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Testicular cancer affects approximately 550 men in Australia each year. Early intervention, with the potential to reduce the burden of this serious disease, requires a…
Testicular cancer affects approximately 550 men in Australia each year. Early intervention, with the potential to reduce the burden of this serious disease, requires a strong understanding of the factors that influence help‐seeking. In the current qualitative retrospective study, the symptom‐recognition and help‐seeking experiences of 11 men aged between 28‐44 years who had undergone treatment for testicular cancer were examined. Analysis of the semistructured telephone interview data indicated that most men sought help early, and were treated promptly. A few men, however, described prolonged help‐seeking delays. The factors implicated in help‐seeking delays included lack of knowledge about testicular cancer; initial misattribution of symptoms; slowly progressing or low‐severity symptoms; a busy lifestyle; embarrassment about having a genital examination; and a fear of orchidectomy and its potential threat to masculinity. Further research using quantitative methodology is required to determine the relative importance of these various factors on help‐seeking delays.
AT regular intervals the Ministry of Labour Gazette publishes statistics of labour turnover on an industry‐wide basis from which certain generalisations may be drawn. On the whole, however, it is an industrial burden about which very little detailed information is available. Its causes have been variously ascribed to such factors as the level of employment and the chances of alternative work.
Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2008, this study examines how employment precarity is associated with the transition to first…
Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2008, this study examines how employment precarity is associated with the transition to first marriage. Building upon research on precarious work and economic determinants of marriage, I employ various measures of precarious work, including health insurance coverage, the provision of pension benefits, and part-time work. Results from the discrete-time hazard models show that precarious work delays men’s marriage entry more than women’s. For men, all indicators of precarious work decrease the odds of first marriage by up to 40%. Compared to men, women’s entry into first marriage is delayed when they have part-time employment. My study findings contribute to the theoretical discussions of the causes of family inequality, which have suggested the precarization of work and associated deterioration of job quality as one of the leading influences on the retreat from marriage. Further, results of this study indicate that the spread of precarious work has profound social consequences through its impact on family formation. In light of limited empirical research on the impact of precarious work on non-work-related outcomes, subsequent research needs to continue examining how employment precarity and family inequality are intertwined with various substantive foci across societies.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether employers’ attitudes towards older workers, especially regarding promotions, really affect their retirement intentions…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether employers’ attitudes towards older workers, especially regarding promotions, really affect their retirement intentions, distinguishing between men and women.
First, the author uses the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to estimate, through a Fields decomposition, the relative contribution of the feeling of an older worker to be discriminated against regarding promotions; and to explain the self‐reported probability to work full time after 62, decomposing by gender. Second, using the two first waves of HRS, the author removes any bias due to time‐constant unobserved heterogeneity, to test whether the individual feeling of being passed over for promotion may be misreported, owing to a strong preference for leisure. Finally, the author examines the effect of a change in this variable over time on the intentions to exit early.
The Fields decomposition shows that feeling passed over for promotion plays a non‐negligible role to predict retirement plans but only for women. In addition, using panel data allows a misreporting bias to be exhibited that may lead to underestimating of the negative effect of discriminatory practices towards older workers on their retirement plans. Lastly, an increase between 1992 and 1994 in the age‐discrimination towards older workers encouraged women to leave their job early, while it had no effect on retirement plans of men.
Empirical results put forward the idea that retirement intentions may differ across gender, owing to the different nature of the employer‐employee relation. While for men, this relation is characterized by delayed‐payment arrangements signed ex ante with the employer, as already shown by Adams, it is not true for women. Consequently, the age‐based preference of employers for promotion, leading to a lower probability of promotion for older workers, is treated by men as a consequence of ex ante arrangements and does not affect their retirement plans. However, women can attribute such attitudes of their employer to a kind of blatant discrimination, reducing therefore their attachment to their job.
The paper presents a longitudinal approach towards the determinants of retirement intentions that allows the unobserved heterogeneity constant over time to be removed and to estimate to what extent the feeling of being passed over for promotion may be attributed, for each gender, to some arrangements signed ex ante with the employer.
IN every decade some word is thrown to the surface of men's minds and proves powerful enough to colour and condition their thinking. At present the word is automation. We see it as the crucible to resolve all our production problems, the formula to express our hopes for the future.
The purpose of this study is to examine the latest Millennials, born between 1995 and 2000, to determine any significant impact of gender, employment status and living…
The purpose of this study is to examine the latest Millennials, born between 1995 and 2000, to determine any significant impact of gender, employment status and living arrangement on Meriac et al.’s (2013) dimensions of work ethic.
A factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify the main and interaction effects between variables. A one-way ANOVA then revealed any statistical significance between factor combinations to determine the meaningfulness of the interactions.
Morality/ethics, the centrality of work and hard work were not significantly impacted by any factors, whereas interaction effects between gender and employment status with self-reliance and wasted time were not attributed to any particular factor level. Yet, meaningful interaction resulted in gender and employment status with leisure and delay of gratification. Specifically, women who work 20 h or less per week have less regard for leisure than men, regardless of men’ employment status. Men who work 20 h or less per week have a higher acceptance of delay of gratification than women with the same employment status.
Understanding the youngest Millennials’ unique paradigms about work ethic will benefit managers as they blend them with those of other working cohorts to enhance job-to-employee fit by building and sustaining recruitment, motivation and retention efforts among all workforce members.
This study expands existing literature by focussing on the youngest Millennials so that scholar-practitioners can closely align contemporary leadership and organisation with any unique attitudes towards work ethic and, perhaps, guide leadership transition as the next cohort emerges.
The remaining question about reactions to unemployment for this group was whether they passed through the same phases of shock, optimism, pessimism and acceptance…
The remaining question about reactions to unemployment for this group was whether they passed through the same phases of shock, optimism, pessimism and acceptance suggested in previous studies. Harrison referred to doubt beginning within three weeks, demoralisation starting by the 11th week and beginning to settle by the 17th week, about four months. Hill suggested that “after nine months to a year out of work the individual tends to settle down to a life of unemployment”. Fifteen of the men in this sample had been unemployed for between two and six months, two for eight or nine months, and three for between one and two years. Most had passed through the shock phase, but none really had reached the pessimism or acceptance stage. A few did go through spells of pessimism about getting another job, but this could not be taken as permanent pessimism. Few had reached the stage of accepting a lower job or salary. On the basis of their self report, either this group was not going through the same phases as previously reported for blue collar workers or they were going through them at a much slower pace. The evidence suggested that as a result of several factors, the latter was the case.
Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal administrative data and a postal survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-economic factors and individual…
Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal administrative data and a postal survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-economic factors and individual characteristics that affect senior citizens’ decision to continue working on the Swedish labour market after the standard retirement age.
By using standard econometric techniques (multinomial logit model) on a large representative sample of 20,000 senior citizens residing in Sweden, the auhtors analyse the extent to which socio-economic factors and individual characteristics including personality traits affect the decision of senior citizens to delay retirement and to continue working after the standard retirement age.
The results of our estimations show clearly that good health, high educational attainment/high-skilled jobs, good psychosocial work environment, employment status (to be self-employed), personality traits (extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness) as well as industrial sectors (agriculture, healthcare and transport) are strong predictors of the continuation of work after the standard retirement age (65 years old).
High job quality and good working conditions, along with continuous improvements in public health, are seemingly essential elements for motivating senior workers to delay retirement as are preventive policy measures favouring the development of decent and sustainable working conditions across the life course.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper is the first attempt in Sweden to analyse jointly a large range of factors influencing the decision to remain in the labour force after the standard/normal pension age, including psychosocial working conditions and personality traits.
Purpose – Using elective egg and sperm freezing as a case to compare representations of men and women as agents of biological reproduction, this chapter aims to understand…
Purpose – Using elective egg and sperm freezing as a case to compare representations of men and women as agents of biological reproduction, this chapter aims to understand how gender and risk are co-produced in the context of new reproductive technologies (NRTs).
Methodology – Through a content analysis of newspaper articles published between 1980 and 2016 about egg and sperm freezing, the author traces how fertility risks facing men and women are portrayed in the media.
Findings – Candidates for egg freezing were portrayed in one of the three ways: as cancer patients, career women, or single and waiting for a partner. The ideal users of sperm freezing are depicted in primarily two ways: as cancer patients and as employees in professions with hazardous working conditions. Threats to future fertility for women pursuing careers uninterrupted by pregnancy and child-rearing and women seeking romantic partners are largely portrayed as the result of internal risks. However, threats to future fertility for men working in dangerous professions are largely portrayed as external to them.
Research Limitations – Race and class did not emerge as dominant themes in these data; given the lack of accessibility to NRTs by class and race, this silence must be interrogated by further research.
Value – By comparing the constructions of at-risk groups, the author argues the medicalization of reproduction is gendered as fertility risks portrayed in the media take on a different character between men and women. This research shows how the gendered construction of infertility risk reinforces normative expectations around child-rearing and perpetuates gender inequity in parenting norms.