The chapter provides a case study of the strategic-level employee involvement (EI) program at a high-performance company, Delta Air Lines. EI at Delta – probably the most…
The chapter provides a case study of the strategic-level employee involvement (EI) program at a high-performance company, Delta Air Lines. EI at Delta – probably the most extensive in breadth, depth, and representational structure for nonunion workers at an American company – extends from shop floor to board room. Attention here is on the board component: a group of five peer-selected employees called the Delta Board Council (DBC) which has a nonvoting seat on the board of directors and participates in a wide range of strategic decisions and roles. The chapter discusses why this kind of representational EI group, although widespread up to the 1930s, is now quite rare in the United States. The main part of the chapter focuses on the structure, purpose, and accomplishments of the DBC, presented through a question and answer (Q&A) interview with a founding DBC member. Provided are numerous EI “lessons-learned” and “do’s” and “don’ts” for managers.
The Indus, Mekong, and Ganges River deltas, which have created one of the world’s largest delta and submarine fan system, currently contribute a major fraction of…
The Indus, Mekong, and Ganges River deltas, which have created one of the world’s largest delta and submarine fan system, currently contribute a major fraction of freshwater to East and South Asia. All these deltas are those regions in the world that face major challenges in their water sector due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sea-level rise, and salinity intrusion into inland and water bodies, all aggravated by climate change. Among them, salinity intrusion is currently one of the key issues that directly and indirectly cause water insecurity in East and South Asia, which ultimately hamper livelihood, agricultural production, and social interference. Hence, this chapter gives a comprehensive description on the nature and extent of the salinity problem, its adverse effects on livelihood and water sector, and then the focus goes to current and future sustainable water resource management within the delta to finally move on to conclusion and suggestions.
Purpose – This chapter examines how irresponsible corporate activities (environmental pollution, human rights abuses, tax evasion, corruption and contract scandals) of…
Purpose – This chapter examines how irresponsible corporate activities (environmental pollution, human rights abuses, tax evasion, corruption and contract scandals) of some multinational oil companies in the Niger Delta influence stakeholders’ perception of their image/reputation in Nigeria.
Methodology – The objective of this chapter is accomplished through the review of literature on the activities of multinational oil corporations in the Niger Delta, supported by qualitative interviews and analysis of archival materials.
Findings – Three important findings emerged from this study. First, the participants were fully aware of the irresponsible behaviours of oil corporations in the Niger Delta, and some oil corporations were involved in these illicit acts. Second, the analysis of archival materials supports the participants' views with reference to the identities of the corporations involved in these criminal acts. Third, the absence of a strong corporate governance system in Nigeria makes it possible for the officials of oil corporations to tactically circumvent the law by involving in a maze of sophisticated corrupt acts.
Research/practical implications – The implication for the academics and practitioners is evident when a corporation implements corporate social responsibility dutifully; it generates positive impact on its corporate reputation rating. Conversely, when a corporation engages in irresponsible corporate misbehaviours, it attracts negative consequences on its reputation.
Originality – The originality of this chapter lies in the fact that it is the first empirical study to examine the impact of corporate social irresponsibility on the image/reputation of multinational oil corporations in Nigeria.
The crisis in the Niger Delta predates discovery of oil in large quantities at Oloibiri in 1956. Before independence in 1960, conflict in the region took the form of…
The crisis in the Niger Delta predates discovery of oil in large quantities at Oloibiri in 1956. Before independence in 1960, conflict in the region took the form of agitation for political representation and protection against marginalization by the dominant ethnic groups. However, this crisis took a new dimension in the early 1990s as oil became a major source of foreign exchange and the derivation formula was changed in favour of the federal government with negative consequences on the local people (the need to maintain constant flow of oil have resulted to gross violation of the local people's rights by the state and the oil multinationals) especially under the military regimes. The entrenchment of democracy in the late 1990s further escalated the tripartite conflict between the state, oil multinationals and host communities as the complex crisis drew global attention. The formation of Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP) and Ijaw Youth Council (IYC) in the 1990s to challenge the abuse of human rights over four decades was overwhelmed applauded by the local people of the region. More importantly, MOSOP was the first social movement in the region to have internationalized the plight of the local people while IYC took over from the period when MOSOP had some internal crises that undermined its struggle.
Equally the achievements of MOSOP and IYC have instigated the formation of other social movements in the Niger Delta as a whole. The pressure from these social movements might have accounted for sudden change of policies by the state and the major oil multinationals in the mid-1990s. However, the fundamental question is to what extent the social movements (MOSOP/IYC) and International civil society have been successful with the issue of human rights abuse in the region.
