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The quest for effective performance has never been greater, nor the recognition that it is the human resources of an enterprise that make for its survival and success. Managers are bombarded with techniques and insights as to how to improve people performance; yet certain things remain constant, or relatively so Foremost among these is the basic task of management to plan, organise, lead, monitor and Control.
Examines the differences between graduates and non‐graduates from the viewpoint of managerial potential and in the light of the question, “Can graduate calibre people be equipped with the same skills by a limited period of training, without university experience?” Reviews the case of a professional self‐management programme, common to graduates and non‐graduates, which concentrates on the graduate skills of debating, thinking, analysis, research and resource investigation skills, and confidence. Concludes that each group is a mirror image of the other and each can learn greatly from the other.
COMPUTER BASICS FOR MANAGEMENT by Ralph Morris. (Business Books, £12.50) THE installation of any computer system depends on one fundamental equation. Does the cost of installation and operation exceed the value of the benefits? If it does, then the system should not be installed. With this opening sentence, author Morris sets the sound commonsensical tone of his handbook.
The purpose of this paper was to better understand the underrepresentation of Muslim women living in Australia in physical activity and in group-fitness classes in…
The purpose of this paper was to better understand the underrepresentation of Muslim women living in Australia in physical activity and in group-fitness classes in particular. The authors contend that the Australian fitness industry has ignored the needs of this group through stereotypical islamophobic views focusing on religious dictates as the prime barrier for participation of this group. This study debunks this myth showing that motivations for exercise are complex and multi-faceted.
The authors conducted interviews and a focus group with 27 Muslim women living in Australia. Through this method, the authors explored the role of religiosity and national culture in attitudes towards participation in exercise, gym attendance and group fitness classes.
The authors confirmed that while religion impacted the form and place of exercise options, it did not impact the overall motivation to engage in exercise. This study found that group-fitness classes offered by gyms did not particularly appeal to this group of women, partially due to their religion (this form of exercise being too aggressive and immodest) and partially due to their ethnic background. Exercise options that were more social were favoured. The authors found that notions of femininity and culturally embedded expectations for the role of women were more powerful predictors of exercise engagement and choice of exercise type.
This research is exploratory in nature and as such its findings are restricted to the small sample. To extend this study’s implications, a larger empirical study should be conducted and needs to also consider the intersection between national culture and religiosity on decision-making.
This study has practical implications for the fitness industry attempting to attractive new markets in a multi-cultural population. To attract Muslim women, gyms and fitness centres need to consider providing appropriate areas for women to exercise that allow them to maintain their modesty. To attract this segment, fitness products that are focused on a holistic approach to wellness and highlight opportunities for social interaction should be developed. Focusing on this group as a market segment needs to include a broader contextualisation of their lifestyles and individual situations and should not just focus on their religion.
The requirements of the Muslim religion for women to adopt conservative dress and to avoid contact with men do hinder their ability and also their desire to exercise to maintain a healthy mind and body. Many of these women would like to exercise but find it difficult to find the right settings and form of exercise that suits their needs. Engaging in exercise with others is also an important way for these women to integrate into their communities and to assimilate with the national culture.
This research is original in that it is one of the first to explore attitudes of Muslim women towards exercise and group-fitness classes in Australia. In particular, it includes an examination of the impact of religiosity on motivations and attitudes towards fitness and is the first to consider the relationship between religion, ethnic background and notions of femininity in the context of fitness. The influence of religiosity is an area heavily impacted by cultural bias and stereotyping, and it is therefore important for a deeper understanding of this issue in the services domain.
The aim of this paper is to monitor the scientific development of the intellectual capital (IC) field by analyzing the citation patterns of the IC articles published in…
The aim of this paper is to monitor the scientific development of the intellectual capital (IC) field by analyzing the citation patterns of the IC articles published in ISI journals in the period 1997‐2007. Our research examines the extent to which citation is allocated according to a normative process of universalism or a social process defined by particularistic variables. The results of a regression analysis summarizing both approaches shows that some universalistic predictors of quality such as the impact factor of the journal and the accuracy of the articles are positively related to the number of citations. Thus, the field is slowly moving toward a more universalistic‐oriented discipline, and the practice of citing considering functionally irrelevant characteristics has a limited influence. It seems clear that IC is, more than a fashionable topic, a loose collection of ideas that is still developing its scientific paradigm.
Management development programmes available to NHS managers focus on a performance orientation and sustain a culture of managerial and medical domination. This paper aims…
Management development programmes available to NHS managers focus on a performance orientation and sustain a culture of managerial and medical domination. This paper aims to question whether it is possible to consider NHS management development from a critical (empowerment culture) perspective. Features of the critical management studies approach (CMS) are identified. A new MSc is evaluated against these characteristics, examining the teaching and learning processes and students' perceptions of the programme. The aim is to develop critical thinkers who can return to their organizations and challenge existing power structures and practices to change local cultures and enhance health services.
Empirical research employed anonymous student questionnaires and a focus group.
Student evaluations suggest the MSc can deliver a critical pedagogy and help managers understand issues of power and empowerment, challenge dominant cultures, innovate and effect small, local changes in the NHS culture.
There is a need to continue evaluating the programme and include other stakeholders. Longitudinal research should assess the impact of the managers' changed values, attitudes and behaviours on colleagues, clients and the local cultures.
The paper identifies some of the tensions of developing “critical” health service managers, and the problems they encounter back in the “uncritical” NHS context, as well as some of the challenges in “facilitating” a critical curriculum. It questions the ethics of developing (or not) a critical perspective in a local context unfamiliar with CMS.
Management development in the NHS largely ignores critical pedagogy. This paper makes a small and unique contribution to understanding how developing “critically thinking” managers can challenge the dominant culture. However, the limitations of such a small‐scale study and ethical implications are noted.
This research investigated the creative representations and written reflections of 74 pre-service teachers in two teacher education courses from two large public research…
This research investigated the creative representations and written reflections of 74 pre-service teachers in two teacher education courses from two large public research universities. Using qualitative methodology, this study examined images of teaching in conjunction with written reflections as a measure of the developmental level of learning to teach. As the representations were analyzed, the very personal nature in which these representations were constructed became apparent, along with the importance of the students’ own past personal experiences. Moreover, sophistication of reflective comments also differed across groups. Differences between the two groups are discussed and implications for future research are offered.