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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2019

Penelope Allison, Anna Mnatsakanova, Erin McCanlies, Desta Fekedulegn, Tara A. Hartley, Michael E. Andrew and John M. Violanti

Chronic exposure to occupational stress may lead to depressive symptoms in police officers. The association between police stress and depressive symptoms and the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

Chronic exposure to occupational stress may lead to depressive symptoms in police officers. The association between police stress and depressive symptoms and the potential influences of coping and hardiness were evaluated. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Stress level was assessed in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study (2004–2009) with the Spielberger Police Stress Survey. The frequency and severity of events at work were used to calculate stress indices for the past year. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms during the past week. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the stress indices and depressive symptom scores. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status and alcohol intake, and stratified by median values for coping (passive, active and support seeking) and hardiness (control, commitment and challenge) to assess effect modification.

Findings

Among the 388 officers (73.2 percent men), a significant positive association was observed between total stress and the CES-D score (β=1.98 (SE=0.36); p<0.001). Lower CES-D scores were observed for officers who reported lower passive coping (β=0.94 (SE=0.45); p=0.038) and higher active coping (β=1.41 (SE=0.44); p=0.002), compared with their counterparts. Officers higher in hardiness had lower CES-D scores, particularly for commitment (β=0.86 (SE=0.35); p=0.016) and control (β=1.58 (SE=0.34); p<0.001).

Originality/value

Results indicate that high active coping and hardiness modify the effect of work stress in law enforcement, acting to reduce depressive symptoms.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Robyn Lewis Brown, Mairead Eastin Moloney and Gabriele Ciciurkaite

Motivated by research linking job autonomy and job creativity with psychological well-being, this study examines how these work characteristics influence well-being among…

Abstract

Objective

Motivated by research linking job autonomy and job creativity with psychological well-being, this study examines how these work characteristics influence well-being among people with and without physical disabilities, utilizing both a categorical and continuous measure of disability.

Method

Data were drawn from two waves of a community study in Miami-Dade County, Florida, of 1,473 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether job autonomy and job creativity mediate the associations between the indicators of physical disability considered and depressive symptoms and whether these associations varied by gender.

Results

Controlling for the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, both job autonomy and job creativity significantly influence the association between physical disability and depressive symptoms regardless of the measure of disability used. The effects of job autonomy were significantly greater for women than men in the context of greater functional limitation.

Conclusions

The findings highlight the need to further consider the work characteristics of employed people with disabilities. They also demonstrate that the conceptualization and measurement of physical disability has important research implications.

Details

Factors in Studying Employment for Persons with Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-606-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Depressives Associated

The article concerns a specialist service offering information,support and understanding for depressives and their relatives. Thearticle defines depression, outlines…

Abstract

The article concerns a specialist service offering information, support and understanding for depressives and their relatives. The article defines depression, outlines causes and the steps to be taken in finding treatment and ways of coping with and alleviating the illness. Common symptoms are listed, there is brief advice for relatives and the aims and services of Depressives Associated are outlined.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Jessie Kemmick Pintor, Carolyn Garcia and Ursula Reynoso

Purpose – To synthesize the literature on coping among adolescents of color in the U.S., we examine normative and circumstantial stressors, describe coping strategies, and…

Abstract

Purpose – To synthesize the literature on coping among adolescents of color in the U.S., we examine normative and circumstantial stressors, describe coping strategies, and summarize the literature on coping for the promotion of well-being among adolescents of color, including descriptive and intervention studies.

Methods/approach – We conducted an extensive review of the literature in four scientific databases (medline, CINAHL, ERIC, and PyschInfo) between July 2010 and June 2011 (key words: (minority) adolescent(s) (of color), cope/coping, stress (ors), and adaptation/psychological). Studies included in our review were peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and June 2011 that presented original data on the coping strategies and outcomes of adolescents of color (e.g., studies including a majority from underrepresented racial/ethnic communities) between the ages of 12 and 18.

Findings – We identified a total of 91 articles for inclusion, including 83 descriptive and 8 intervention studies. We use a matrix approach to compare descriptive studies by their purpose, study design, sample, targeted stressors, and outcomes. We then discuss the eight interventions we identified, highlighting the targeted population, intervention protocol/adaptation, feasibility/acceptability, and study outcomes.