Proposes a system in which the information superhighway can be built, maintained and routinely upgraded by the efforts of multitudes of small scale servers looking after only their own individual economic interests. Each server will be classified as either a “parasitic” server or an “integrated” server. At a given band‐width level, integrated servers are equal to each other in their network, but parasitic servers will be functionally dependent on their integrated parent servers to which they must pay a fee. Although it is initially cheaper to open a parasitic server, economic incentive will motivate owners of parasitic servers to make their servers integrated. The primeval seed of this network will be a structure composed of three servers arranged in a triangle called the “base delta.” The first integrated servers will be connected to each of the three base delta servers. Later, servers will have to be connected to at least three other integrated servers to qualify as integrated servers. Each base delta will have a territory extending from it that, when intermeshed with other base delta territories, will become “integrated” base delta territories. All integrated servers within integrated base delta territories are equal to each other in function. The aim is to motivate the owners of independent small‐scale servers in such a way as to cover the globe with integrated base delta territories.
The Niger Delta is a region in Nigeria endowed with enormous natural resources of which petroleum oil is the most exploited. This petroleum oil has been the engine of…
The Niger Delta is a region in Nigeria endowed with enormous natural resources of which petroleum oil is the most exploited. This petroleum oil has been the engine of development in Nigeria since 1958, providing more than 90 percent of total exports (CBN, 1981) and over 80 percent of Federal Government revenue. Despite this, the Niger Delta people remain poor and underdeveloped. Youth restiveness and violence is the order of the day. As a product of two separate youth forums, this paper recommends good governance, youth impact assessments, youth inclusion in decision‐making, as well as capacity building as a way out of this discord.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of entrepreneurship in the process of enhancing economic innovation in the Yangtze River Delta of China.
A system of simultaneous‐dynamic panel equations is developed that incorporates the relationships between entrepreneurship, human capital (HC) and research and development (R&D) expenditures. Then, the generalized methods of moment approach designed by Arellano and Bond is applied to estimate this system and investigate whether there is a possibility to promote innovation through the channel of entrepreneurship in the Delta.
The empirical results reveal a significant relationship between entrepreneurship and HC, but insignificant relationship between R&D expenditures and entrepreneurship in the Delta.
The Delta has a potential to transform its growth strategy due to its HC endowment as an antecedent of innovation, but entrepreneurs and local governments should seek more opportunities to exploit and strengthen their R&D base in the Delta.
In order to find an effective remedy for the current downturn in the Delta, this paper studies the role of entrepreneurship and assesses the potential that the Delta has in carrying out an innovation‐based growth strategy.
This paper aims to explore how management control systems (MCS) of an operating company (Delta Lanka) of a multinational corporation (MNC) is shaped through the interplay…
This paper aims to explore how management control systems (MCS) of an operating company (Delta Lanka) of a multinational corporation (MNC) is shaped through the interplay between external institutional influences via global prescriptions stemming from the parent company culture and localisation needs as suited to cultural context of the operating company through the agency of practice level actors.
Theoretically, the paper draws upon institutional theory, more specifically the notions of external institutions and agency of practice level actors, while methodologically, it adopts the single-site case study approach under the qualitative tradition.
The findings suggest that given the complex setting of being encountered with multiple cultural ramifications, MCS of Delta Lanka encompasses compulsory elements instigated by the parent company, and non-compulsory elements as attuned to the realities of the local culture of the operating company. The authors show how imposed practices in the institutional environment by the parent company (homogeneity) interact with agentic aspects of actors in the operating company giving rise to practice variation (heterogeneity) in the adoption of controls at the local level.
The paper offers insights on how practicing managers in operating companies of MNCs could formulate control systems by striking a balance between multiple cultural considerations (of the parent and operating company). This would be a lesson for managers of other firms (especially MNCs).
By bringing together multitude of cultural dimensions relating to the parent company and operating company into a single study in the area of management control, this paper adds to the burgeoning literature on the interplay between external institutions, agency of actors, culture and MCS. It also contributes to the on-going debate on MCS research taking a post-Hofstede orientation while extending the use of institutional theory in management accounting research in MNCs.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why international advocacy NGOs (iaNGOs) use counter accounting as part of their campaigns against oil companies operating…
The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why international advocacy NGOs (iaNGOs) use counter accounting as part of their campaigns against oil companies operating in the Niger Delta to reform problematic regulatory systems and make visible corporate practices that exploit governance and accountability gaps in relation to human rights violations and environmental damage.
This arena study draws on different sources of evidence, including interviews with nine iaNGOs representatives involved in campaigns in the Niger Delta. The authors mapped out the history of the conflict in order to locate and make sense of the interviewees’ views on counter accounting, campaigning strategies, accountability and governance gaps as well as their motivations and aspirations for change.
The evidence revealed an inability of vulnerable communities to engage in relevant governance systems, due to unequal power relationships, corporate actions and ineffective governance practices. NGOs used counter accounts as part of their campaigns to change corporate practices, reform governance systems and address power imbalances. Counter accounts made visible problematic actions to those with power over those causing harm, gave voice to indigenous communities and pressured the Nigerian Government to reform their governance processes.
Understanding the intentions, desired outcomes and limitations of NGO’s use of counter accounting could influence human rights accountability and governance reforms in political institutions, public sector organisations, NGOs and corporations, especially in developing countries.
This paper seeks to contribute to accounting research that seeks to protect the wealth and natural endowments of indigenous communities to enhance their life experience.
By interviewing the preparers of counter accounts the authors uncover their reasons as to why they find accounting useful in their campaigns.