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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Christopher M. Scherpereel

Identifying the state of alignment, when there is misalignment, and the path to achieve alignment are of central importance to decision makers today. This paper seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

Identifying the state of alignment, when there is misalignment, and the path to achieve alignment are of central importance to decision makers today. This paper seeks to offer decision makers some actionable guidance in narrowing the search for possible solution methodologies and to develop a generalized decision alignment framework that can be applied to real decision problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Alignment is viewed as a goal of decision makers and the correct matching of decision and action is essential to achieving consistently high performance. Drawing on parallels with the duality problem in linear programming, decision alignment is defined. The decision alignment framework is theoretically developed using examples from a diverse application set, including quantitative research, decision making, education, and e‐commerce.

Findings

The evidence shows that good research conforms to the decision alignment framework and poor research violates it. Similarly, good decisions conform to the decision alignment framework and poor decisions violate it. The decision alignment framework guides decision makers in constraining and redefining problems to optimize outcome performance, and shows the importance of addressing the dual problem of learning and understanding the phenomena.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical foundation developed can be used to promote future research in decision alignment. By providing a theoretically derived framework, rich opportunities for empirical testing are offered. Researchers are also given guidance on how alignment research can be conducted.

Practical implications

The examples presented highlight the prescriptive, communicative, and descriptive value of the decision alignment framework. Practitioners are provided with examples for using the decision alignment framework to build toolboxes of approaches that can be aligned to a characterization of real‐world decision problems to improve performance.

Originality/value

The introduction of a decision alignment framework is a significant contribution to the management decision literature. By introducing a decision alignment framework, the rather ambiguous term alignment is precisely defined as the matching of decision problem characterization (primal problem) with the approach possibility set (dual problem).

Details

Management Decision, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Howard Cooke, Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek and Theo Arentze

This paper aims to identify the importance of individual variables in the corporate real estate (CRE) decision-making process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the importance of individual variables in the corporate real estate (CRE) decision-making process.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine experts received a posed scenario of a changed business strategy requiring a CRE reduction in individual interviews. Based on their suggested response, a decision network was modelled for each expert using the causal network elicitation technique, incorporating the utilities for decision variables and importance weights for attributes and benefits. The decision model offers a graphical representation of decision-benefit links for the decisions CRE managers make in such a period of decline.

Findings

Perceived facilitators of CRE dynamic alignment were identified by calculating lift ratios on their perceived importance of the attributes they mentioned during the interviews as nodes in the network that link decisions to benefits. Facilitators included CRE metrics and workplace strategy, while capital expenditure and landlords inhibit alignment processes. The research provides more granular insight into the variables used in CRE decision-making and the factors that facilitate or inhibit the dynamic alignment process.

Research limitations/implications

The research set a specific scenario for the experts to consider. That could be regarded as small but there was clear evidence of saturation of expert knowledge. Additional face-to-face interviews with the experts may have generated further details on the thought processes of the experts.

Practical implications

The research provides more granular insight into the variables used in CRE decision-making and the factors that facilitate or inhibit the dynamic alignment process. Thereby providing CRE decision-makers with key elements for a decision model.

Originality/value

The research technique, causal network elicitation technique, uses semi-structured interviews to create decision networks, which is a technique that has not been widely applied to CRE research. The research provides a granular view of what are important inhibitors or facilitators of dynamic alignment of CRE to business strategy.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Dirk J. Primus and Euthemia Stavrulaki

This study applies a product centric view to examine three product development (PD) decisions that relate to a new product and its supply chain (SC): product design…

Abstract

Purpose

This study applies a product centric view to examine three product development (PD) decisions that relate to a new product and its supply chain (SC): product design, sourcing strategy and product delivery strategy (PDS). The purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of alignment decisions in this area to include concurrent compatibility between product design, SC strategy and market conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study leverages existing theory to identify the key dimensions of alignment between product design, SC strategy and market conditions in a conceptual model. Using survey data from 124 new PD projects collected from various industries, the authors then empirically test the impact of multiple alignment decisions on new product introductions (NPIs) performance.

Findings

The results suggest that one specific project-level design parameter (interface intensity) is a key alignment dimension for product design decisions. Specifically, the authors find that alignment between interface intensity and sourcing strategy, as well as between interface intensity and clock-speed improves NPI performance. Additionally, the authors find evidence that three-way alignment between PDS, interface intensity and market volatility will benefit NPI performance.

Research limitations/implications

Because the study is cross-sectional and conducted at the project level, future work should continue this line of inquiry with longitudinal exams and across a families of development projects.

Practical implications

The findings inform the deliberate management of the PD/SC interface and provide managers with quantitative benefits of concurrent alignment decisions.