Implications – The breadth and depth of research on coping among adolescents of color has improved significantly over the past decade, yet our review reveals several areas where further exploration is needed, including research on intra-group differences, validation of coping measures in diverse groups, measurement of the effectiveness of coping strategies over time, and most importantly, the translation of available knowledge on effective coping into culturally relevant, multifaceted interventions for adolescents and their families.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Javad Mohtadinia, Nasim Abedimanesh, Solmaz Nomi Golzar and Mina Analoii

This paper aims to determine the comparison between dietary habits and intakes and also anthropometric indices among adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the comparison between dietary habits and intakes and also anthropometric indices among adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. MDD is a common psychiatric disorder with high prevalence in the world which imposes great economic pressure on the society and also the individual. Nutritional factors affect depressive symptoms by different mechanisms, so dietary modification would be inexpensive and somewhat conceivable.

Design/methodology/approach

This pilot case – control study was performed on 30 MDD patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the patients were recorded. Dietary intake and food habits were assessed by food records and using the food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Variables were compared between two groups using the independent t-test or Mann – Whitney test.

Findings

Nutrient intake (except for copper and vitamin D) was significantly higher among healthy subjects when compared to the MDD patients. Daily frequency of food consumption was significantly low among depressed patients in comparison to healthy participants in all seven food groups, except the bread and cereals group. Healthy subjects consumed more fish, about once during two months of a year, while this number was low for MDD patients.

Originality/value

The results of this case – control study revealed that dietary habits and consequently micronutrient and macronutrient intakes were significantly different between healthy and MDD patients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Emil Petersen, Jesper Gabs Jensen and Tove Faber Frandsen

Information seeking can be used to make sense of a situation or solve a problem. Information seeking can be considered a coping strategy when facing illness, crisis or…

Abstract

Purpose

Information seeking can be used to make sense of a situation or solve a problem. Information seeking can be considered a coping strategy when facing illness, crisis or other life-changing events. Cancer is a globally occurring, life-threatening disease, and this review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature on the active information seeking behaviour of cancer patients specifically focussing on how active information seeking serves as a coping strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adheres to current guidelines for conducting systematic reviews and consequently, thorough literature searches were conducted in four databases: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Scopus which resulted in 7,179 publications. Following a careful screening process, this systematic review identifies 14 studies on the use of information seeking to cope with cancer.

Findings

The included studies consist of both qualitative and quantitative approaches to analysing the use of information seeking to cope with cancer. The included studies have focussed primarily on demographic factors, the impact of affect, information needs, sources and coping strategies.

Research limitations/implications

A number of research gaps within library and information science are identified. Bringing research in this field into information science could allow for a greater understanding of information literacy, the use of existing information and the process of information searching when using information seeking to cope with serious illness.

Originality/value

This systematic review focusses on how information seeking serves as a coping strategy for cancer patients and provides an overview of the recent literature.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Xing Zhang

Depressive symptoms are higher among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Many studies have evidenced associations between school disconnectedness and…

Abstract

Depressive symptoms are higher among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Many studies have evidenced associations between school disconnectedness and depressive symptoms by race and ethnicity in adolescence (Joyce & Early, 2014; Walsemann, Bell, & Maitra, 2011). Given that adolescents spend most of their time at home when they are not at school (Larson & Richards, 2001), it is important to understand how mother-child relationships may moderate school disconnectedness, and how mother–child relationships may serve as a protective buffer for depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood. I use data from Waves II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) from 1995 to 2002 (n = 9,766) and OLS regression analysis to examine how school disconnectedness in adolescence is associated with depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood, and how mother–child relationships in adolescence moderate these associations in the United States. I examine differences in these relationships across racial and ethnic groups. I find that school disconnectedness in adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms in the transition to adulthood, and that maternal warmth and communication moderates the association between school disconnectedness and depressive symptoms. Maternal relationship quality in adolescence serves as an important protective factor for mental health in the transition to adulthood.

