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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2012

Sukhbir Sandhu

Purpose – This paper reflects on how does the mode, in which we ask questions, affect the responses? It explores the differences between the responses to the same…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper reflects on how does the mode, in which we ask questions, affect the responses? It explores the differences between the responses to the same questions obtained through two different modes – depth interviews and self-administered questionnaires (SAQs).

Approach – This paper is based on a series of serendipitous but enlightening insights that were obtained while conducting research that sought to examine the drivers of corporate environmentalism in firms based in Eastern and Western economies. The methodology adopted in the research project involved conducting depth interviews with senior-most managers in business organizations in India (Eastern) and New Zealand (Western). The insights that form the basis for this paper were gained when some managers treated the list of questions in the interview guide as a structured open-ended questionnaire and sent back detailed written responses.

Findings – This paper reports that the written responses obtained through SAQs in this project were different both in form and content; they were staid, reserved, clichéd and aimed at being politically correct. In contrast the responses to the same question asked in the interviews were open and candid admissions. Interview responses stood up to the triangulation tests, while the written responses did not. These differences were particularly evident in the eastern context.

Research implications – While both SAQs and interviews are prone to social desirability bias, this paper suggests that there is a greater opportunity to reduce social desirability bias in interviews. This is especially true if a trained interviewer can convince the participants of the credibility, importance and legitimacy of the study.

Originality/value – This paper contributes in two important ways:1.It addresses the issue of how responses to the same question differ across SAQs and depth interviews in strategy and management research.2.It also examines whether this effect differs across Eastern and Western organizational contexts.

Details

West Meets East: Toward Methodological Exchange
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-026-0

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Abstract

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Tourism Destination Quality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-558-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

David Stokes and Richard Bergin

The aim of this research was to consider whether focus groups have justifiably become a more frequently used qualitative market research technique because of a superior…

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23526

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research was to consider whether focus groups have justifiably become a more frequently used qualitative market research technique because of a superior research outcome. Although focus groups have extrinsic advantages such as speed and cost, there is evidence that individual depth interviews have intrinsic advantages relating to the quality of the research outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

A parallel research study was undertaken examining a single business issue using both focus groups and individual interviews. Results of both processes were analysed for relevance to the business issue. Follow up individual interviews with participants of the focus groups were undertaken to assess the validity of the data collected, and to investigate the nature of the processes in the groups.

Findings

Group processes appear to have had considerable influence on the consensus view expressed in focus groups, which may not be representative of respondents' individual views. Both the groups and the interviews identified the principle issues relating to buyer motivations and processes, target markets and branding. The groups were unable to match the depth and detail generated by individual interviews and to uncover subtleties in attitudes. The interviews offered less breadth of data and contextual information.

Practical implications

Whilst groups may be less expensive and faster in data collection, individual interviews demonstrated a superior ability to inform marketing strategy by uncovering important underlying issues.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that groups do not justify their predominance as a market research method in preference to interviews on the grounds of quality of outcomes alone.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Geoff Chivers

There is much agreement in the literature that reflection on practice is critically important for the full development and ongoing learning of professionals. The methods…

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2938

Abstract

There is much agreement in the literature that reflection on practice is critically important for the full development and ongoing learning of professionals. The methods of reflection on professional practice reported to date have been developed primarily in the context of professional education in group settings led by a tutor. Research is underway into ways in which managers can be developed as learning facilitators in the workplace. However, there are increasing limitations on the significance of this approach to the continuing development of professionals. The research reported here shows that in‐depth research interviews with professionals to investigate their work and learning can play an important part in supporting their reflection in‐depth on their practice. An analysis of the processes involved, and the characteristics of the three research interviewers involved, indicates that human resource development professionals could be trained for the role of learning facilitators of professionals through 1:1 discourse in the form of in‐depth interviews.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Sally Rao and Chad Perry

This research used the somewhat new methodology of convergent interviews to develop a conceptual framework about relationship constructs in an Internet environment. More…

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Abstract

This research used the somewhat new methodology of convergent interviews to develop a conceptual framework about relationship constructs in an Internet environment. More generally, this article describes and illustrates the processes and the strengths of convergent interviewing to investigate under‐researched areas, and compares it with alternative qualitative techniques like in‐depth interviews, case research and focus groups. The illustration involves interviews conducted with marketing managers and business consultants from ten service companies, about Internet and relationship marketing. It is argued that convergent interviewing is more appropriate than some other qualitative methods to investigate under‐researched areas where there are few experts because it provides a way of quickly converging on key issues in the area, an efficient mechanism for data analysis after each interview, and a way of deciding when to stop collecting data. Convergent interviews could become another useful qualitative research method to explore new issues about emerging marketing phenomena.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Juliette Patricia Lowe and Joanne Zaida Taylor

Changes to legislation in England during 2006 introduced the requirement for a “farm to fork” approach to food safety. The new regulations require primary producers such…

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1022

Abstract

Purpose

Changes to legislation in England during 2006 introduced the requirement for a “farm to fork” approach to food safety. The new regulations require primary producers such as arable farmers, fruit growers and vegetable growers to follow good hygiene practice and manage their operations in such a way as to control food safety hazards. Various food safety incidents in recent years have increased the public's concern with food safety and contributed to the establishment of various farm assurance schemes in order to reassure the public, often via labelling displaying high profile symbols such as the Red Tractor logo, that the food they eat is safe and has been produced in accordance with strict guidelines and standards. The requirement for documented HACCP plans is central to the majority of farm assurance schemes in the UK. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and nature of barriers to HACCP implementation amongst a group of arable farmers and fresh produce growers. The research forms part of the first phase of a larger project being undertaken as part of a PhD.

