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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2022

Rangapriya Saivasan and Madhavi Lokhande

Investor risk perception is a personalized judgement on the uncertainty of returns pertaining to a financial instrument. This study identifies key psychological and…

Abstract

Purpose

Investor risk perception is a personalized judgement on the uncertainty of returns pertaining to a financial instrument. This study identifies key psychological and demographic factors that influence risk perception. It also unravels the complex relationship between demographic attributes and investor's risk attitude towards equity investment.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify factors that define investor risk perception. Multiple regression is used to assess the relationship between demographic traits and factor groups. Kruskal–Wallis test is used to ascertain whether the factors extracted differ across demographic categories. A risk perception framework based on these findings is developed to provide deeper insight.

Findings

There is evidence of the relationship and influence of demographic factors on risk propensity and behavioural bias. From this study, it is apparent that return expectation, time horizon and loss aversion, which define the risk propensity construct, vary significantly based on demographic traits. Familiarity, overconfidence, anchoring and experiential biases which define the behavioural bias construct differ across demographic categories. These factors influence the risk perception of an individual with respect to equity investments.

Research limitations/implications

The reference for the framework of this study is limited as there has been no precedence of similar work in academia.

Practical implications

This paper establishes that information seekers make rational decisions. The paper iterates the need for portfolio managers to develop and align investment strategies after evaluation of investors' risk by including these behavioural factors, this can particularly be advantageous during extreme volatility in markets that concedes the possibility of irrational decision making.

Social implications

This study highlights that regulators need to acknowledge the investor's affective, cognitive and demographic impact on equity markets and align risk control measures that are conducive to market evolution. It also creates awareness among market participants that psychological factors and behavioural biases can have an impact on investment decisions.

Originality/value

This is the only study that looks at a three-dimensional perspective of the investor risk perception framework. The study presents the relationship between risk propensity, behavioural bias and demographic factors in the backdrop of “information” being the mediating variable. This paper covers five characteristics of risk propensity and eight behavioural biases, such a vast coverage has not been attempted within the academic realm earlier with the aforesaid perspective.

Details

Asian Journal of Economics and Banking, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2615-9821

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Mohammad Ali Ashraf

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect effects of demographic factors on employee compensation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in…

1676

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect effects of demographic factors on employee compensation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in private higher educational institutes in Bangladesh. Specifically, how do compensation structure and job satisfaction mediate in the link between demographic factors and organizational commitment? To answer this question, a theoretical framework using the theory of employee retention provided by Martin and Kaufman, as its basis was established.

Design/methodology/approach

Data (n = 515) were collected from faculty members of the private universities in Bangladesh. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Findings indicate that though demographic factors have no direct impact on organizational commitment, they have indirect impacts on organizational commitment through the mediation of compensation structure and faculty job satisfaction. Besides, compensation structure also has a significant mediating role in the link between demographic structure and faculty job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

One possible drawback is the number of private universities from which the data were collected. In the sample used here, only 20 private universities were selected to conduct the survey. Besides, the study could not include public universities that are also a significant part and parcel of higher education in the country. So, if more private and public universities were taken into consideration to collect the data, the results might be improved. Thus, the usual cautions about overgeneralizing findings from this sample, to populations for which it is not strictly representative, apply.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, as a cumulative body of work on organizational commitment, we will be better able to advise policymakers and educators on the elements they need to address to increase the longer engagement of the faculty members in their institutes. In this study, the one area of findings that may help policymakers and educators the most concerns compensation package that affects job satisfaction and organizational commitment. We found that demographic factors and compensation packages are the most important factors for the faculty members to impact on organizational commitment in this study.

Social implications

The social implication is that policymakers of the private universities can focus on fair justice in terms of demographic factors and compensation package for job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment of the faculty members in their universities.

