Search results

1 – 10 of 87
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Yuezong Wang, Jinghui Liu, Mengfei Guo and LiuQIan Wang

A three-dimensional (3D) printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

A three-dimensional (3D) printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of such errors on printing accuracy and printing quality for delta-robot 3D printer.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the kinematic model of a delta-robot 3D printer with an ideal geometric structure is proposed by using vector analysis. Then, the normal kinematic model of a nonideal delta-robot 3D robot with tilted vertical beams is derived based on the above ideal kinematic model. Finally, a 3D printing error simulation approach is proposed to analyze the influence of tilted vertical beams on the 3D printing accuracy.

Findings

The results show that tilted vertical beams can indeed cause 3D printing errors and further influence the 3D printing quality of the final products and that the 3D printing errors of tilted vertical beams are related to the rotation angles of the tilted vertical beams. The larger the rotation angles of the tilted vertical beams are, the greater the geometric deformations of the printed structures.

Originality/value

Three vertical beams and six horizontal beams constitute the supporting parts of the frame of a delta-robot 3D printer. In this paper, the orientations of tilted vertical beams are shown to have a significant influence on 3D printing accuracy. However, the effect of tilted vertical beams on 3D printing accuracy is difficult to capture by instruments. To reveal the 3D printing error mechanisms under the condition of tilted vertical beams, the error generation mechanism and the quantitative influence of tilted vertical beams on 3D printing accuracy are studied by simulating the parallel motion mechanism of a delta-robot 3D printer with tilted vertical beams.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Yuezong Wang, Zhaodong Wang, Mengfei Guo and Xin Zhang

The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic leveling method for a printing platform based on a three-point coordinate feedback. The proposed method is used in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic leveling method for a printing platform based on a three-point coordinate feedback. The proposed method is used in fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing systems. The coordinate error of the leveled plane is constrained to within  ± 0.2 mm, which is less than the printed layer thickness.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the model of the forward and inverse solutions of the parallel arm is obtained based on the principles of vector algebra. Second, the automatic leveling mechanism for collecting the z-coordinate is designed. The best position of the virtual origin plane is obtained by comparing the z-coordinates of the test points. Finally, after making multiple adjustments through a closed-loop z-coordinate feedback, the parallelism of the printing plane and the virtual origin plane is limited to an effective range.

Findings

The experimental results show that after three leveling attempts, the z-coordinate of the test points can be constrained to within  ± 0.2 mm, which shows that this method can effectively achieve automatic leveling in a delta three-dimensional (3D) printer.

Originality/value

This study presents a novel and distinctive delta 3D printer leveling system by designing a leveling mechanism and a leveling algorithm. The method uses a closed-loop feedback mode to make the leveling process simple, convenient and efficient without requiring major changes to the printer. The error after leveling is less than the printed layer thickness, which fully guarantees the accuracy of the leveling process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Eduardo Castro e Costa, José Pinto Duarte and Paulo Bártolo

In this paper, the authors aim to address the potential of mass personalization for ceramic tableware objects. They argue that additive manufacturing (AM) is the most…

Downloads
1385

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors aim to address the potential of mass personalization for ceramic tableware objects. They argue that additive manufacturing (AM) is the most adequate approach to the production of such objects.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the manufacturing of ceramic tableware objects, both traditional techniques and AM processes, and assess which available AM technologies are suitable for the research purpose.

Findings

The authors consider binder jetting and material extrusion as the most suitable processes for the production of ceramic objects to be integrated into a mass personalization system of ceramic tableware.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original overview of traditional and innovative techniques in ceramic manufacturing, exposing not only its differences but also its commonalities. Such overview supports the conceptual design of original equipment.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Chien-Ho Ko

Additive manufacturing of concrete (AMoC) is an emerging technology for constructing buildings. However, due to the nature of the concrete property and constructing…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing of concrete (AMoC) is an emerging technology for constructing buildings. However, due to the nature of the concrete property and constructing buildings in layers, constraints and limitations are encountered while applying AMoC in architecture. This paper aims to analyze the constraints and limitations that may be encountered while using AMoC in architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive research approach is used to conduct this study. First, basic notions of AMoC are introduced. Then, challenges of AMoC, including hardware, material property, control and design, are addressed. Finally, strategies that may be used to overcome the challenges are discussed.

Findings

Factors influencing the success of AMoC include hardware, material, control methods, manufacturing process and design. Considering these issues in the early design phase is crucial to achieving a successful computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) integration to bring CAD and CAM benefits into the architecture industry.

