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1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

Ajit Shah

The proportion of those over the age of 65 years in black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in England and Wales is increasing. The prevalence of dementia and depression

Abstract

The proportion of those over the age of 65 years in black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in England and Wales is increasing. The prevalence of dementia and depression among BME elders from different groups in the United Kingdom is generally similar to or higher than in indigenous white British elders. Two methods were used to provide a conservative estimate of the absolute number of cases of dementia and depression among BME elders. Data on prevalence from published studies of different BME elderly groups and the number of those over the age of 65 years from different BME groups in the general population in the 2001 population census were used for analysis. The most conservative estimates of the absolute number of cases of dementia among BME elders were 7270 and 10,786 for the two methods of analysis; the corresponding figures for depression were 33,559 and 52,980. There is a significant amount of psychiatric morbidity among the elderly from BME groups. A multi‐faceted approach is needed to ensure that commissioning, design, development and delivery of culturally capable, appropriate and sensitive old age psychiatry actually occurs and improves the equity of service access by BME elders.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

D. Lisa Cothran

Purpose – The purposes of this chapter are to describe both the within-group and between-group variance in Black Americans’ (Blacks’) prevalence of mental illness. This…

Abstract

Purpose – The purposes of this chapter are to describe both the within-group and between-group variance in Black Americans’ (Blacks’) prevalence of mental illness. This chapter also comments on the impact that poorer mental health has on this group's subsequent social mobility and explores recommendations for the reduction of these inequities.

Methodology/approach – This chapter reviews Black's history in America. It also outlines the influence of this history and related factors on Black Americans' current rates of illness and subsequently vulnerable upward mobility.

Research implications – The history of Blacks in America is tumultuous and has contributed to their vulnerable state. Blacks, on average, are poorer and sicker than Whites, and Blacks’ higher rates of illness are due to a number of factors. As a result, Blacks’ social mobility is precarious. Future research should continue to explore mental health care programs that are specifically designed to address Blacks’ unique culture and worldview.

Social implications – In addition to culturally competent and culturally responsive health care, future initiatives should focus on improving the accessibility and quality of health care, and alleviating socioeconomic disparities, racism, and racism-related stress. These initiatives, in conjunction, are the best approach to improving Blacks’ rates of mental illness.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Sirry Alang

The purpose of this paper is to identify symptoms that constitute a shared cultural model of depression among African Americans and to compare these accounts with criteria…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify symptoms that constitute a shared cultural model of depression among African Americans and to compare these accounts with criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-V).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a disproportionately Black urban neighborhood in the USA and analyzed using cultural consensus analysis (CCA). In total, 34 African Americans participated in a free-listing exercise to elicit common indicators of depression in the same community. Another 40 key informants completed a survey to rate how common each indicator was in the same community. Factor analysis was performed, factor loadings were used to weight the responses of each informant in the survey and then aggregated to determine the most significant indicators or components of the shared model depression.

Findings

Indicators of depression included classic symptoms in the DSM-V such as sadness and lack of motivation. However, other indicators that are inconsistent with symptoms of MDD in the DSM-V such as paranoia and rage were common and constituted a shared model of depression in the sample.

Research limitations/implications

Some symptoms common among African Americans that are not in the DSM-V or on research instruments developed based on the DSM could be overlooked in epidemiological surveys and in clinical assessments of depression.

Practical implications

The provision of mental health care might benefit from a better understanding of how contextual factors shape expressions of distress among African Americans.

Originality/value

This study identify culturally salient symptoms of depression among African Americans independent of clinically defined criteria.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Andra D. Rivers Johnson

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American…

Abstract

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American community. Access to mental health and quality care remains elusive as members of this social group lack access to mental health screening, diagnosis, and attention due to institutional and cultural barriers. Supporting the position that implicit and explicit provider bias exists in the mental health profession, this chapter will explore how implicit provider bias is an intractable institutional barrier that prevents Black/African Americans from accessing mental health and quality care. A review of the implications related to mental health outcomes with Black/African American clients will also be explored.

A brief overview of the Black/African American cultural responses to implicit provider bias will be discussed later in this chapter. There will be an exploration of the ways to help identify, address, and eliminate implicit provider bias using evidence-based personal and community engagement strategies that promote mental health wellness within the Black/African American community. Implications for best practices in Black/African American mental health will also be addressed to eradicate the risk of unethical or medical malpractice with Black/African American clients, reduce the mental health disparity experienced by Blacks/African Americans, and create mental health equity for this population.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2010

Dawn Edge

The purpose of this study was to explore providers' and commissioners' perceptions of the extent to which services currently meet the perinatal mental health needs of black

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore providers' and commissioners' perceptions of the extent to which services currently meet the perinatal mental health needs of black and minority ethnic (BME) women. A mixed method study involving a national survey and in‐depth interviews was undertaken in response to reports of patchy service provision and particular concerns about potentially unmet needs among BME women. Findings indicate that the surprising number of professional groups (n=27) involved in delivering perinatal mental health care were predominantly located in secondary care. Perceptions of the validity of ‘BME‐specific’ services were equivocal. Service delivery for minority women tended to focus on language and translation; which might facilitate assessment and physical (though not psychological) care but would do little to address women's cultural needs.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Elmer Spreitzer, Robert Schoeni and K.V. Rao

The purpose of this study was to describe any patterns of distinctive sociocultural adaptation in the form of exchanges of time and money between American households, and…

