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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Jacob John, Shani Ann Mani, Phrabhakaran Nambiar and Habesah Sulaiman

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of placing identification marks on dentures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of placing identification marks on dentures.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the legislation with regard to denture marking in certain countries, various methods of denture marking and describes a simple, inexpensive, paper‐based labelling system.

Findings

Various methods have been proposed for denture marking but it is important to use a method that is simple, practical, affordable and universally acceptable.

Practical implications

The identification of unknown or missing persons by means of denture marking is a very successful method of identification in forensic investigation. It is also useful for patients residing in hospitals and community homes where dentures could be misplaced, particularly during cleaning by personnel where there is a chance of loss or mix‐up. The importance of denture marking should be emphasized by all law‐enforcing authorities and should be promoted among all dentists, towards making it a compulsory routine dental procedure throughout the world.

Originality/value

In Malaysia, denture marking, as recommended by its Ministry of Health, uses a unique coding system which can readily provide information about the wearer in whichever part of the world the person is found. The method applied is simple, practical and affordable and can easily be adapted by others. It can be of great value during times of crisis.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Rong Song, Xiaohui Jiao and Long Lin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of nano‐titanium dioxide and nano‐silicon dioxide particles on the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of nano‐titanium dioxide and nano‐silicon dioxide particles on the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of denture base resin.

Design/methodology/approach

Nano‐titanium dioxide and nano‐silicon dioxide particles were introduced to heat‐curing denture base resin to prepare composites. Electronic universal testing machine and friction tester were used to test tensile strength and frictional resistance properties of the samples prepared, respectively; also, film adhesion method was used to test the in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans.

Findings

Addition of nano‐titanium dioxide particles could improve the antimicrobial property of denture base resin, and addition of nano‐silicon dioxide particles could improve the tensile strength and frictional resistance of denture base resin. Mixture of the two nano‐particles, at a certain ratio, could improve the tensile strength, frictional resistance and antimicrobial property of denture base resin to a certain extent.

Practical implications

Nano‐titanium dioxide and nano‐silicon dioxide denture base resin composites were obtained. The mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the composites were improved compared to the raw denture base resin.

Originality/value

Nano‐titanium dioxide and nano‐silicon dioxide denture base resin composites with excellent performance could be obtained. Longer service life, greater hardness and clearness helped improve the patients' quality of life. Limited work with respect to the improved denture base resin was performed, which could form the theme of a future study. The outcomes of the research reported here set a new milestone in the field of denture base resin.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1941

The factories are instructed as to what kinds of pack they are to produce, and their product is controlled by samples sent at specified times to the research laboratory…