Originality/value

This study identifies and addresses important deficits in the understanding of concurrent alignment between product design, SC strategy and market conditions.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Monique Arkesteijn, Ruud Binnekamp and Hans De Jonge

One of the long-standing issues in the field of corporate real estate management is the alignment of an organisation’s real estate to its corporate strategy. To date, 14…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the long-standing issues in the field of corporate real estate management is the alignment of an organisation’s real estate to its corporate strategy. To date, 14 models for corporate real estate (CRE) alignment have been made, as well as four comparative studies about CRE alignment. Some of the CRE alignment models indicate that they strive for maximum or optimum added value. However, because most models take a so-called procedural rationality approach, where the focus is not on the content of the decision but on the way that the decision is made, “how a CRE manager can select an (optimum) alternative” stays a black box. The purpose of this paper is to open the black box and offer a Preference-based Accommodation Strategy (PAS) design procedure that enables CRE managers to design a real estate portfolio, makes use of scales for direct measurement of added value/preference, and allows the aggregation of individual ratings into an overall performance rating. This procedure can be used as add-on to existing alignment models.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of this paper is to test if participants are able to successfully perform the PAS procedure in practice. The PAS procedure is in essence a design methodology that aims to solve strategic portfolio design/decision-making problems. In accordance with problem-solving methodology, mathematical models are made for two pilot studies at the Delft University of Technology. This paper describes a second test of the proposed procedure for designing a real estate strategy. The application of real estate strategy design methods in practice is very context-dependent. Applying the PAS procedure to multiple context-dependent cases yields more valuable results than just applying it to one case.

Findings

The PAS design procedure enables CRE managers to select the (optimal) solution and thereby enhances CRE decision-making. The pilot study results reveal that, by completing the steps in the PAS procedure, the participants are able to express their preferences accordingly. They designed an alternative portfolio with substantially more added value, i.e. a higher overall preference score, than their current real estate portfolio. In addition, they evaluated the design method positively.

Research limitations/implications

The positive results suggest that designing a strategy by using the PAS design procedure is a suitable approach to alignment.

Practical implications

The PAS design procedure enables CRE managers to determine the added value of a real estate strategy and quickly and iteratively design many alternatives. Moreover, the PAS design method is generic, it can be used for a wide range of real estate portfolio types.

Originality/value

The PAS procedure is original because it considers CRE alignment as a combined design and decision problem. The use of operational design and problem-solving methodologies along with an iterative procedure, instead of empirical/statistical methods and procedures, is a novel approach to CRE alignment. The PAS procedure is tested in a second pilot study to provide an assessment of the methodology through the study by testing it under different conditions to the first study. The novelty of this pilot is also that it allowed testing the procedure in its purest form, as the problem structure did not require the additional use of linear programming.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2007

Sami Kajalo, Risto Rajala and Mika Westerlund

Technology‐related issues have an increasing impact on business. The alignment between overall business objectives and technology‐related decisions, such as decisions on…

Abstract

Purpose

Technology‐related issues have an increasing impact on business. The alignment between overall business objectives and technology‐related decisions, such as decisions on application service acquisitions, resurfaces occasionally in the intense academic discussion on information systems (IS). Prior research indicates that the alignment of business and IS decisions remains a major concern for business practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that drive the consistency in technology‐related decisions and result in diverse modes of business‐IS alignment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates application service acquisitions among the top 200 firms in Finland. In this quantitative empirical study, principal component analysis with varimax rotation method is used to examine the companies' drivers for business‐IS alignment. Moreover, the firms are categorized using the cluster analysis method.

Findings

This study identifies four factors that drive the achievement of business‐IS alignment. These factors are: awareness of the impact and risks of IS decisions, efficacy of IS management, systematic decision making process, and business development orientation of IS management. Moreover, the study identifies four clusters of firms that illustrate diverse modes of business‐IS alignment: ad‐hoc alignment, business‐driven alignment, consensual alignment, and technology‐driven alignment.

Originality/value

The value of the study lies in revealing the key factors influencing the alignment of vital IS investments and the overall business strategy. The study identifies four clearly different approaches to business‐IS alignment. Moreover, the paper suggests that business‐IS alignment stems from several factors, including the collective development of strategies that reflect the combined knowledge of business and IS managers.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2021

Howard Cooke, Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek and Theo Arentz

The purpose of this paper is to identify the variables that influence corporate real estate (CRE) decision-making and gauge their relative importance to each other…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the variables that influence corporate real estate (CRE) decision-making and gauge their relative importance to each other, thereby understanding the consequent challenges/implications for CRE managers (CREM’s).

