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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Denni I. Arli and Fandy Tjiptono

In the past few years, companies have made significant contributions towards Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) as a strategy to improve business image. Nonetheless…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the past few years, companies have made significant contributions towards Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) as a strategy to improve business image. Nonetheless, many of these strategies have been unsuccessful because companies have failed to recognise the importance of consumers’ ethical beliefs and their religiosity in forming their perception towards CSR. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the level of importance of consumers’ ethical beliefs and social responsibilities (CnSR) and to examine the impact of consumers’ religiosity and ethical beliefs on CnSR.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were derived from a sample of undergraduate and postgraduate students at three large universities (i.e. one public and two private universities) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (N = 416). Indonesia is the largest Muslim population in the world.

Findings

7The study found that consumers value social responsibilities differently and that not all dimensions are important. Moreover, consumer ethical beliefs and religiosity significantly influence CnSR. The results of this study will contribute to the debate on consumer ethics and social responsibility research.

Research limitations/implications

The current study has some limitations which, in turn, provide avenues for future research. The research context (one city in one country) may limit its generalizability. Future studies may focus on more cities and/or cross-country sections (developed versus developing countries) as well as use non-student populations.

Practical implications

Companies operating in Indonesia need to respect and value religiosity in Indonesia. Collaborating with a faith-based institution may help improve the effectiveness of CSR programmes launched by companies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies exploring CSR in Indonesia.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Denni I. Arli and Jack Cadeaux

The aim of this study is to explore drivers of corporate community involvement (CCI) initiatives and the challenges faced by companies in measuring the social impact of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore drivers of corporate community involvement (CCI) initiatives and the challenges faced by companies in measuring the social impact of their initiatives in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with various corporate social responsibility (CSR) or CCI managers from Australian companies and their not-for-profit (NFP) partners. The final sample consists of 27 managers from a mix of industries.

Findings

The study shows that stakeholder's salience may have an impact on CCI activities, especially in the area of measurements and reporting activities. Moreover, while some companies have attempted to measure the social impact of their initiatives, a large number of companies have not. This is all the more surprising given the recent focus in marketing on accountability and measurement. The results show three challenges: lack of interest, lack of resources and lack of consensus. Subsequently, the authors offer some research propositions to underline these challenges.

Originality/value

This study focuses on CCI which is one of the most visible parts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It draws on interviews with various managers in charge of companies' CSR or CCI.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Mamta Soni, Sunny Dawar and Amit Soni

Global warming and drastic environment fluctuations have given rise to worldwide emergency, demanding to discover the most unexplored area in the field of social…

Abstract

Purpose

Global warming and drastic environment fluctuations have given rise to worldwide emergency, demanding to discover the most unexplored area in the field of social responsibility that is, consumer social responsibility (CnSR). This study aims to define the novel term “CnSR” and its antecedents to accomplish long-term sustainability. An in-depth analysis is executed to discover key antecedents, and proposed tool validation is implemented with the help of the big size of consumer population.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collated using consumer responses, and reliability statistics were analyzed implementing Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis is performed for required validation.

Findings

Probing existing research, CnSR was mostly correlated with consumers’ ethical and moral behavior. The present work proposes a unique tool which has successfully revealed a broader approach resulting in four vital antecedents: environmental orientation (EO), ethical and moral disposition (EMD), spiritual orientation (SO) and orientation toward shared consumption (OSC). Cronbach's alpha is adopted to determine internal consistency of the survey and has showed precision of 0.953 which affirms accuracy of the proposed tool.

Research limitations/implications

Splitting of EO using factor analysis into environmental oriented preference (EOP) and recyclable oriented preference (ROP) has indicated further required inputs for better understanding.

Practical implications

Sustainable issues were limited to corporates in the form of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. Present work demands consumer awareness about their consumption consequences and fix their responsibility to achieve long-term sustainability.

Originality/value

The present study is the first to identify the antecedents of CnSR and effectively demonstrates a tool for the same.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Rafi M.M.I. Chowdhury, Denni Arli and Felix Septianto

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 investigates how religiosity affects brand loyalty when religiously positioned brands engage in religiousness-related vs nonreligiousness-related morally controversial actions. Study 2 examines several psychological processes (reactance, forgiveness and moral decoupling) as mediators of the effects of intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity on brand loyalty for controversial religious brands.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that religiosity leads to positive brand loyalty for religiously positioned brands in the case of both religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related controversies. Study 2 reveals that intrinsic religiosity (extrinsic religiosity) leads to brand loyalty through moral decoupling and forgiveness, but not through reactance, when religious brands engage in religiousness-related (nonreligiousness-related) controversies.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on the effects of religiosity on brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands but does not examine the effects of religious affiliation (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, etc.). The samples include only US residents.