Abstract

The factories are instructed as to what kinds of pack they are to produce, and their product is controlled by samples sent at specified times to the research laboratory. With greater and less attention to detailed steps the whole of agriculture and the food industry in Italy is so controlled. In Germany can be noted as an example the development on a large scale of the fishing industry in the Baltic—the scrapping of the privately‐owned small fishing boats in that sea—the launching of large vessels with their factory vessels in attendance— the keenness with which every step in the development of fish preservation has been followed—the official tests on such methods as the American Birdseye Quick Freezing, the German Heckerman process, the English Z process, and the building and the equipping of the large factories where the whole of the waste fish products are worked up into edible and useful products. This last is the keynote of the German system : waste nothing. The recovery of waste fats has been practised in Germany in an intensive fashion for several years. There have been in Germany other changes of a more subtle character, and not so obvious to the outside world. The food laws of Germany were such that the nation could be justly proud of them, but for some time there has been a distinct slackening of the control—as for example in the use of preservatives. These were strictly limited in kind and number—but even before the present phase the blind eye of the official had often been turned towards the use of disallowed preservatives and I am given to understand that certain chemicals, erstwhile forbidden, can now be used officially. It may be policy for our Ministry of Health to aid in the present critical situation by relaxing some of the regulations at present in force. Those preservatives to be released would not in any way lower the nutritional value of the foods, nor would there be allowed any of those preservatives against which a case has been made in respect of their physiological action. The impetus given to research work by totalitarian states should be an inspiration to the democracies. One of the first things the Italian Government took in hand after their conquest of Abyssinia was a scientific survey of the natural products of the country. A recent issue of Nature states that the first number of a new official Italian journal contains the results of the first three years' work on the fish of the inland waters of the former Ethiopia. As Nature points out, the far greater areas of British Eastern Africa have been subjected simply to spasmodic and short‐termed scientific examinations, chiefly resulting from the initiative of private individuals or of institutions. It is to be stressed, however, that the stimulus given to scientific studies of food production and manufacture both in Germany and Italy was activated by abnormal conditions. In neither the one nor the other can it be said that the development was a natural one—in both it was originated by the desire of the government to make the country as self‐sufficient as possible in case of war, and therefore the whole idea was abnormal and biased. In this country and in the United States the development has followed much sounder lines. In this country the standard of living has become remarkably high, although perhaps somewhat lop‐sided. One might quote the example of bread. The loaf as we know it to‐day is made almost wholly from wheat flour, derived from that portion of the wheat kernel which gives the whitest flour. The Ministry of Health has, I think, been very properly concerned to maintain our high standard and has looked with disfavour on flours which, in order to simulate that particular white portion of the wheat grain, have been bleached. America is the only other country in the world where the people demand white loaves of such delicate and even texture. There much be something very attractive to the public in this type of loaf: some of us remember the fiasco of the standard bread, and members of the bakery trade know what a small proportion of their sales are concerned with brown loaves. The general character of the bread in continental European countries is very different; even the delightful loaves of France, generally well baked, are dark in comparison, although in no sense “ brown ” or “ whole‐meal.” In most countries flours other than wheat are incorporated. We may have to incorporate potato‐flour, but if this is done in any large quantity the resultant loaf has an entirely different texture. It is obvious that the dividing line between the scope of agriculture and that of the food industry is essentially ill‐defined. The importance, however, of the pre‐industrial treatment is such that it is really impossible to dissociate the scientific work of the agriculturalist from that of the industrialist. To quote examples :— Under the aegis of the Food Investigation Board a study has been made of the production of bacon in this country, with remarkably successful results to the farmer, to the bacon‐curer and to the consumer. Similarly the extensive series of experiments carried out by the Food Investigation Board on the storage of fruit has had great success, and the economic effect on the fruit trade, not only here, but also in the Dominions and Colonies cannot be estimated at the moment. An agricultural study of great importance to the housewife was undertaken by the Potato Marketing Board; this was concerned with the blackening of potatoes and was unfortunately not concluded when the war brought a sudden halt to the work. The problem of obtaining “ figures ” for characteristics of food is the most difficult with which the chemist has to deal. There is no method by which palatability can be registered, for it is compounded of many factors which themselves are not possible of measurement. Flavour, appearance and edibility are all concerned. It is comparatively simple to connect softness on the palate of a cream centre of a chocolate with the size of the grain of the sugar crystals, or the smoothness of an ice cream with the size of the ice‐crystals, but to express the texture of a cake in terms measuring the reaction of the palate, or the toughness or tenderness of a beef‐steak are far more difficult. This last example has been considered in some detail. Much work has been done at the Low Temperature Station at Cambridge on methods of judging the tenderness of meat. There is no simple method of reproducing the complicated movement of the jaws in mastication—but the consumer of the steak judges the tenderness by the reactions of his jaws to the muscle fibre, and the problem is complicated by the fact that the judgment of a person with a denture is entirely different from that of a person with his natural teeth; it has been estimated, for example, that the pressure which can be applied during mastication is only, even by those with the most perfect denture, one tenth that of normal. A somewhat complicated instrument has been designed and constructed at the Research Station at Karlsruhe in order to make possible investigations on the problem of the toughness of meat. Sufficient data have not yet been accumulated to pass judgment on its efficiency but it appears to be the most satisfactory attempt yet made to enable definite measurements of the toughness of meat to be determined. These are but examples of the general trend of scientific work in food production and manufacture, examples of the range of subjects and problems being attacked with an ever increasing vigour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2022

Hu Chen, Kenan Ma, Yongsheng Zhou, Yong Wang and Yuchun Sun

This in vitro study aims to explore the effects of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on the accuracy of the intaglio surface of cobalt–chromium alloy…

