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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Brady D. Lund

This article presents an introduction to the Delphi method and review of Delphi studies published in the literature of library and information science (LIS).

Abstract

Purpose

This article presents an introduction to the Delphi method and review of Delphi studies published in the literature of library and information science (LIS).

Design/methodology/approach

A review of Delphi studies published between the years of 1971 and 2019 is performed, using studies retrieved from the Library and Information Science Source database. A total of 122 articles were retrieved and evaluated based on the population studied, means of identifying experts, number of participants for each study round, type of Delphi, and type of findings.

Findings

General librarians (any type), academic librarians, and information science researchers are the most common populations in LIS Delphi studies. On average (middle 50 percent of studies), 14–36 experts are used in the first round of LIS Delphi studies (median n = 23). Employment in a specific role and publications in scholarly journals are the most common means of identifying experts. Variants of the e-Delphi (online survey/email) method are increasingly common, particularly in LIS Delphi studies that focus on general information science, rather than library, topics. Though LIS Delphi studies are relatively few in number, they have a consistent record of being published in some of the most prestigious LIS journals.

Originality/value

This paper provides an introduction to the Delphi method for LIS research and presents an overview of existing literature in LIS that utilizes the research method. No overview of this extent exists in the LIS literature, and, thus, this paper may serve as an important information source about the method for LIS researchers.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Abayomi O. Ibiyemi, Yasmin Mohd Adnan and Md Nasir Daud

The study aims to build up knowledge for collateral exploration of the classical Delphi survey method for assessing the industrial sustainability-related correction factor…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to build up knowledge for collateral exploration of the classical Delphi survey method for assessing the industrial sustainability-related correction factor using a real field study in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper elicits the character and the operational approaches using an example study to provide a critical review of the method. It estimates the correction factor for appraisal purposes by transforming expert opinion into a valid group consensus.

Findings

The work considers the specific parameters of the method, design and analysis for interpretation to prove the reliability and the validity for the research results. Moreover, it emphasises that the validity of the traditional Delphi research demands cautious theoretical and practical applications by the coordinating researcher. The paper establishes the current validity and effectiveness of the classical Delphi method of foresight and streamlines their efficient implementation for theory building despite its numerous weaknesses.

Originality/value

It explores desirable futures for the method while analysing what is possible and probable.

Details

foresight, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Stanley Njuangang, Champika Liyanage and Akintola Akintoye

The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, issues and considerations in the application of the Delphi technique to identify, refine and rate the critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, issues and considerations in the application of the Delphi technique to identify, refine and rate the critical success factors and performance measures in maintenance-associated infections.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth literature review through the application of open and axial coding were applied to formulate the interview and research questions. These were used to conduct an exploratory case study of two healthcare maintenance managers, randomly selected from two National Health Service Foundation Trusts in England. The results of exploratory case study provided the rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research. The different processes in the application of the Delphi technique in healthcare research are examined thoroughly.

Findings

This research demonstrates the need to apply and integrate different research methods to enhance the validity of the Delphi technique. The rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research is because some healthcare maintenance managers lack knowledge about basic infection control (IC) principles to make hospitals safe for patient care. The result of first round of the Delphi exercise is a useful contribution in its own rights. It identified a number of salient issues and differences in the opinions of the Delphi participants, noticeably between healthcare maintenance managers and members of the infection control team. It also resulted in useful suggestions and comments to improve the quality and presentation of the second- and third-round Delphi instruments.

Practical implications

This research provides a research methodology that can be adopted by researchers investigating new and emerging issues in the healthcare sector. As this research demonstrates, the Delphi technique is relevant in soliciting expert knowledge and opinion to identify performance measures to control maintenance-associated infections in hospitals. The methodology provided here could be applied by other researchers elsewhere to probe, investigate and generate rich information about new and emerging healthcare research topics.

Originality/value

The authors demonstrate how different research methods can be integrated to enhance the validity of the Delphi technique. For example, the results of an exploratory case study provided the rationale for the application of the Delphi technique investigating the key performance measures in maintenance-associated infections. The different processes involved in the application of the Delphi technique are also carefully explored and discussed in depth.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Abu Elnasr E. Sobaih, Caroline Ritchie and Eleri Jones

The Delphi technique is used to achieve consensus among experts and/or gain judgment on complex matters. This paper aims to discuss the classical Delphi and its advantages…

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Abstract

Purpose

The Delphi technique is used to achieve consensus among experts and/or gain judgment on complex matters. This paper aims to discuss the classical Delphi and its advantages and disadvantages in qualitative research, particularly in hospitality.