Practical implications

Religious positioning of brands can engender brand loyalty for consumers with high levels of intrinsic religiosity and/or extrinsic religiosity, even when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Originality/value

This research shows that religiosity affects brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands and demonstrates that psychological processes used by consumers to justify support for morally controversial religious brands depend on type of religiosity (intrinsic vs extrinsic) and type of controversy (religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Denni Arli and Andre Pekerti

In the debate whether ethics should be separated from religion or otherwise, few have investigated the impact of religious beliefs and ethical ideologies on consumer…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the debate whether ethics should be separated from religion or otherwise, few have investigated the impact of religious beliefs and ethical ideologies on consumer ethics. Thus, the purpose of this study to investigate the influence of consumers’ religion, moral philosophy and generational cohort on their perception toward various consumers’ ethical behavior practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses sample from three different cohorts (Generation Y, Generation X and Baby boomers) in Australia. The final numbers of respondents are 251. Male and female respondents are almost equal in number (52 and 48 per cent, respectively). Most participants are single (56 per cent), and 24 per cent are married. The age cohorts are Gen-Y (70 per cent), Gen-X (16 per cent) and Baby boomers (14 per cent). In terms of religion, 46 per cent of the respondents were identified as Christian or Catholic, whereas 42 per cent reported having no religion.

Findings

The results show that religiosity had the strongest effect compared to moral ideologies and generation cohorts. It can be assumed that at least for religious consumers, when two ideas collide between religion and ethical ideologies, religious principles may supersede ethical ideologies. The study offers several implications for marketers, educators and public policy makers.

Research limitations/implications

The current study has several limitations, especially the use of convenience sampling that may limit the generalizability of the findings. Consumers in Australia may behave differently from general consumers or other cohorts with regard to their ethical judgments.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies exploring consumer ethics in Australia. We may conclude that in some ethical situations, religion will supersede ethical ideologies. Accordingly, it is important not to remove religion from ethics education, especially for religious consumers.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2022

Denni Arli

The purpose of this study is to show that the spread of conspiracy theories has resulted in many tragic incidents, such as January 6 Insurrection at the US Capitol…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show that the spread of conspiracy theories has resulted in many tragic incidents, such as January 6 Insurrection at the US Capitol Building. Interestingly, many of the conspiracy theory followers are religious individuals. In response to this phenomenon, this study will investigate the impact of religious (un)beliefs on consumer ethics. Secondly, this study will investigate the mediating role of conspiracy theory on consumer ethics. Finally, this study will investigate the moderating role of ethical ideology (i.e. relativism) on the relationship between consumers’ (un)belief (e.g. religiosity and atheism) and consumer ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

Overall, 328 participants living in the USA (32% female and 68% male) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) in exchange for financial compensation.

Findings

The results show the negative impact of a belief in a conspiracy theory. These conspiracy beliefs can skew any individual irrespective of their beliefs or unbelief. Religious leaders, policymakers and educators need to keep this in mind when designing a campaign to reduce unethical behavior. Everyone is prone to conspiracy theories.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies exploring the impact of belief in conspiracy theories on consumers’ ethical beliefs. There are still limited studies investigating whether conspiracy beliefs lead individuals to engage in unethical behavior.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Denni Arli, Fandy Tjiptono, Hari Lasmono and Dudi Anandya

The Millennial generation accounts for 27 per cent of the world’s population. These numbers highlight the current and future impact of Millennials on world economies, and…

1059

Abstract

Purpose

The Millennial generation accounts for 27 per cent of the world’s population. These numbers highlight the current and future impact of Millennials on world economies, and they are arguably the most powerful consumer group. Interestingly, Millennials are also the least religious generation. Hence, there is a need to investigate further how they view the world from an ethical and religious perspective and whether their beliefs evolve over time. Therefore, the purpose of this study is, first, to compare and contrast any changes in ethical beliefs across time. Second, the study will compare and contrast any changes in religiousness across time, and finally, it explores the effects of consumers’ religiousness on ethical beliefs across time.

Design/methodology/approach

Using paper-based survey, the data collection took place in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2016, resulting in 1,702 young respondents in total.

