, self‐sufficient and mutually supporting set of libraries in each area. It is around the choice of area and all its implications that discussion will rage and upon which it will be most difficult to obtain general consent. These units, however, while essential to Mr. McColvin's scheme, cannot be regarded other than as proposals to be discussed. Librarians will be quick to see that many of them will become branch librarians if the scheme matures, but in every one of the many schemes we have seen for post‐war re‐construction, larger units than the present ones are invariably implied, and this of necessity means the disappearance as chief officers of many now holding office. This is only one item in a whole series of discussable proposals. We hope that every one or our readers will study the Report and will bring to the common discussions that must be forthcoming a complete and, we hope, impartial understanding of what is involved.
AT intervals the rules and regulations of libraries should be scrutinized. They are not in themselves sacrosanct as is the constitution of the Realm, but many exist which no longer have serviceable qualities. Nevertheless, so long as a rule remains in force it should be operative and its application be general and impartial amongst readers; otherwise, favouritism and other ills will be charged against the library that makes variations. This being so, it is imperative that now and then revision should take place. There is to‐day a great dislike of discipline, which leads to attacks on all rules, but a few rules are necessary in order that books may be made to give the fullest service, be preserved as far as that is compatible with real use, and that equality of opportunity shall be given to all readers. What is wanted is not “no rules at all,” but good ones so constructed that they adapt themselves to the needs of readers. Anachronisms such as: the rule that in lending libraries forbids the exchange of a book on the day it is borrowed; the illegal charge for vouchers; insistence that readers shall return books for renewal; the rigid limiting of the number of readers' tickets; or a procrustean period of loan for books irrespective of their character—here are some which have gone in many places and should go in all. Our point, however, is that rules should be altered by the authority, not that the application of rules should be altered by staffs. The latter is sometimes done, and trouble usually ensues.
SEPTEMBER, by a traditional impulse, has always represented to some minds the beginning of the most active period in the library year. This year the month that sees the close of the holiday season, the shortening day and lengthening evening, holds fairer promises and greater difficulties than any in the past six years or perhaps in the past twenty‐five. It sees large programmes in prospect but many fences to be surmounted and, if the physicists are right, the beginning of a new era. It is doubtful if, in so short a space of time as that which has elapsed since we last wrote, so many important events have occurred. The entirely new political alignment may have its effects on our post‐war policy. We hope the library will never again be the protege of a political party because that means that it becomes thereby the target of the opposition—as was the case when in London a change of party in local government brought about the wreck for a generation of at least one library service which had the misfortune to have been initiated by the other party. We have however, no immediate apprehensions about public libraries in present circumstances.