Design/methodology/approach

The classical Delphi is characterized by the involvement of experts and its iterative nature. In an industry with high turnover and limited pools of specialist expertise this can lead to problems of attrition and management of the process. The paper presents two qualitative hospitality research case studies in which the classical Delphi is successfully modified to overcome its limitations.

Findings

Identifying potential problems early in the research process enables critical design decisions to be made. Case one used a parallel expert group with similar experience to develop a research instrument for a limited number of prestigious experts well‐acquainted with one another who might have reached specious consensus through channels not accessible to the researcher. Case two enabled the addition of new experts to an expert panel to overcome attrition in successive Delphi rounds.

Practical implications

Despite its growing popularity in social science, Delphi has rarely been used in qualitative hospitality research. The modifications suggested in this paper can enhance the robustness of the classical Delphi technique for qualitative hospitality research.

Originality/value

The paper shows how the classical Delphi technique can be successfully modified for use in qualitative hospitality research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Jhon Wilder Zartha Sossa, William Halal and Raul Hernandez Zarta

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the Delphi method, its characteristics and current applications through an analysis of recent most-cited…

1178

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the literature on the Delphi method, its characteristics and current applications through an analysis of recent most-cited scientific papers, with an emphasis on three axes, namely, the number of rounds used, stakeholder participation relevance or only academic experts’ participation and the possibility of using indicators or techniques different from those related to descriptive statistics.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 57 papers were initially reviewed, 10 of them with a high citation rate. Then, an analysis was made of papers in Scopus for the period 2015-2018 published in the Technological Forecasting and Social Change Journal and in the Futures and Foresight Journal, which had the characteristic of displaying quartile Q1 or Q2 in Scimago in addition to being in Scopus.

Findings

Among the main results, the authors observe the tendency to use fewer rounds, a higher prevalence of stakeholder participation and not only academic experts but also the use of new types of modified Delphi such as real-time spatial Delphi, Delphi group, market Delphi, real-world Delphi and policy Delphi.

Originality/value

Among the conclusions, the possibility of using other indicators or complementary techniques to the descriptive statistics is highlighted such as number of justifications or comments between rounds, coefficients to quantify the competence or degree of expertise of the participants, measures of the perception of the expert on the usefulness of the presented feedback, graphs of the number of arguments according to the number of questions, the Wilcoxon Ranked Pairs Test, the k means, Kolmogorov–Simonov test and the Mann–Whitney U-test.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Tracy Flanagan, Russell Ashmore, David Banks and Doug MacInnes

– The purpose of this paper is to describe how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publication of mental health nursing research.

Findings

This paper reports brief findings from the Delphi study. However, its main focus is the methodological issues arising from the Delphi method.

Research limitations/implications

The paper argues that the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are able to be clearly answered. The adaptations are pragmatic in approach and in keeping with the general principles underpinning the Delphi method, while successfully addressing the problems of attrition and previous criticism of homogenous panels.

Originality/value

This paper offers some practical solutions to issue arising from undertaking research using the Delphi method.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2018

Vasco Eiriz and José Carreiras

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of a supply network and the causes of network change and stability. It presents the study of a supply network of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of a supply network and the causes of network change and stability. It presents the study of a supply network of Delphi Braga (Portugal), one of the largest European plants producing car-radios, navigation system and other related products, in order to understand how it changed over time. The paper contributes to the understanding of network management.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study was carried out on a network of five suppliers of Delphi Braga adopting a relational view of networks meaning that both parties of the relationships were studied. Data and results are based on document sources and interviews with managers both from Delphi and the studied suppliers.

Findings

The causes of network change and stability are both exogenous and endogenous. They are multiple and have different impacts on network structures and processes. The paper analyses several causes of network change and their impact on the studied supplier network.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a single case study. Although the studied supplier network comprises several firms, it should be pointed out that each network has its own dynamics and structures. Therefore, though the paper makes a relevant contribution for network management, the results cannot be generalized for other networks and firms.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of the dynamics of their supplier networks and understand the different impacts of both their firm’s decisions as well as the environment changes. By doing this, managers can anticipate changes in the structure and dynamics of their supplier networks.

