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Tourism activities inherently include the liminoid state of mind that impels people to go out of ordinary behavior, some of which is inversionary. The purpose of this paper is to explore travelers’ cruise behavior as related to their needs while entering and experiencing a cruise trip.
A total of 395 vacationers were sampled and surveyed about their selected top three factors for cruising, motivations for cruising and needs while cruising. The sample was grouped into inversioners and rejuvenators to see if there was any evidence of liminoid behavior in cruising needs and what they may be.
The results show that the important reasons to choose cruises for vacation are aligned with past literature showing that people choose cruises for vacation mostly for the good value of the food and beverage bundled with good climate, entertainment appropriate for quality time with family and for rest and relaxation. In addition, the results on motivations to go on a cruise show that lower-level needs on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs have more importance than the higher-level needs.
The current study was conducted on an online platform. Future research with panels of cruise travelers across all the stages of liminoid behavior, before, during and after a cruise trip, may provide valuable findings in terms of changes in needs and motivations.
The inversionary tendency of cruise travelers implies for the cruise industry the need to create an alternative (or inversionary) routine restoring the basic needs, while still providing enough opportunities for self-actualization that may foster balanced travel experiences for human growth and development. Providing a more balanced product and service offering may be strategic for the cruise companies because the activities geared for higher-level needs may provide memorable experiences and hence induce consumer loyalty after the trip is completed.
The focus on eating and drinking during cruises may be providing cruise travelers with instant gratification during the span of the cruise. However, the consequences for the individual travelers, the industry, destinations and the environment may not be as gratifying. For a more responsible tourism, cruise travel may need an image makeover highlighting different packages within a cruise to better align with the desired needs of different segments of cruisers.
The study contributes to the understanding of the second or “transition” stage in liminal theory in tourism and is one of the first to examine the liminoid state of mind using a basic-needs approach for studying cruise traveler needs. Further, it contributes by exploring liminoid behavior of a group of people in the context of the same type of travel, cruise, rather than investigating liminoid behavior across different types of travel, thus allowing segmentation possibilities for the cruise industry.
This qualitative study collected regarding recalled service encounters by consumers across a broad range of encounters not just in service failures found respondents…
This qualitative study collected regarding recalled service encounters by consumers across a broad range of encounters not just in service failures found respondents recalled service encounters from the hospitality leisure industry in 42% of encounters. Usually, the consumer recalls and reports at least two types of fairness when recalling a service encounter with procedural fairness the most reported, followed by interactional and then distributive fairness. The study suggests using fairness across a spectrum of service encounters and not just when a service failure is recalled and is also the first hospitality or service sector study to view service encounter outcomes into types of initial satisfaction, service recovery, and double deviation and then to follow up by assessing fairness types across outcomes.
This paper combined an at-destination decision-making model with the theory of tie strength to find out information related to the referrals that travelers received and…
This paper combined an at-destination decision-making model with the theory of tie strength to find out information related to the referrals that travelers received and used at a major tourist destination in the southeastern United States. At-destination decisions included lodging, eating and dining, entertainment, recreation, and travel. The data indicated eating and dining, recreation, and entertainment decisions are made in large numbers at the destination. The first research question involved referral source and frequency for at-destination decisions, revealing many third-party decision-makers. Friends and family members were the most requested and local residents the least requested referral sources. The second research question inquired as to whether satisfaction scores from the referred experience differed across referral source. The researchers suggested that referrals have different perceived levels of trust, expertise, and ties, and potentially will render different sales levels. Due to this, the satisfaction outcome was measured by referral source. Results showed that referred satisfaction scores were highest from local resident referrals followed by friends and relatives – one a strong tie and one a strong–weak tie. Finally, more neutral satisfaction scores were reported from other information sources. The article closes by offering possible explanations for these differences and by providing suggestions for additional at-destination decision-making and outcome research.