Findings

The results show that consumer ethics remain constant across time. Therefore, without intervention, individuals’ ethical behavior will remain unchanged. The results also indicate that Millennials understand the boundary between legal and illegal behavior. However, when the boundary becomes unclear, such as in situations in which they see no harm, downloading pirated software and recycling, Millennials were unsure and their religiousness affected their subsequent behavior. The study makes several contributions to consumer ethics and the impact of religiousness on ethical beliefs.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to consumer ethics research, especially whether young consumers’ ethical beliefs change or remain constant across time.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Satish Kumar, Nitesh Pandey and Jaspreet Kaur

The Social Responsibility Journal (SRJ) celebrates 15 years of publication in 2019. The purpose of this study is to map the development in the publication, citation and…

Abstract

Purpose

The Social Responsibility Journal (SRJ) celebrates 15 years of publication in 2019. The purpose of this study is to map the development in the publication, citation and themes of SRJ articles between 2005 and 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the Scopus database to analyze the highest contributing authors, institutions and countries published in SRJ. It also identifies the most cited SRJ articles, journals citing SRJ and journals cited by SRJ. This study conducts a performance analysis using bibliometric indicators to analyze the publication and citation structure of SRJ, in addition to science mapping using bibliographic coupling to analyze the themes of SRJ. Further, this study provides a temporal analysis of SRJ publishing across three different time periods over its 15-year run.

Findings

From 2005 to 2019, SRJ increased its annual publication from 23 to 63 articles. The citations have followed a similar trend, with an increase from zero citations in 2005 to more than 1,200 citations in 2019. Authors from all around the world have contributed to the journal on themes like business ethics, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, firm outcomes and stakeholders. Attention to themes related to corporate social responsibility, corporate governance and their influence on firm outcomes has increased across different time periods, while themes related to business ethics and stakeholders have garnered continuous – if not increasing – attention across different time periods.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to data acquired from the Scopus database.

Originality/value

This study provides the first overview of SRJ’s publication and citation trends alongside its thematic structure.

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Denni Arli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and…

1326

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on consumer ethics, and segmenting consumers’ religiosity and explore differences between each segment.

Design/methodology/approach

The surveys were distributed to undergraduate students, their friends and members of their immediate families, through a large public university in Australia. Of 700 paper questionnaires, participants returned 651. Incomplete surveys with too many missing values were removed from the sample. Of these, 517 were usable, yielding a response rate of 74 per cent. Singles accounted for 53.9 per cent of the sample, followed by married people (26.8 per cent). Of the respondents, 49.9 per cent were men. The majority of respondents were between 18 and 24 years old (52 per cent), followed by 15-34 years (16.4 per cent). Finally, most respondents had an income level of less than $20,000 (36.6 per cent) followed by $21,000-$40,000 (20.5 per cent) and $41,000-$61,000 (19.7 per cent). Overall, despite being dominated by younger consumers, the sample is relatively representative of the entire adult population of Australia.

Findings

The results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity had an impact on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Moreover, the results show significant differences between the two segments studied. The religious segment was more likely than the non-religious segment to reject various unethical beliefs, but no significant differences were found in the behavioural dimensions of recycling and doing good deeds.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies to explore the impact of religiosity on consumer ethics in Australia. The results of this study have several implications for academic researchers, religious leaders and managers working in the area of consumer ethics.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Denni Arli, Tuyet-Mai Nguyen and Phong Tuan Nham

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that those who committed unethical behavior were more likely to be atheists. Hence, first, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of consumers’ intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and atheism on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Second, this study attempts to segment consumers and identify differences between these segments.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 235 study participants in the USA and 531 in Vietnam. Subsequently, a two-step cluster approach was used to identify segments within these samples.

Findings

The study results show consumers’ intrinsic religiosity negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. Similarly, atheism also negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. This study also complements other studies exploring consumer ethics in developing countries. In addition, the segmentation analysis produced unique segments. The results from both samples (USA and Vietnam) indicated that non-religious consumers are less likely to accept various unethical behaviors compared to religious consumers. Religious consumers are not necessarily more ethical and atheism consumers are not necessarily less ethical. In the end, are implications for business ethics, religious and non-religious leaders on how to view the impact of beliefs on consumer ethical behaviors.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies investigating the impact of atheism on consumer ethics. The results of this study further extend the knowledge of study in consumer ethics by comparing consumers’ religiosity and atheism.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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