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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

Akanksha Goel and Shailesh Rastogi

This study aims to formulate a behavioural credit scoring models for Indian small and medium enterprises (SME) entrepreneurs using certain behavioural and psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to formulate a behavioural credit scoring models for Indian small and medium enterprises (SME) entrepreneurs using certain behavioural and psychological constructs. Two separate models are built which can predict the credit default and wilful default of the borrowers, respectively. This research was undertaken to understand whether certain psychological and behavioural factors can significantly predict the borrowers’ credit and wilful default.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was undertaken by SME entrepreneurs of two Indian states, i.e. Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. The questionnaire had two dependent variables: wilful default and credit default and nine independent variables. The questionnaire reliability and validity were ensured through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and further a model was built using logistic regression.

Findings

The results of this study have shown that certain behavioural and psychological traits of the borrowers can significantly predict borrowers’ default. These variables can be used to predict the overall creditworthiness of SME borrowers.

Practical implications

The findings of this research indicate that using behavioural and psychological constructs, lending institutions can easily evaluate the credit worthiness of those borrowers, who do not have any financial and credit history. This will enhance the capability of financial institutions to evaluate opaque SME borrowers.

Originality/value

There are very few numbers of studies which have considered predicting the credit default using certain psychological variables, but with respect to Asian market, and especially India, there does not exist a single significant study which has tried to fulfil such research gap. Also, this is the first study that has explored whether certain psychological factors can predict the wilful default of the borrowers. This is one of the most significant contributions of this research.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

GEORGE L. YE

Liquidity risk, i.e., the likelihood that a swap can be “sold” (i.e., assigned) may affect swap prices. This article addresses the importance of liquidity risk as a factor…

Abstract

Liquidity risk, i.e., the likelihood that a swap can be “sold” (i.e., assigned) may affect swap prices. This article addresses the importance of liquidity risk as a factor in the valuation of swaps, which are subject to default risk. The author presents a model for pricing these swaps by incorporating a proxy for liquidity risk. Using the model, the author finds that the effects of liquidity risk may partially offset the effects of default risk.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Arindam Bandyopadhyay

The purpose of this paper is to develop a hybrid logistic model by using the inputs obtained from BSM equity‐based option model described in the companion paper, “Mapping…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a hybrid logistic model by using the inputs obtained from BSM equity‐based option model described in the companion paper, “Mapping corporate drift towards default – Part 1: a market‐based approach” that can more accurately predict corporate default.

Design/methodology/approach

In a set of logistic regressions, the ability of the market value of assets, asset volatility and firm's leverage structure measures to predict future default is investigated. Next, a check is made as to whether accounting variables and other firm specific characteristics can provide additional significant information in assessing the real world credit quality of a firm in a multifactor model

Findings

From analysis of 150 publicly‐traded Indian corporates over the year 1998 to 2005 it was found that in a volatile equity market like India, one needs to enhance the BSM model with other accounting information from financial statements and develop hybrid models. The results in this paper indicate that a mix of asset volatility, market value of asset and firm's leverage structure along with other financial and non financial factors can give us a more accurate prediction of corporate default than the ratio‐based reduced form model.

Originality/value

The hybrid model developed in this paper allows us to integrate information from the structural model as well as profitability of firms, liquidity risk, other firm specific supplementary information and macroeconomic factors to predict real world corporate distress potential through a multivariate analysis.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Steven C. Hall and Laurie S. Swinney

Prior research provides evidence that firms make accounting choices to avoid violation of debt covenant provisions and the resulting costs of technical default. We extend…

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1106

Abstract

Prior research provides evidence that firms make accounting choices to avoid violation of debt covenant provisions and the resulting costs of technical default. We extend this research by asking why some firms refrain from making accounting policy changes when faced with costs of technical default. We considered two possible explanations. First, we hypothesise that these defaulting firms may lack the flexibility to make accounting changes. Second, we hypothesise that these defaulting firms may lack incentive to change accounting methods. Results confirm prior research and indicate that defaulting firms make more accounting changes than non‐defaulting firms. The decision by defaulting firms to change or not change accounting methods during the three years ending in the year of a technical default of debt covenants can be explained in part by the ability of the firm and by the incentives of the firm to make a change.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Book part
Publication date: 16 January 2014

Jean Paul Rabanal

The chapter studies strategic default using an experimental approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter studies strategic default using an experimental approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiment considers a stochastic asset process and a loan with no down-payment. The treatments are two asset volatilities (high and low) and the absence and presence of social interactions via a direct effect on the subject's payoff.