Details

Transitions into Parenthood: Examining the Complexities of Childrearing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-222-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Rasa Mikelyte and Alisoun Milne

The purpose of this paper is to explore evidence about the role played by micro-cultures in long-term care (LTC) settings in shaping residents’ mental health and wellbeing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore evidence about the role played by micro-cultures in long-term care (LTC) settings in shaping residents’ mental health and wellbeing.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review on micro-cultures in LTC, including database search of academic and grey literature using pre-determined combinations of key terms and specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. The review followed the methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley (2005).

Findings

Micro-cultures (localised, distinctive cultures of a small group of people) in LTC are complex, multi-faceted and multi-directional; they include social dynamics as well as structural and environmental factors. Although much work has been done on the nature of micro-cultures, limited work has focused on LTC for older people. Initiatives to promote the mental health and wellbeing of residents rarely consider micro-cultures in any holistic way; they tend to be taken into account either as part of a contextual backdrop, or as a uni-directional process often equated with the concept of “care culture” or “organisational culture”.

Originality/value

The role played by micro-cultures in influencing the mental health and wellbeing of older people living in LTC settings is significantly under researched. The findings of this review suggest that their complexity and multidimensionality challenges researchers. However if the authors are to develop interventions that promote the mental health and wellbeing of residents it is important to invest in work to explore their nature and systemic influence.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Lourah M. Kelly, Cory A. Crane, Kristyn Zajac and Caroline J. Easton

Past studies demonstrated the efficacy of integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and intimate partner violence (IPV) as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Past studies demonstrated the efficacy of integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and intimate partner violence (IPV) as well as high rates of depressive symptoms in this population. However, little is known about how depressive symptoms impact treatment outcomes. The authors hypothesized that integrated CBT, but not standard drug counseling (DC), would buffer the negative effects of depressive symptoms on treatment response.

Design/methodology/approach

A secondary analysis of a randomized trial compared men assigned to 12 weeks of integrated CBT for SUD and IPV (n = 29) to those in DC (n = 34).

Findings

Most (60%) of the sample reported any depressive symptoms. Controlling for baseline IPV, reporting any depressive symptoms was associated with more positive cocaine screens during treatment. Among men with depressive symptoms, integrated CBT but not DC was associated with fewer positive cocaine screens. Controlling for baseline alcohol variables, integrated CBT and depressive symptoms were each associated with less aggression outside of intimate relationships (family, strangers, etc.) during treatment. For men without depressive symptoms, integrated CBT was associated with less non-IPV aggression compared to DC. Effects were not significant for other substances, IPV, or at follow-up.

Research limitations/implications

This study found some evidence for differential response to CBT by depressive symptoms on cocaine and aggression at end of treatment, which did not persist three months later. Future studies should explore mechanisms of integrated CBT for SUD and IPV, including mood regulation, on depressive symptoms in real-world samples.

Practical implications

Integrated CBT buffered depressive symptoms’ impact on cocaine use, yet only improved non-IPV aggression in men without depressive symptoms.

Originality/value

Although integrated CBT’s efficacy for improving SUD and IPV has been established, moderators of treatment response have not been investigated.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Seung-won Emily Choi and Zhenmei Zhang

Purpose: In recent decades, it has been a burgeoning trend in South Korea that older women are more actively engaged in grandparenting (i.e., caring for grandchildren) as…

Abstract

Purpose: In recent decades, it has been a burgeoning trend in South Korea that older women are more actively engaged in grandparenting (i.e., caring for grandchildren) as they are living longer and healthier lives. The present study examines how grandparenting is associated with the mental health of grandmothers.

Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2008–2012, N = 2,814), we used growth curve models to estimate the trajectories of grandmothers’ depressive symptoms by grandparenting type.

Findings: The results show that caregiving grandmothers in multigenerational households experience a decline in depressive symptoms with age, despite having a higher mean level of depressive symptoms than non-caregiving grandmothers at age 47; whereas the non-caregiving grandmothers experience an increase in depressive symptoms with age. Grandmothers who provide non-coresident grandparenting (i.e., babysitting) are not significantly different from non-caregiving grandmothers in the rate of increase in depressive symptoms.

Originality/value: Grandparenting in multigenerational households may have a beneficial effect on older women’s mental health over time in South Korea. This finding is robust after we control for socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and social support.

Details

Aging and the Family: Understanding Changes in Structural and Relationship Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-491-5

Keywords

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