Originality/value

In three-dimensional (3D) printing, objects are constructed layer by layer. Printing results are thus affected by the additive method (such as toolpath) and material properties (such as tensile strength and slump). Although previous studies attempt to improve AMoC, most of them focus on the manufacturing process. However, a successful application of AMoC in architecture needs to consider the possible constraints and limitations of concrete 3D printing. So far, research on the potential challenges of applying AMoC in architecture from a building lifecycle perspective is still limited. The study results of this study could be used to improve design and construction while applying AMoC in architecture.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Yaususi Kanada

A methodology for designing and printing three-dimensional (3D) objects with specified printing-direction using fused deposition modeling (FDM), which was proposed by a…

Abstract

Purpose

A methodology for designing and printing three-dimensional (3D) objects with specified printing-direction using fused deposition modeling (FDM), which was proposed by a previous paper, enables the expression of natural directions, such as hair, fabric or other directed textures, in modeled objects. This paper aims to enhance this methodology for creating various shapes of generative visual objects with several specialized attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed enhancement consists of two new methods and a new technique. The first is a method for “deformation”. It enables deforming simple 3D models to create varieties of shapes much more easily in generative design processes. The second is the spiral/helical printing method. The print direction (filament direction) of each part of a printed object is made consistent by this method, and it also enables seamless printing results and enables low-angle overhang. The third, i.e. the light-reflection control technique, controls the properties of filament while printing with transparent polylactic acid. It enables the printed objects to reflect light brilliantly.

Findings

The proposed methods and technique were implemented in a Python library and evaluated by printing various shapes, and it is confirmed that they work well, and objects with attractive attributes, such as the brilliance, can be created.

Research limitations/implications

The methods and technique proposed in this paper are not well-suited to industrial prototyping or manufacturing that require strength or intensity.

Practical implications

The techniques proposed in this paper are suited for generatively producing various a small number of products with artistic or visual properties.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a completely different methodology for 3D printing than the conventional computer-aided design (CAD)-based methodology and enables products that cannot be created by conventional methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Lifang Wu, Lidong Zhao, Meng Jian, Yuxin Mao, Miao Yu and Xiaohua Guo

In some three-dimensional (3D) printing application scenarios, e.g., model manufacture, it is necessary to print large-sized objects. However, it is impossible to…

Abstract

Purpose

In some three-dimensional (3D) printing application scenarios, e.g., model manufacture, it is necessary to print large-sized objects. However, it is impossible to implement large-size 3D printing using a single projector in digital light processing (DLP)-based mask projection 3D printing because of the limitations of the digital micromirror device chips.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-projector DLP with energy homogenization (EHMP-DLP) scheme is proposed for large-size 3D printing. First, a large-area printing plane is established by tiling multiple projectors. Second, the projector set’s tiling pattern is obtained automatically, and the maximum printable plane is determined. Third, the energy is homogenized across the entire printable plane by adjusting gray levels of the images input into the projectors. Finally, slices are automatically segmented based on the tiling pattern of the projector set, and the gray levels of these slices are reassigned based on the images of the corresponding projectors.

Findings

Large-area high-intensity projection for mask projection 3D printing can be performed by tiling multiple DLP projectors. The tiled projector output energies can be homogenized by adjusting the images of the projectors. Uniform ultraviolet energy is important for high-quality printing.

Practical implications

A prototype device is constructed using two projectors. The printable area becomes 140 × 210 mm from the original 140 × 110 mm.

Originality/value

The proposed EHMP-DLP scheme enables 3D printing of large-size objects with linearly increasing printing times and high printing precision. A device was established using two projectors to practice the scheme and can easily be extended to larger sizes by using more projectors.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Zizhao Wang, Hongyao Shen, Senyang Wu and Jianzhong Fu

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a common additive manufacturing method that is widely used owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness and safety. Colour models…

Abstract

Purpose

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a common additive manufacturing method that is widely used owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness and safety. Colour models are needed because of their ability to express more information, but high printing quality and efficiency are difficult to achieve with the existing FFF colour printing methods because of the “inertia” of printing. Inertia refers to the feature of the former colour material remaining in the molten cavity when switching colours in colour FFF printing. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new FFF colour printing method to reduce printing material usage and printing time.

Design/methodology/approach

A new FFF colour printing method that uses transitioning waste to construct the part is proposed. Based on the freedom of the colour surface model’s interior space, the internal fill and support of the print model are generated using the transitioning waste to reduce printing material usage and printing time and to achieve environmentally friendly colour printing. The modified elite ant system (EAS) algorithm is used to construct and optimize this method based on the colour surface model.

Findings

A colour printing experiment is performed using a colour-mixing FFF printer platform with a special waste extrusion module. The experimental results show that this method can significantly reduce material and time consumption compared to the commonly used method. The printed part produced by this method also has high surface quality.

Originality/value

A new FFF colour printing method that uses transitioning waste to construct the part is proposed. Based on the freedom of the colour surface model’s interior space, the internal fill and support of the print model are generated using the transitioning waste to reduce printing material usage and printing time and to achieve environmentally friendly colour printing. The modified EAS algorithm is used to construct and optimize this method based on the colour surface model. A special waste extrusion module is developed.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Ruiliang Feng, Jingchao Jiang, Zhichao Sun, Atul Thakur and Xiangzhi Wei

The purpose of this paper is to report the design of a lightweight tree-shaped support structure for fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printed models…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the design of a lightweight tree-shaped support structure for fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printed models when the printing path is considered as a constraint.