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were undertaken with experienced CREM’s using the causal network elicitation technique to create decision networks for the variables they considered for the specifically defined scenario: dealing with surplus property from a change of business strategy. These networks illustrate the complexity of the mental representations required for the realignment of the CRE portfolio. The key variables are more extensive than alignment theory suggests, namely, financial stakeholders. Additional variables identified include risk, lease accounting, costs, financial analysis, business metrics and motivational drivers. The latter indicates the importance of self-esteem and peer recognition for CREM’s and financial benefits for the C-suite. Accordingly strategy alignment needs to incorporate CRE both in terms of strategy creation and implementation.

Findings

These networks illustrate the complexity of the mental representations required for the realignment of the CRE portfolio. The key variables are more extensive than alignment theory suggests, namely, financial stakeholders. Additional variables identified include risk, lease accounting, costs, financial analysis, business metrics and motivational drivers. The latter indicates the importance of self-esteem and peer recognition for CREM’s and financial benefits for the C-suite. Accordingly, strategy alignment needs to incorporate CRE both in terms of strategy creation and implementation.

Originality/value

This research appears to be the first that looks in detail at the mental representations used by decision-makers while making CRE decisions.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Christopher Heywood and Monique Arkesteijn

This paper aims to report an analysis of the graphical representations of 14 corporate real estate (CRE) models. It does this to establish the systematic, metatheoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report an analysis of the graphical representations of 14 corporate real estate (CRE) models. It does this to establish the systematic, metatheoretical requirements for modelling CRE alignment which to date have been disguised in a multitude of models.

Design/methodology/approach

This meta study of CRE alignment models used a qualitative hermeneutic method to inductively develop understanding of the models’ constituent parts. Several iterations of graphical and textual analysis were required to do this. Further deductive analysis sought to understand the individual models relative to this new understanding.

Findings

The analysis showed that a total of 12 components have been used to model CRE alignment. These are divided into four Building Blocks: understanding corporate strategy; understanding real estate performance; making real estate strategy; and implementing real estate strategy. While every model’s representation contained the four Building Blocks, few models contained all 12 components, though all contained at least seven. Completeness of representation in this study should not be inferred as equating to effectiveness as an alignment process. Various feedback mechanisms were also evident between the components.

Originality/value

The analysis provides the most complete map of the modelling requirements for CRE alignment. It differs from previous theoretical work on alignment by synthesising a metatheory of alignment representation. By providing a more coherent theory by which to model CRE alignment the metatheory provides a consistent basis on which to investigate and theorise aspects of CRE alignment.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Togar M. Simatupang and Ramaswami Sridharan

This paper proposes an integrative framework for supply chain collaboration which is based on the reciprocal approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an integrative framework for supply chain collaboration which is based on the reciprocal approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A reciprocal approach is adopted to capture the interaction phenomenon of different features of collaboration in attaining overall supply chain performance.

Findings

A collaborative supply chain framework is composed of five connecting features of collaboration, namely collaborative performance system, information sharing, decision synchronization, incentive alignment, and integrated supply chain processes.

Research limitations/implications

Further research could be carried out to capitalize the framework for diagnosing and improving supply chain collaboration.

Practical implications

The proposed framework enables the chain members to scrutinize key features of supply chain collaboration before and during collaborative initiatives.

Originality/value

Previous research on supply chain collaboration mainly assume the unilateral phenomenon of collaboration that focuses on a single feature such as information sharing or co‐managed inventory. The proposed framework for the first time explicitly addresses the interaction of different connecting features of collaboration.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Togar M. Simatupang and Ramaswami Sridharan

This paper proposes an instrument to measure the extent of collaboration in a supply chain consisting of two members, suppliers and retailers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes an instrument to measure the extent of collaboration in a supply chain consisting of two members, suppliers and retailers.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model for collaboration incorporates collaborative practices in information sharing, decision synchronisation and incentive alignment. A collaboration index is introduced to measure the level of collaborative practices. A survey of companies in New Zealand was conducted to obtain data to test and evaluate the collaboration index.

Findings

The survey results confirmed the reliability and validity of the proposed collaboration index measure for measuring collaboration. The findings also showed that the collaboration index was positively associated with operational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could consider larger sample sizes and cover other industry types.

Practical implications

Supply chain participants will be able to measure the extent of their collaboration and seek improvement in their performance.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by introducing a new index for measuring the extent of supply chain collaboration. This measure can be used by any participant (member) in a supply chain to identify the level of collaboration and seek improvement.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Strategic alignment can be used to boost decision effectiveness in organizations looking to gain a competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives, strategists and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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