Originality/value

The findings of the study are important for the policymakers of the higher education institutes.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Santoshi Sengupta

The business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in India has always been characterized by ungodly hours, monotonous job, low perceived value, dispirited efficiency…

2812

Abstract

Purpose

The business process outsourcing (BPO) industry in India has always been characterized by ungodly hours, monotonous job, low perceived value, dispirited efficiency resulting to high attrition level. Notwithstanding the ever rising attrition rate, it has become critical for the companies to satisfy their employees in order to retain them. The purpose of this paper is to determine what and how job‐related and demographic variables are associated with employee satisfaction of the BPO employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 500 middle level BPO employees was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. T‐tests and Duncan's post hoc tests were done to compare the various dimensions of employee satisfaction across selected demographic variables such as gender, marital status, education, age and tenure. Correlation was done to find out the relationship between employee satisfaction and various job characteristics as well as demographic variables and finally, regression was done to find out the actual determinants of employee satisfaction.

Findings

There is difference of perception towards the job‐related variables on the basis of gender, marital status, education, age, and tenure. Correlations revealed that interpersonal relationships, career progression, salary, company policies, working conditions, and authority have significant positive relationship with employee satisfaction and only accountability had a significant negative relationship with employee satisfaction. Regression revealed the significant determinants of employee satisfaction which were interpersonal relationships, career progression, salary, gender, accountability, and authority.

Research limitations/implications

The study exclusively used surveys to poll work‐related satisfaction from the employees working only in BPO in India and considers only ten job‐related variables and five demographic variables for the study.

Practical implications

The comprehensive study of employee satisfaction is helpful for both practitioners and academicians as it helps in disentangling the perceptions about employee satisfaction and also explains the variances among various groups of demographic characteristics. This will enable organizations to correctly gauge employee satisfaction based on the job‐related and demographic characteristics.

Social implications

Now that the study has revealed the dimensions of employee satisfaction and the crucial determinants of satisfaction, each of these factors can be individually tackled to ensure employee retention.

Originality/value

The present study illuminates the existing theoretical foundations regarding employee satisfaction by exploring the detailed and ample responses provided by BPO employees in Indian industry; this can help practitioners to make robust managerial decisions.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Peiman Alipour Sarvari, Alp Ustundag and Hidayet Takci

The purpose of this paper is to determine the best approach to customer segmentation and to extrapolate associated rules for this based on recency, frequency and monetary…

3055

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the best approach to customer segmentation and to extrapolate associated rules for this based on recency, frequency and monetary (RFM) considerations as well as demographic factors. In this study, the impacts of RFM and demographic attributes have been challenged in order to enrich factors that lend comprehension to customer segmentation. Different types of scenario were designed, performed and evaluated meticulously under uniform test conditions. The data for this study were extracted from the database of a global pizza restaurant chain in Turkey. This paper summarizes the findings of the study and also provides evidence of its empirical implications to improve the performance of customer segmentation as well as achieving extracted rule perfection via effective model factors and variations. Accordingly, marketing and service processes will work more effectively and efficiently for customers and society. The implication of this study is that it explains a clear concept for interaction between producers and consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Customer relationship management, which aims to manage record and evaluate customer interactions, is generally regarded as a vital tool for companies that wish to be successful in the rapidly changing global market. The prediction of customer behaviors is a strategically important and difficult issue because of the high variance and wide range of customer orders and preferences. So to have an effective tool for extracting rules based on customer purchasing behavior, considering tangible and intangible criteria is highly important. To overcome the challenges imposed by the multifaceted nature of this problem, the authors utilized artificial intelligence methods, including k-means clustering, Apriori association rule mining (ARM) and neural networks. The main idea was that customer clusters are better enhanced when segmentation processes are based on RFM analysis accompanied by demographic data. Weighted RFM (WRFM) and unweighted RFM values/scores were applied with and without demographic factors and utilized to compose different types and numbers of clusters. The Apriori algorithm was used to extract rules of association. The performance analyses of scenarios have been conducted based on these extracted rules. The number of rules, elapsed time and prediction accuracy were used to evaluate the different scenarios. The results of evaluations were compared with the outputs of another available technique.

Findings

The results showed that having an appropriate segmentation approach is vital if there are to be strong association rules. Also, it has been determined from the results that the weights of RFM attributes affect rule association performance positively. Moreover, to capture more accurate customer segments, a combination of RFM and demographic attributes is recommended for clustering. The results’ analyses indicate the undeniable importance of demographic data merged with WRFM. Above all, this challenge introduced the best possible sequence of factors for an analysis of clustering and ARM based on RFM and demographic data.