Abstract

Purpose

This in vitro study aims to explore the effects of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on the accuracy of the intaglio surface of cobalt–chromium alloy (Co–Cr), commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) maxillary removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks and optimize these process parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Maxillary RPD framework specimens designed on a benchmark model were built. The process parameters, including contour scan speed and laser power, infill scan speed and laser power, hatch space, build orientation and metallic powder type, were arranged through the Taguchi design. Three-dimensional deviations of the clasps area, connector area and overall area of maxillary RPD frameworks were analyzed by using root mean square (RMS) as a metric. One-way analyses of variance with the above RMSs as the dependent variable were carried out (α = 0.05).

Findings

Maxillary RPD frameworks built horizontally had a more accurate intaglio surface than those built at other orientation angles; CP Ti or Ti–6Al–4V maxillary RPD frameworks had a more accurate intaglio surface than Co–Cr ones; the Maxillary RPD framework built with a higher infill scan speed and lower infill laser power had the more accurate intaglio surface than the one built with other levels of these two process parameters.

Originality/value

A novel benchmark model for evaluating the accuracy of the intaglio surface of maxillary RPD frameworks manufactured by SLM is proposed. The accuracy of the intaglio surface of maxillary RPD frameworks can be improved by adjusting SLM process parameters. The optimal setting of process parameters concerning the accuracy of the intaglio surface of maxillary RPD frameworks was given.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1977

The connotations, associations, custom and usages of a name often give to it an importance that far outweighs its etymological significance. Even with personal surnames or…

Abstract

The connotations, associations, custom and usages of a name often give to it an importance that far outweighs its etymological significance. Even with personal surnames or the name of a business. A man may use his own name but not if by so doing it inflicts injury on the interests and business of another person of the same name. After a long period of indecision, it is now generally accepted that in “passing off”, there is no difference between the use of a man's own name and any other descriptive word. The Courts will only intervene, however, when a personal name has become so much identified with a well‐known business as to be necessarily deceptive when used without qualification by anyone else in the same trade; i.e., only in rare cases. In the early years, the genesis of goods and trade protection, fraud was a necessary ingredient of “passing off”, an intent to deceive, but with the merging off Equity with the Common Law, the equitable rule that interference with “property” did not require fraudulent intent was practised in the Courts. First applying to trade marks, it was extended to trade names, business signs and symbols and business generally. Now it is unnecessary to prove any intent to deceive, merely that deception was probable, or that the plaintiff had suffered actual damage. The equitable principle was not established without a struggle, however, and the case of “Singer” Sewing Machines (1877) unified the two streams of law but not before it reached the House of Lords. On the way up, judical opinions differed; in the Court of Appeal, fraud was considered necessary—the defendant had removed any conception of fraud by expressingly declaring in advertisements that his “Singer” machines were manufactured by himself—so the Court found for him, but the House of Lords considered the name “Singer” was in itself a trade mark and there was no more need to prove fraud in the case of a trade name than a trade mark; Hence, the birth of the doctrine that fraud need not be proved, but their Lordships showed some hesitation in accepting property rights for trade names. If the name used is merely descriptive of goods, there can be no cause for action, but if it connotes goods manufactured by one firm or prepared from a formula or compsitional requirements prescribed by and invented by a firm or is the produce of a region, then others have no right to use it. It is a question of fact whether the name is the one or other. The burden of proof that a name or term in common use has become associated with an individual product is a heavy one; much heavier in proving an infringement of a trade mark.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1964

The work of protecting the public food supply during the pre‐Christmas rush period can be exhausting, although food inspectors and others engaged nowadays may have…

Abstract

The work of protecting the public food supply during the pre‐Christmas rush period can be exhausting, although food inspectors and others engaged nowadays may have achieved the proletarian distinction of the shift system and perhaps, overtime pay, but in the old days, we had none of these blessings and supervising the Christmas fare could indeed be a “dog's life”.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 66 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Sally Herne

Since the beginning of the 1990s, nutrition education and healthpromotion have increasingly focused on the influence of diet on thequality of life in old age. The…

