Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Jelena Tepavčević, Melita Josipović and Vedran Milojica

Introduction: Considering the facts that hospitality employees belong to the category of low paid workers, tips are an important source of their incomes. It is very…

Abstract

Introduction: Considering the facts that hospitality employees belong to the category of low paid workers, tips are an important source of their incomes. It is very important to determine the nature of the relationship between dependence on tips among hotel employees on their job satisfaction due to the possible influence on their turnover intentions. Aim: The aim of this chapter was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, the dependence on tips and turnover intentions among hotel employees. Method: Data were collected during spring 2020 in the hotels on the territory of the Republic of Serbia. A total of 213 employees from different departments were included in the research. Findings: Correlation analysis showed that there is a small negative correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Significant medium correlation is calculated between dependence on tips and turnover intentions. Significant negative correlation exists between job satisfaction and dependence on tips.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Christopher Mensah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived dependence on tips and vulnerability to sexual harassment (SH) among hotel employees in Accra…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived dependence on tips and vulnerability to sexual harassment (SH) among hotel employees in Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Within a cross-sectional research design, 583 employees from 55 hotels completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test of independence, Kruskal–Wallis test were used to analyse collected data.

Findings

Results of the study reveal that dependence on tips is related to SH vulnerability of food and beverage staff. Furthermore, dependence on tips engenders a perception of SH climate. Compared to guests and co-workers, supervisors were least identified as perpetrators of SH in hotel workspaces. Guests were responsible for unwanted sexual attention, whereas co-workers pose the greatest risk for gender harassment.

Practical implications

Hotel management should invest in the publication of educational materials such as leaflets and posters indicating unacceptability of inappropriate sexual behaviours.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the pioneers to have assessed the relationship between dependence on tips and perceived climate for SH as well as vulnerability to SH in a hotel context.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Olivier Klein, Camila Arnal, Sarah Eagan, Philippe Bernard and Sarah J. Gervais

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In many countries, service workers' (e.g. restaurant staff, bartenders) income depends highly on tips. Such workers are often female and targeted by sexual harassment. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the mode of compensation (tips vs. no tips) could play a causal role in the perceived legitimacy of sexual harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental study (N = 161), the authors manipulated the source of income of a fictional female bartender (fixed income vs. smaller fixed income + tips) as well as whether she or her boss chose her (sexualized) clothing. The authors then asked male participants in an online survey to imagine being her customer and to form an impression of her.

Findings

The bartender was viewed as more sexualized, more manipulative and sexual behaviors toward her were perceived as more legitimate when she received tips. Further, the effect of tipping on the legitimacy of sexual behaviors was mediated by perceptions that she was manipulative. The target was perceived as more manipulative when she chose her clothes than not.

Research limitations/implications

The study is an online scenario study and, as a consequence, assesses only judgments rather than actual behaviors.

Practical implications

Encouraging fixed salaries rather than tipping could reduce the occurrence of sexual harassment.

Social implications

The present work suggests that tipping may play a detrimental role in service workers' well-being by contributing to an environment in which sexual harassment is perceived as legitimate.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study showing that mode of compensation can increase the objectification of workers and legitimize sexually objectifying behaviors toward them.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Abstract

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Abstract

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Petr Vrchota, Ales Prachar, Shia-Hui Peng, Magnus Tormalm and Peter Eliasson

In the European project AFLoNext, active flow control (AFC) measures were adopted in the wing tip extension leading edge to suppress flow separation. It is expected that…

Abstract

Purpose

In the European project AFLoNext, active flow control (AFC) measures were adopted in the wing tip extension leading edge to suppress flow separation. It is expected that the designed wing tip extension may improve aerodynamic efficiency by about 2 per cent in terms of fuel consumption and emissions. As the leading edge of the wing tip is not protected with high-lift device, flow separation occurs earlier than over the inboard wing in the take-off/landing configuration. The aim of this study is the adoption of AFC to delay wing tip stall and to improve lift-to-drag ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

Several actuator locations and AFC strategies were tested with computational fluid dynamics. The first approach was “standard” one with physical modeling of the actuators, and the second one was focused on the volume forcing method. The actuators location and the forcing plane close to separation line of the reference configuration were chose to enhance the flow with steady and pulsed jet blowing. Dependence of the lift-to-drag benefit with respect to injected mass flow is investigated.

Findings

The mechanism of flow separation onset is identified as the interaction of slat-end and wing tip vortices. These vortices moving toward each other with increasing angle of attack (AoA) interact and cause the flow separation. AFC is applied to control the slat-end vortex and the inboard movement of the wing tip vortex to suppress their interaction. The separation onset has been postponed by about 2° of AoA; the value of ift-to-drag (L/D) was improved up to 22 per cent for the most beneficial cases.

Practical implications

The AFC using the steady or pulsed blowing (PB) was proved to be an effective tool for delaying the flow separation. Although better values of L/D have been reached using steady blowing, it is also shown that PB case with a duty cycle of 0.5 needs only one half of the mass flow.