Originality/value

The work compared k-means and Kohonen clustering methods in its segmentation phase to prove the superiority of adopted segmentation techniques. In addition, this study indicated that customer segments containing WRFM scores and demographic data in the same clusters brought about stronger and more accurate association rules for the understanding of customer behavior. These so-called achievements were compared with the results of classical approaches in order to support the credibility of the proposed methodology. Based on previous works, classical methods for customer segmentation have overlooked any combination of demographic data with WRFM during clustering before proceeding to their rule extraction stages.

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Sanjeev Verma

The purpose of this paper is to find the niche segmentation of green consumers as a solution to psychographic or demographic predicament. Age cohort and generational…

1587

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the niche segmentation of green consumers as a solution to psychographic or demographic predicament. Age cohort and generational cohort (Gen Y and Gen Z) of young consumers are studied for individualization and customization.

Design/methodology/approach

Age cohorts (Gen Z and Gen Y customers) have their unique needs. Both Gen Y (1981-1995) and Gen Z (post-1995) belong to the young consumer segment in the age group of 20-30 years but their generational cohorts are different. Strategic marketing advocates both generational marketing based on age cohorts and segmented marketing for young consumers. Strategic marketing faces cross-road between youth segmentation and generational cohort (Gen Z and Gen Y) due to intersection between the two during the 20-30 age group. Primary data using the ecological conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) scale was collected and analyzed for understanding the individual and relative importance of psychographic and demographic factors in influencing green behavior. The traditional youth segment is sliced into four sub-groups (Young Nest 1-4), and their interaction effect with post hoc analysis was done for the identification of sources of difference between different age cohorts. The findings of the study were compared with previous studies and unique contributions of this study were identified.

Findings

The findings indicate multiple niche young segments with demographic as the primary criterion and psychographic as the building block. Niche level and individual level segments emerge due to the interaction of various factors within a given age cohort. The findings confirm the identity development process which considered age as an important factor that affects varying choices throughout life from adolescence to adulthood.

Practical implications

The findings of this study may be used for effective targeting and positioning strategy of green marketing. In the time of analytics, age cohorts and generational cohort of young consumers can be approached differently for yielding better environmental results. The magnified niche level segmentation of young consumers may be used to develop individualized and customized promotions for young customers in Young Nest 1-4 for an enhanced ECCB.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused more on consumer characteristics (demographic or psychographic) and their relative importance but niche level segmentation within given demographic segment was not attempted before. This study is unique in offering microscopic analysis of age cohorts of young consumers (Young Nest 1-4) and their interaction with other demographic variables (gender and income) for niche level segmentation.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Nisha Prakash, Subburaj Alagarsamy and Aparna Hawaldar

The study attempts to understand the factors impacting the financial wellbeing of IT employees in India using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). It utilizes…

Abstract

Purpose

The study attempts to understand the factors impacting the financial wellbeing of IT employees in India using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). It utilizes well-established survey instruments to assess the impact of financial literacy, financial behaviour and financial stress on financial wellbeing. The study also attempts to understand the role of demographic factors (age, gender, monthly income, job category and work experience) in determining financial wellbeing through multigroup analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured equation modelling (SEM) is used to study the link between the determinants. The study also attempts to understand the role of demographic factors (age, gender, monthly income, job category and work experience) in determining financial wellbeing through multigroup analysis. Data used for the analysis covers 237 employees working in the IT sector.

Findings

While financial literacy and financial behaviour have a significant positive impact on financial wellbeing, financial stress has a significant negative impact. Financial behaviour and financial stress were found to have a mediating role in the relationship between financial literacy and financial wellbeing. The demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between the factors leading to financial wellbeing.