Service research including justice has ignored the full range of service outcomes possible and has only been conducted when a service failure has occurred. This study…
Service research including justice has ignored the full range of service outcomes possible and has only been conducted when a service failure has occurred. This study allows for a full spectrum of service outcomes including service success, service failure, and service recovery. This study used the survey method to collect data to measure the relationship of justice constructs (i.e., interactional, distributive, and procedural justice) to overall justice and customer satisfaction. The researcher used a convenience sample-survey method. Graduate students in a service class collected 50 useable questionnaires for the pilot study. The researcher and two graduate students collected 302 useable questionnaires in an airport for the main study. Path analysis results showed that interactional, distributive, and procedural justice, all had direct effects and a significant positive relationship to overall justice and customer satisfaction, and overall justice had a direct and significant positive relationship to customer satisfaction.
This study investigates service excellence and hospitality perceptions in a hospital setting for an exploratory study of the familiarity of hospital administration with…
This study investigates service excellence and hospitality perceptions in a hospital setting for an exploratory study of the familiarity of hospital administration with the topic of hospitality and service excellence. It is unique from other hospitality and service research in that it considers hospitality and service excellence as separate concepts, and specifically considers hospitality, such as service excellence, as a philosophy that may be transcend its traditional industries of origin. Part of the premise of this study explores how hospitality in a healthcare setting extends past service excellence in offering a service to a patient to create a comfortable and welcoming environment to combat patient anxiety and stress. This exploratory research provides a necessary foundation for more extensive empirical testing of the premise.
Using a qualitative case study, this research measured top management's perceptions of service excellence and hospitality within one community-based hospital located in Orlando, Florida. Three conclusions were revealed: (1) a mixed commitment by top management to concepts of service excellence and hospitality, (2) the terms “service excellence” and “hospitality” were generally discussed as though they were equivalent, and (3) significant external and internal barriers to the delivery of service excellence and hospitality in the hospital setting were identified.
The study has implications for healthcare organizations seeking to implement practices of hospitality and service management to improve overall healthcare service delivery. Additionally, the study of hospitality outside of its traditional industry boundaries may result in the generation of new improvement options/opportunities for traditional managers of hospitality businesses and organizational researchers. The study can be used as a foundation for the formulation of additional studies in the area of service excellence and hospitality applied to other layers in an organization irrespective of industry setting.
The purpose of this paper is to explore an organization‐wide philosophy of hospitality in a hospital setting.
An exploratory case study method approach matched the research purpose. First, a hospitality centric philosophy (HCP) was defined from the literature review. Next, a triangulation of unstructured visits, structured visits and key informant interviews is used to further explore a HCP in one organization. After this, the hospitality centric programs (HCPr) supporting the HCP are defined, identified, described and classified.
A fairly distinct HCP viewed as a method for enhancing service excellence was in place and supported by top management. The hospital aimed to offer hospitality to patients on par with the hospitality experience offered to hotel guests. A department of hospitality services, a service excellence council, a director of service excellence, and an external hospitality advisory board were in place and met regularly. Further, many formalized HCPr had been created for the execution of the HCP.
The researchers believe that an effectively managed HCP can be modified by culture to enhance the service excellence of the patient/guest experience in hospitals and in the hospitality industry. For hospitals, further enhancements can be realized through developing and executing hospitality centric goals aligned with the performance metrics beyond traditional competition boundaries, such as a hospital seeking to deliver a service experience on par with a hotel. For more traditionally defined hospitality businesses, the extreme context of a hospital where the importance of hospitality is magnified due to treating and caring for sick guests offers a different frame of reference for learning. This new frame of reference can lead to more cutting edge ideas for refining and customizing the service design and delivery. For both hospitals and hospitality businesses, putting in place an HCP with the appropriate organizational support through HCPr allows for more precise information and thus improved service outcomes.
An HCP is defined and acknowledged as a distinct organization‐wide philosophy for enhancing service excellence that is applicable across industries. An HCP is demystified through investigating hospitality centric goals, identifying organizational support teams that solely consider HCP, and through further specifying examples of HCPr for activating the HCP. Finally, the study suggests hospitality centric service excellence (HCSE) as a higher distinction of service excellence outcome that is more likely to be achieved through a HCP.