Originality/value

Two approaches of different levels of complexity are studied and compared. The first is based on physical modeling of actuator cavities, while the second relies on volume forcing method which does not require detailed actuator modeling. Both approaches give consistent results.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Nuno Vinha, David Vallespin, Eusebio Valero, Valentin de Pablo and Santiago Cuesta-Lopez

The exponential growth in computational capabilities and the increasing reliability of current simulation tools have fostered the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD…

Abstract

Purpose

The exponential growth in computational capabilities and the increasing reliability of current simulation tools have fostered the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of pioneering aircraft engine architectures, such as the counter rotating open rotor (CROR) engine. Today, this design process is led by tight performance and noise constraints from a very early stage, thus requiring deep investigations of the aerodynamic and acoustic behaviour of the fluid flow. The purpose of this study is to track the trajectory of tip vortices, which is of critical importance to understand and prevent potential vortex–blade interactions with subsequent rows, as this condition strongly influences the aerodynamic and structural performance and acoustic footprints of the engine.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a flow feature detection methodology is applied to a particular CROR test case with the goal of visualizing and tracking the development of these coherent structures from the tip of front rotating blades. The suitability and performance of four typical region-based methodologies and one line-based (LB) criteria are firstly evaluated. Then, two novel seeding methodologies are presented as an attempt to improve the performance of the LB algorithm previously investigated.

Findings

It was demonstrated that the new seeding algorithms increase the probability of the selected seeds to grow into a tip vortex line and reduce the user’s dependence upon the selection of candidate seeds, providing faster and more accurate answers during the design-to-noise iterative process.

Originality/value

Apart from the new vortex detection initialization methodologies, the paper also attempts to assist the user in the endeavour of extracting rotating structures from their own CFD simulations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Vladimir Kobelev

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the new dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture approach. The anticipated unified propagation function describes the infinitesimal crack-length growths per increasing number of load cycles, supposing that the load ratio remains constant over the load history. Two unification functions with different number of fitting parameters are proposed. On one hand, the closed-form analytical solutions facilitate the universal fitting of the constants of the fatigue law over all stages of fatigue. On the other hand, the closed-form solution eases the application of the fatigue law, because the solution of nonlinear differential equation turns out to be dispensable. The main advantage of the proposed functions is the possibility of having closed-form analytical solutions for the unified crack growth law. Moreover, the mean stress dependence is the immediate consequence of the proposed law. The corresponding formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the method of representation of crack propagation functions through appropriate elementary functions is employed. The choice of the elementary functions is motivated by the phenomenological data and covers a broad region of possible parameters. With the introduced crack propagation functions, differential equations describing the crack propagation are solved rigorously.

Findings

The resulting closed-form solutions allow the evaluation of crack propagation histories on one hand, and the effects of stress ratio on crack propagation on the other hand. The explicit formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, linear fracture mechanics approach is assumed.

Practical implications

Shortening of evaluation time for fatigue crack growth. Simplification of the computer codes due to the elimination of solution of differential equation. Standardization of experiments for crack growth.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the closed-form analytical expression for crack length over number of cycles. The new function that expresses the damage growth per cycle is also introduced. This function allows closed-form analytical solution for crack length. The solution expresses the number of cycles to failure as the function of the initial size of the crack and eliminates the solution of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of the first order. The different common expressions, which account for the influence of the stress ratio, are immediately applicable.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

T.K. Hellen and W.S. Blackburn

A review is made of methods for calculating parameters characterizing crack tip behaviour in non‐linear materials. Convenient methods of calculating J‐integral type…

Abstract

A review is made of methods for calculating parameters characterizing crack tip behaviour in non‐linear materials. Convenient methods of calculating J‐integral type quantities are reviewed, classified broadly into two groups, as domain integrals and virtual crack extension techniques. In addition to considerations of how such quantities may be calculated by finite elements, assessment methods of conducting the actual incremental analyses are described.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Lyaysan Ildusovna Garipova, Andrei Sergeevich Batrakov, Alexander Nikolaevich Kusyumov, Sergey Anatolievich Mikhaylov and George Barakos

The design of main rotor blade tips is of interest to helicopter manufactures since the tip details affect the performance and acoustics of the rotor. The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The design of main rotor blade tips is of interest to helicopter manufactures since the tip details affect the performance and acoustics of the rotor. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, computation fluid dynamics is used to simulate the flow around hovering helicopter blades with different tip designs. For each type of blade tip a parametric study on the shape is also conducted for comparison calculations were performed the constant rotor thrust condition. The collective pitch and the cone angles of the blades were determined by at an iterative trimming process.

Findings

Analysis of the distributed blade loads shows that the tip geometry has a significant influence on aerodynamics and aeroacoustics especially for stations where blade loading is high.

Originality/value

The aeroacoustic characteristics of the rotors were obtained using Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000