Originality/value

The results show the need for financial wellbeing programs to focus on enhancing financial knowledge and improving financial planning. Further, it suggests offering customized financial wellbeing programs based on the employee's demographic characteristics rather than following a “one program, fits all” approach.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Félix Neto and Tharina Guse

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of mental health among Angolan migrants living in Portugal. Three research questions guided this work: What is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of mental health among Angolan migrants living in Portugal. Three research questions guided this work: What is the influence of demographic factors on the mental health of Angolan migrants? What is the influence of acculturation factors on their mental health? What is the influence of adaptation factors on their mental health?

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 252 Angolan migrants living in Portugal (50.8 percent females) with a mean age of 36 years. The mean duration of stay in Portugal was 21 years.

Findings

The predictive factorsdemographic, acculturation and adaptation factors – were significantly associated with Angolan migrants’ mental health. However, acculturation and adaptation factors accounted for a larger proportion of the explained variance in mental health problems than demographic factors. The major predictors of mental health problems were sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination and loneliness. Implications of the findings for future research and psychosocial interventions are discussed.

Originality/value

This study shed some light on the predictive factors of mental health problems among adult Angolan immigrants in Portugal, a previously neglected group of migrants in the research literature. Adding to existing knowledge on the mental health outcomes of migration, the findings suggest that, for this group, sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination and loneliness were the main predictors of psychological problems, rather than demographic factors. This evidence may be useful in the development of psychosocial interventions and policy to support Angolan migrants in their adaptation to Portuguese culture.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Hart Okorie Awa, Don Monday Baridam and Barinedum Michael Nwibere

Research on the demographic characteristics of top management team (TMT) on e-commerce adoption has really advanced. Although some of such studies factored location factors

2328

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the demographic characteristics of top management team (TMT) on e-commerce adoption has really advanced. Although some of such studies factored location factors as e-commerce adoption drivers, rare attempts have been made to unravel if the differences in the demographic composition of TMT and the rate of adoption may be explained by the differences in the firm’s geographical location. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to bridge this knowledge gap by proposing a framework that conceives and measures geographical location as a contextual variable between e-commerce adoption and TMT composition.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were generated from the opinions of owners/managers of 226 SMEs drawn purposefully from registered SMEs in five industries located in three geo-political zones of Nigeria. Two cities (a state capital and a commercial nerve centre) were studied and a four-step hierarchical regression (spanning factor-loading) was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Evidence from the study shows that the hypothesized relationships between demographic factors and e-commerce adoption (main/direct effects) were statistically significant (supporting H1-H4). The two moderators (physical infrastructures and industrial specialization) that explained location factors were equally statistically significant in moderating the relationship between the demographic composition of TMT and e-commerce adoption.

Research limitations/implications

Sampling the opinions of SMEs in some industries of three geo-political zones of Nigeria limits the power of generalization. Therefore, extended data and measures are required to replicate the study in order to build external validity and reliability, and possibly theories. Further, some errors seem unavoidable in the course of converting the data through SPSS procedure just as all the measures used appear subjective and prone to common method bias. Other demographic and location factors not captured in the study may be handled by future studies.

Originality/value

The work will be of benefit to the academia and practitioners in terms of showing how location factors dictate the relationship between the demographic composition of top management and e-commerce adoption. The paper raises pointers that stimulate future research and advised policy-makers on even or near-even distribution of infrastructural facilities.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Nasra Shoka Kara and Kezia Herman Mkwizu

To examine demographic factors and travel motivations among leisure tourists in Tanzania. Specifically by examining the influence of demographic factors on travel…

17913

Abstract

Purpose

To examine demographic factors and travel motivations among leisure tourists in Tanzania. Specifically by examining the influence of demographic factors on travel motivation among local and international leisure tourists in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

Approach is quantitative and applied descriptive statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA.

Findings

The findings showed that age, gender and family size as demographic factors significantly influenced travel motivation among local and international leisure tourists.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies to consider different approaches including collection of data during the peak season, use qualitative method and conduct studies in other parts of the country to explore demographic factors and travel motivations of tourists.

Practical implications

To assist tourism stakeholders in their design of promotional tools to market tourism products/services to different tourists as opposed to homogeneous marketing campaigns.

Originality/value

Examined the influence of demographic factors and travel motivation among local and international leisure tourists in the context of Tanzania.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

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