Originality/value

This case study contributes to our current understanding of relationship development both at the dyadic and network level by analyzing the case of a supply network in a major European plant of car-radios and navigation systems. It discusses implications and proposes further research to advance knowledge on the topic of network change.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Tim Hatcher and Sharon Colton

The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative…

1565

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining “rich” and descriptive information using the internet and current e‐learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an excellent tool in establishing content validity for an HRD‐related construct, e.g. adult learning principles. A review of related literature revealed no existing research that used a web‐based Delphi technique to validate measurements used in training and development (T&D) or HRD.

Design/methodology/approach

Research methods included: a thorough review of the literature to construct an item pool of adult learning principles and instructional methods, and a Delphi expert panel consensus. The mean, mode, standard deviation, interquartile range, and skewness of the data were calculated from the voting procedures for determination of consensus. Evidence of reliability was indicated by the interrater reliability coefficient from a field test. In addition, the Gunning FOG Index for readability was calculated to improve the readability of the instrument.

Findings

To address the first research question the authors suggest that a valid instrument can be developed by a diverse Delphi expert panel that measures the application of adult learning principles to fully‐mediated world wide web‐based training. The second research question was answered by illustrating that the internet can assist a group of diverse and geographically dispersed subject‐matter experts in establishing a content valid measurement of instructional methods and techniques that demonstrate the application of adult learning principles to fully‐mediated web‐based training. And, finally, the paper concludes that a Delphi process can be established as a web‐based method to validate research measures.

Practical implications

This research helps to address the critical issue of how research is used in practice. Reasons why this research lends itself more to practice than other HRD research using more common qualitative or quantitative methods include: it is a relatively simple procedure requiring less than expert‐level skills; the Delphi uses expert opinion that is commonly used in training and development practice; and results are easy to interpret and practical.

Originality/value

This research is unique in its approach to developing a content valid instrument using state‐of‐the‐art technology coupled with a updated Delphi method. It is valuable to HRD and other professionals and researchers interested in developing valid measures across cultures and where experts are geographically dispersed.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Kimmo Laakso, Anita Rubin and Hannu Linturi

Mobile communication has grown beyond its original scope and scale, and mobile operators have played a significant role in this phenomenon. Since the mobile operator

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile communication has grown beyond its original scope and scale, and mobile operators have played a significant role in this phenomenon. Since the mobile operator business is highly regulated, the authors aim to analyze the effects of regulation on the industry during the period 1985‐2009. They also aim to consider its potential effects in the years 2010‐2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The method selected for this research was the Delphi method. The challenge was that this method was originally created to assess experts' opinions about the course of development of a certain technology or phenomenon in the future, and then by using for example a scenario technique, to draw conclusions about its possible futures. Here the authors used the Delphi method for estimating past development also, i.e. experts' opinions of the causes and effects of laws and other regulations in the past few decades.

Findings

According to this research the ultimate goals of the regulator, set as early as in the middle of the 1980s, have been actualized: in Finland there are several competing nationwide mobile operators and the use of mobile phones is cheap compared to many other countries. One significant finding of this study is that the regulatory framework for the mobile operator business has become more complex over the years and that this complexity is also likely to grow in the future.

Practical implications

Dynamic regulation has enabled strong competition in Finland's mobile operator market and at the same time a very high service level for subscribers. The Delphi method is proven to be a powerful tool also when examining past events, and the authors recommend Delphi for use in studies related to other sectors of administration and fields of business.

Originality/value

This paper enables better monitoring of the changes in regulatory framework over a long period in which several changes have been made, compared to previous studies which focus on a single regulatory action.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Penelope M. Mullen

The last 20 years have seen increasing interest in the use of Delphi in a wide range of health‐care applications. However, this use has been accompanied by attempts to…

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Abstract

The last 20 years have seen increasing interest in the use of Delphi in a wide range of health‐care applications. However, this use has been accompanied by attempts to codify and define a “true Delphi”. Many authors take a narrow view of the purpose of Delphi and/or advocate a single prescriptive approach to the conduct of a Delphi study. However, as early as 1975, Linstone and Turoff pointed to the danger of attempting to define Delphi as one would immediately encounter a study that violated that definition. Through critical examination of some of the controversies and misunderstandings that surround Delphi, this paper aims to dispel some of the myths and demonstrates the wide scope and potential of this versatile approach.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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