Design/methodology /approach

For this research study an in‐depth qualitative methodology was used, and a non‐prescriptive narrative interview technique utilised in order to investigate the barriers to HACCP implementation amongst four arable farmers and fresh produce growers in England. The farmers and growers all had HACCP plans produced for their business in order to comply with the requirements of farm assurance schemes.

Findings

Non‐prescriptive analysis of the narrative interviews identified shortcomings associated with farm assurance audits and several common themes associated with experiences and perceptions of HACCP as difficult, a burden in terms of cost, time and paperwork and unnecessary, all of which acted as barriers to implementation.

Originality/value

This paper combines in‐depth, academically sound research with the involvement of primary producers. It brings together the views of four arable farmers and fresh produce growers. This study both supports and develops previous research studies, contributing to the existing body of research by uncovering additional findings associated with farm assurance schemes and identifying the extent and nature of barriers to HACCP implementation in primary production.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Ian Alam

The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic and rigorous process of data collection and fieldwork in qualitative research using four empirical studies of customer…

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10905

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic and rigorous process of data collection and fieldwork in qualitative research using four empirical studies of customer interactions in new product development (NPD) as examples. The intention is to dispel a misconception that the qualitative research lacks objectivity and methodological robustness.

Design/methodology/approach

To collect data for all the four studies a preliminary process of conducting fieldwork was first developed from the extant literature. This preliminary framework was applied in the first study and subsequently revised twice in the second and third study by incorporating necessary changes and additions. Finally, the framework was tested and further refined in the fourth study.

Findings

The findings from these four empirical qualitative studies have demonstrated that a theory generating idiographic research such as field interviews could be carried out systematically. These findings also provide a basis for proposing a structured framework for data collection.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based only on business‐to‐business NPD. Therefore, to increase the applicability of the results more studies are needed in other business and marketing fields.

Practical implications

The results offer an in‐depth look at specific research activities that can be carried out for efficient idea generation work and the overall NPD efforts.

Originality/value

The framework reported in this paper allows for an iterative data collection process from multiple respondents and from multiple sources. This method of data collection is a key issue because product managers tend to interact with the customers and other partners repeatedly and throughout the NPD process. Thus the product managers would find this framework useful for research involving NPD and customer interactions.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2012

Takaho Ueda

This paper introduces the development of a new type of sales promotion strategy to create more value for goods and to avoid price discounting. I use a psychological…

Abstract

This paper introduces the development of a new type of sales promotion strategy to create more value for goods and to avoid price discounting. I use a psychological approach designed by creating consumer insight hypotheses based on in-depth interviews, which are then verified by web-motivation research and text-mining. This innovative sales promotion approach is a very hot topic as a new type of promotion development among large companies in Japan and is useful in avoiding price-discounting sales. This paper explains the concrete process used in this type of promotion and reveals the successful case of a large spice company in Japan. The process uses price sensitivity measurement (PSM) as a pricing technique. In the experiment, conducted in nine retail stores, the most successful sales promotion condition saw an increase of 900% in monetary sales without price discounting during the two weeks of the experiment, and 500% in the two weeks after that.

Details

Visionary Pricing: Reflections and Advances in Honor of Dan Nimer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-996-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Ron Fullerton

This paper aims to show the genesis of motivation research in work done from the 1920s through 1954, especially with the growth in reception of European “depth

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show the genesis of motivation research in work done from the 1920s through 1954, especially with the growth in reception of European “depth psychology”. This has been followed up by Fullerton (2013).

Design/methodology/approach

Standard historical methodology – heavy reliance on sources written at the time (primary resources), avoidance of anachronism, heavy use of contemporary quotations, efforts to explain and interpret.

Findings

Motivation research dates to the 1920s with the work of Paul F. Lazarsfeld and others. It grew rapidly in the USA, part of the great expansion of the behavioral sciences, and amidst a zeitgeist of growing discontent with older psychologies and of Economic Man.

Originality/value

This paper takes motivation research back to its origins for the first time, placing it clearly in line with contemporary intellectual developments.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Jin-Young Kim and WanGyu Heo

In 2018, an artificial intelligence (AI) interview platform was introduced and adopted by companies in Korea. This study aims to explore the perspectives of applicants who…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2018, an artificial intelligence (AI) interview platform was introduced and adopted by companies in Korea. This study aims to explore the perspectives of applicants who have experienced an AI-based interview through this platform and examines the opinions of companies, a platform developer and academia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a phenomenological approach. The participants, who had recent experience of AI video interviews, were recruited offline and online. Eighteen job applicants in their 20s, two companies that have adopted this interview platform, a software developer who created the platform and three professors participated in the study. To collect data, focus group interviews and in-depth interviews were conducted.

Findings

As a result, all of them believed that an AI-based interview was more efficient than a traditional one in terms of cost and time savings and is likely to be adopted by more companies in the future. They pointed to the possibility of data bias requiring an improvement in AI accountability. Applicants perceived an AI-based interview to be better than traditional evaluation procedures in procedural fairness, objectivity and consistency of algorithms. However, some applicants were dissatisfied about being assessed by AI. Digital divide and automated inequality were recurring themes in this study.

Originality/value

The study is important, as it addresses the real application of AI in detail, and a case study of smart hiring tools would be valuable in finding the practical and theoretical implications of such hiring in the fields of employment and AI.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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