Findings

I demonstrate that (i) people appear to follow the prediction of the strategic default model quite closely in the high asset volatility treatment, and that (ii) incorporating social interactions delays the strategic default beyond what is considered optimal.

Originality/value

The study tests adequately the strategic default using a novel experimental design and analyzes the neighbor's effect on that decision.

Details

Experiments in Financial Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-141-0

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Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2006

Chuang-Chang Chang and Yu Jih-Chieh

We set out, in this paper, to extend the Das and Sundaram (2000) model as a means of simultaneously considering correlated default risk structure and counter-party risk…

Abstract

We set out, in this paper, to extend the Das and Sundaram (2000) model as a means of simultaneously considering correlated default risk structure and counter-party risk. The multinomial model established by Kamrad and Ritchken (1991) is subsequently modified in order to facilitate the development of a computational algorithm for valuing two types of active credit derivatives, credit-spread options and default baskets. From our numerical examples, we find that along with the correlated default risk, the existence of counter-party risk results in a substantially lower valuation of credit derivatives. In addition, we find that different settings of the term structure of interest rate volatility also have a significant impact on the value of credit derivatives.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-441-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Wenbo Hu and Alec N. Kercheval

Portfolio credit derivatives, such as basket credit default swaps (basket CDS), require for their pricing an estimation of the dependence structure of defaults, which is…

Abstract

Portfolio credit derivatives, such as basket credit default swaps (basket CDS), require for their pricing an estimation of the dependence structure of defaults, which is known to exhibit tail dependence as reflected in observed default contagion. A popular model with this property is the (Student's) t-copula; unfortunately there is no fast method to calibrate the degree of freedom parameter.

In this paper, within the framework of Schönbucher's copula-based trigger-variable model for basket CDS pricing, we propose instead to calibrate the full multivariate t distribution. We describe a version of the expectation-maximization algorithm that provides very fast calibration speeds compared to the current copula-based alternatives.

The algorithm generalizes easily to the more flexible skewed t distributions. To our knowledge, we are the first to use the skewed t distribution in this context.

Details

Econometrics and Risk Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-196-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Mariya Gubareva

This paper provides an objective approach based on available market information capable of reducing subjectivity, inherently present in the process of expected loss…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides an objective approach based on available market information capable of reducing subjectivity, inherently present in the process of expected loss provisioning under the IFRS 9.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops the two-step methodology. Calibrating the Credit Default Swap (CDS)-implied default probabilities to the through-the-cycle default frequencies provides average weights of default component in the spread for each forward term. Then, the impairment provisions are calculated for a sample of investment grade and high yield obligors by distilling their pure default-risk term-structures from the respective term-structures of spreads. This research demonstrates how to estimate credit impairment allowances compliant with IFRS 9 framework.

Findings

This study finds that for both investment grade and high yield exposures, the weights of default component in the credit spreads always remain inferior to 33%. The research's outcomes contrast with several previous results stating that the default risk premium accounts at least for 40% of CDS spreads. The proposed methodology is applied to calculate IFRS 9 compliant provisions for a sample of investment grade and high yield obligors.

Research limitations/implications

Many issuers are not covered by individual Bloomberg valuation curves. However, the way to overcome this limitation is proposed.

Practical implications

The proposed approach offers a clue for a better alignment of accounting practices, financial regulation and credit risk management, using expected loss metrics across diverse silos inside organizations. It encourages adopting the proposed methodology, illustrating its application to a set of bond exposures.

Originality/value

No previous research addresses impairment provisioning employing Bloomberg valuation curves. The study fills this gap.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Lijuan Cao, Zhang Jingqing, Lim Kian Guan and Zhonghui Zhao

This paper studies the pricing of collateralized debt obligation (CDO) using Monte Carlo and analytic methods. Both methods are developed within the framework of the…

Abstract

This paper studies the pricing of collateralized debt obligation (CDO) using Monte Carlo and analytic methods. Both methods are developed within the framework of the reduced form model. One-factor Gaussian Copula is used for treating default correlations amongst the collateral portfolio. Based on the two methods, the portfolio loss, the expected loss in each CDO tranche, tranche spread, and the default delta sensitivity are analyzed with respect to different parameters such as maturity, default correlation, default intensity or hazard rate, and recovery rate. We provide a careful study of the effects of different parametric impact. Our results show that Monte Carlo method is slow and not robust in the calculation of default delta sensitivity. The analytic approach has comparative advantages for pricing CDO. We also employ empirical data to investigate the implied default correlation and base correlation of the CDO. The implication of extending the analytical approach to incorporating Levy processes is also discussed.

Details

Econometrics and Risk Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-196-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Angelo Corelli

Abstract

Details

Understanding Financial Risk Management, Second Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-794-3

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