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to describe any patterns of distinctive sociocultural adaptation in the form of exchanges of time and money between American households, and to determine whether any observed racial or ethnic differences remain after controlling for social background characteristics. We tested one dimension of the sociocultural adaptation hypothesis — Through processes of distinctive sociocultural adaptation, minority group members learn to survive by adjusting behaviors, values, and informal organization in response to demands and stressors in their social environment. The focal adaptation in our study involved instrumental and expressive exchanges between households. The findings showed that minority groups on average were less likely to participate in instrumental and expressive exchanges between households as compared to the majority group. The study involved a secondary analysis of data collected in 1987–1988 as part of the National Survey of Families and Households (N= 13,017). Logistic regression was used to test for racial and ethnic variations in a multivariate context.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2011

Dawn Edge

Perinatal mental illness is an important public health issue. Conditions such as postnatal depression increase mothers' risk of suicide and can herald onset of recurrent…

666

Abstract

Purpose

Perinatal mental illness is an important public health issue. Conditions such as postnatal depression increase mothers' risk of suicide and can herald onset of recurrent and chronic mental health problems. Maternal mental illness can also adversely impact the cognitive, physical, and psychological health and development of children. In light of known psychosocial risks, there is concern that fewer than expected women from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds access care and treatment. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Responding to persistent reports of patchy service provision across the UK more generally and particular concerns about potentially unmet needs among BME women, mixed‐method research was undertaken between September 2009 and March 2010. Using survey questionnaires and telephone interviews, the study sought to explore professional stakeholders' perspectives on current perinatal mental health provision and the extent to which it meets the needs of BME women. Findings from the study were intended to inform policy and plans to improve provision by establishing managed care networks (MCNs) for perinatal mental healthcare.

Findings

In total, 45 questionnaires were returned from the national survey. One‐third of respondents (n=14) consented to follow‐up telephone interviews. There was evidence of multi‐agency working among the 27 professional groups which respondents reported as being directly involved in delivering perinatal mental healthcare across the country. However, there was also evidence of disjuncture and poor communication – particularly between statutory and voluntary sectors and NHS primary and secondary care. Some respondents had difficulty defining “BME” or identifying the women to whom the acronym might be applied. They also questioned the validity of providing “BME‐specific” services. Instead, they endorsed more ethnically “inclusive models” of provision and “signposting” women to appropriate “community” services.

Practical implications

Taken together, these findings suggests that whilst there might be a theoretical argument for perinatal mental health MCNs, considerable effort is required if policy‐makers' aspirations for more “joined‐up” services capable of meeting the needs of all women are to be fully realised. Furthermore, current proposals for public sector reform coupled with reduction in voluntary sector provision is likely to disproportionately affect women from BME and other marginalised communities as they provide significant amounts of “below the radar” care and support.

Originality/value

This paper is of particular relevance to policy makers and practitioners. Findings suggest that women from BME backgrounds might be particularly vulnerable to perinatal mental illness. Contraction of voluntary sector provision increases the likelihood that the needs of BME women will remain unmet with deleterious consequences for their health and wellbeing of their families. This has potentially serious public health implications. MCNs/clinical networks have the potential to reduce inequalities by providing more “joined up” care for all women. However, the evidence base for levels of need and appropriate service response to perinatal mental illness among BME women is weak. Further research is required to bridge the evidence gap and to evaluate the impact of health and social care reform on vulnerable groups.

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Kristina Sesar, Arta Dodaj and Nataša Šimić

Intimate partner violence (IPV) represents a widespread social and public health problem. Researchers have been shown association between IPV and mental health problems…

Abstract

Purpose

Intimate partner violence (IPV) represents a widespread social and public health problem. Researchers have been shown association between IPV and mental health problems. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature on relationship between wide ranges of mental health problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Research papers related to mental health problems among IPV perpetrators and published in leading academic journals in UK and abroad from 1987 to 2017 were identified and reviewed.

Findings

Although there were some equivocal findings, the authors found that most of the available research suggests that there is a variety of psychological health problems among IPV perpetrators. Specifically, there was evidence of a significant relationship between anger problems, anxiety, depression, suicidal behaviour, personality disorders, alcoholism or problem gambling and perpetration of IPV. Results from analysed studies identified high rates of co-morbid disorders in IPV perpetrators.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the need for treatment services to undertake screening and assessment of wide range of psychological difficulties to be able to provide best treatment approaches.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that has included studies evaluating various psychological health problems among perpetrators of IPV.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Richard Williams

Despite contemporary concerns arising from high levels of serious mental illness in this group, there is no convincing evidence that the mental well‐being of black men is…

Abstract

Despite contemporary concerns arising from high levels of serious mental illness in this group, there is no convincing evidence that the mental well‐being of black men is generally poor. The potential for general practice to influence mental well‐being derives from the totality of its services to patients. Black and minority ethnic (BME) users report lower levels of satisfaction with general practice services than the population as a whole. A review of evidence indicates poorer access to effective care in general practice by BME users. For general practice to become a service that is culturally competent for multicultural communities the setting of consultations and skills‐employed need to maximise patient enablement, and patient profile data, including self‐ascribed ethnicity, needs to be developed and utilised for routine race equality audit.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Marisha L. Humphries and Iheoma U. Iruka

Inequalities in education have existed since the beginning of formal education. Educational disparities often emerge as you compare groups of students based on race…

Abstract

Inequalities in education have existed since the beginning of formal education. Educational disparities often emerge as you compare groups of students based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, and geography. This chapter seeks to stress the important role that early childhood experiences, including specific structures and processes during these foundational years play in potentially preventing the educational gaps of Black students. This requires intentional shifting from solely focusing on educational gaps to one that focuses on specific practices and policies that must be implemented to ensure that Black children are afforded the opportunities to meet their potential.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

Keywords

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