Design/methodology/approach

A hybrid of genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed to address the topology optimization of the tree-shaped support structures, where GA optimizes the topologies of the trees and PSO optimizes the geometry of a fixed tree-topology. Creatively, this study transforms each tree into an approximate binary tree such that GA can be applied to evolve its topology efficiently. Unlike FEM-based methods, the growth of tree branches is based on a large set of FDM 3D printing experiments.

Findings

The hybrid of GA and PSO is effective in reducing the volume of the tree supports. It is shown that the results of the proposed method lead to up to 46.71% material savings in comparison with the state-of-the-art approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed approach requires a large number of printing experiments to determine the function of the yield length of a branch in terms of a set of critical parameters. For brevity, one can print a small set of tree branches (e.g. 30) on a single platform and evaluate the function, which can be used all the time after that. The steps of GA for topology optimization and those of PSO for geometry optimization are presented in detail.

Originality/value

The proposed approach is useful for the designers and manufacturers to save materials and printing time in fabricating complex models using the FDM technique. It can be adapted to the design of support structures for other additive manufacturing techniques such as Stereolithography and selective laser melting.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Enrique Cuan-Urquizo, Mario Martínez-Magallanes, Saúl E. Crespo-Sánchez, Alfonso Gómez-Espinosa, Oscar Olvera-Silva and Armando Roman-Flores

The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of the fabrication of circle arc curved-layered structures via conventional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of the fabrication of circle arc curved-layered structures via conventional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with three-axis machines and to identify the main structural parameters that have an influence on their mechanical properties.

Design/methodology/approach

Customized G-codes were generated via a script developed in MATLAB. The G-codes contain nozzle trajectories with displacements in the three axes simultaneously. Using these, the samples were fabricated with different porosities, and their influence on the mechanical responses evaluated via tensile testing. The load-displacement curves were analyzed to understand the structure-property relationship.

Findings

Circled arc curved-layered structures were successfully fabricated with conventional three-axis FDM machines. The response of these curved lattice structures under tensile loads was mapped to three main stages and deformation mechanisms, namely, straightening, stretching and fracture. The micro-structure formed by the transverse filaments affect the first stage significantly and the other two minimally. The main parameters that affect the structural response were found to be the transverse filaments, as these could behave as hinges, allowing the slide/rotation of adjacent layers and making the structure more shear sensitive.

Research limitations/implications

This paper was restricted to arc-curved samples fabricated with conventional three-axis FDM machines.

Originality/value

The FDM fabrication of curved-structures with controlled porosity and their relation to the resulting mechanical properties is presented here for the first time. The study of curved-lattice structures is of great relevance in various areas, such as biomedical, architecture and aerospace.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Budi Arifvianto, Yuris Bahadur Wirawan, Urip Agus Salim, Suyitno Suyitno and Muslim Mahardika

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of extruder temperatures and raster orientations on the mechanical properties of polylactic-acid (PLA) material…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of extruder temperatures and raster orientations on the mechanical properties of polylactic-acid (PLA) material processed by using fused filament fabrication (FFF).

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the PLA specimens were first printed with nozzle or extruder temperatures of 205°C, 215°C and 225°C and then evaluated in terms of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties. An appropriate extruder temperature was then selected based on this experiment and used for the printing of the other PLA specimens having various raster orientations. A series of tensile tests were carried out again to investigate the influence of raster orientations on the tensile strength, tensile strain and elastic modulus of those FFF-processed PLA materials. In the end, the one-way ANOVA was applied for the statistical analysis and the Mohr’s circle was established to aid in the analysis of the data obtained in this experiment.

Findings

The result of this study shows that the chemistry, porosity, degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties (tensile strength, strain and elastic modulus) of the PLA material printed with a raster angle of 0° were all insensitive to the increasing extruder temperature from 205°C to 225°C. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of such printed PLA material were obviously influenced by its raster orientation. In this case, a PLA material with a raster orientation parallel to its loading axis, i.e. those with a raster angle of θ = 0°, was found as the strongest material. Meanwhile, the raster configuration-oriented perpendicular to its loading axis or θ = 90° yielded the weakest PLA material. The results of the tensile tests for the PLA material printed with bidirectional raster orientations, i.e. θ = 0°/90° and 45°/−45° demonstrated their strengths with values falling between those of the materials having unidirectional raster θ = 0° and 90°. Furthermore, the result of the analysis by using a well-known Mohr’s circle confirmed the experimental tensile strengths and the failure mechanisms of the PLA material that had been printed with various raster orientations.

Originality/value

This study presented consistent results on the chemistry, physical, degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of the FFF-processed PLA in responding to the increasing extruder temperature from 205°C to 225°C applied during the printing process. Unlike the results of the previous studies, all these properties were also found to be insensitive to the increase of extruder temperature. Also, the result of this research demonstrates the usability of Mohr’s circle in the analysis of stresses working on an FFF-processed PLA material in responding to the changes in raster orientation printed in this material.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 87