6744

Abstract

Since the beginning of the 1990s, nutrition education and health promotion have increasingly focused on the influence of diet on the quality of life in old age. The Government′s Health of the Nation policy in 1991 and the COMA report on The Nutrition of Elderly People in 1992 both emphasized the need for older age groups to adopt the dietary changes recommended for the population as a whole. In order to promote healthier eating habits and consequently improve health status, it is first vital to understand what makes elderly people follow particular dietary patterns and, equally, which factors constrain their choice. Reviews the current state of research on the social, economic, psychological, physiological, educational and personal factors which mediate food choice in later life. Indications are that it is the structural influences on choice which have the greatest impact – education, income, class and access to good health care. As a result, action at national level in the form of health and social policy designed to take into account the needs of older generations is highlighted.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 97 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1959

A representation in relation to a sale—written or in advertisements, films or labels or in the spoken word—may be (a) a mere expression of opinion or commendation by a…

Abstract

A representation in relation to a sale—written or in advertisements, films or labels or in the spoken word—may be (a) a mere expression of opinion or commendation by a seller of his wares; or (b) it may constitute part of the description of the thing sold; or (c) consist of a warranty. The law allows a certain latitude in the efforts to gain a purchaser; does not insist on the absolute truth of the commendatory expressions habitually used to induce people to buy. The flourishing expressions used by auctioneers and estate agents—“ this superlatively appointed residence ”—are commonplace examples of this recognised “puffing” of wares. “ Puffing ” in relation to sale is merely an extension of the everyday usage of accepting half‐truths, untruths or the conventional evasion of truth; even as part of the bedside manner, the splendide mendax, of the doctor! What constitutes the upper limit of permissible misrepresentations such as these is by no means clear, either in civil law or in the growing body of statutory law regulating trade descriptions and advertisements of recent years, for here, as with so much law relating to sale, there is that same cleavage between civil rights of action and prosecutions to inflict penalties for statutory offences.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 61 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1983

This Food Standards Committee Report has been with us long enough to have received careful appraisal at the hand of the most interested parties — food law enforcement…

Abstract

This Food Standards Committee Report has been with us long enough to have received careful appraisal at the hand of the most interested parties — food law enforcement agencies and the meat trade. The purposes of the review was to consider the need for specific controls over the composition and descriptive labelling of minced meat products, but the main factor was the fat content, particularly the maximum suggested by the Associaton of Public Analysts, viz., a one‐quarter (25%) of the total product. For some years now, the courts have been asked to accept 25% fat as the maximum, based on a series of national surveys; above that level, the product was to be considered as not of the substance or quality demanded by the purchaser; a contention which has been upheld on appeal to the Divisional Court.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Ershad Sheibani, Golshan Matinfar, Sahar Jazaeri and Abdorreza Mohammadi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of the interactions of taste, colour and labelling on sensory perception, liking and identification of saffroned…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of the interactions of taste, colour and labelling on sensory perception, liking and identification of saffroned products.

Design/methodology/approach

The consumer and discrimination tests (N=120, 18, 25, 78, for Experiments 1–4, respectively) were conducted. The analyses of discrimination tests were performed using the Thurstonian model and R-index. The results from consumer studies were analysed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, penalty analysis and correlation matrix.

Findings

The study revealed that saffron can interact with the perception of sour and bitter taste and has no significant effects on the sweetness. The colour and labelling generated expectations for quality and sweetness of the samples. When the disparity between the expectation and actual experience was occurred resulted in contrast/assimilation effects on the hedonic ratings and negatively impacted consumer acceptability of the product.

Practical implications

This study showed that the visual cues can modulate the expectation for particular sensory perceptions and also affect the hedonic experiences. Saffron adulteration can be identified by the consumers and can result in a significant decrease in the acceptability of the products. Hence, the practice of substituting saffron with ingredients with a similar colour in these products can be detrimental for business. Additionally, it was revealed that saffron colour is associated with the expected and actual sweet taste perception. Therefore, it is possible to manipulate yellow colour cues to reduce sweeteners in different food products that contain saffron.

Originality/value

The sensory characteristics and consumer perception of saffron have been rarely studied. This study revealed that flavour perception and quality determination of saffroned foods involves the combinations of different sensory modalities and cognitive (expectancy) inputs.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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