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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Shing Chuan Lee, Noreffendy Tamaldin and Mohd Fadzli Bin Abdollah

This paper aims to investigate the tribological performance of the decanter cake feedstock biodiesel which was blended in 5 and 10 per cent volume with petroleum diesel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the tribological performance of the decanter cake feedstock biodiesel which was blended in 5 and 10 per cent volume with petroleum diesel.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological performance of the decanter cake biodiesel was tested using the modified ASTM D4172 standard with temperature range from 300°C to 750°C and load range from 392 to 981 N while spindle speed is at 1,200 rpm.

Findings

At 5 per cent volume of biodiesel, friction reduced ranging from 10 to 45 per cent at all temperature and load ranges, whereas specific wear rate reduced ranging from 22 to 29 per cent at low load and 4 per cent to 15 per cent at high load for all temperature ranges. Addition up to 10 per cent volume of biodiesel reduced friction ranging from 10 to 35 per cent at all temperature and load ranges, whereas specific wear rate reduced ranging from 15 to 29 per cent only at low load for all temperature ranges.

Practical implications

The standardised test may not represent the actual condition of a real running diesel engine.

Originality/value

Because the lubricity of biodiesel was difficult to determine in a real running engine, this paper provided a standardised test for simplification.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Ilyana Abdullah, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Hafidz Fazli Md Fauadi, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman and Saiful Bahri Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices in Malaysian palm oil mills (POMs) by comparing the status of their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices in Malaysian palm oil mills (POMs) by comparing the status of their current achievements and the levels of priority placed on their practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was used to collect data about 20 sustainable manufacturing practices from 51 POMs located in Malaysia. A five-point Likert scale was considered for recording variations in priorities and current practices with regard to sustainable manufacturing. A Cronbach’s α reliability test and a binomial test were undertaken to assess the internal consistency and the validity of the survey data. Spearman’s ρ correlation analysis was employed to determine the linear correlation between each of the sustainability practices identified. Factor analysis was conducted to reduce the number of sustainable manufacturing practices based on factor loading and to derive a clustering of these factors.

Findings

The results showed that employees’ well-being has the highest level in terms of both priority and current achievement. However, for other sustainable manufacturing practices, there was a difference where the current achievement of these practices in the Malaysian POMs was seen to be slightly lower than the priority given to them. Strong correlation of significant value was observed between the minimization of production waste and pollution prevention practices. From factor analysis, 15 practices of high factor loading were grouped into a proactive sustainability strategy and a preventive sustainability strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The study was still relatively exploratory. Future studies could investigate the barriers to the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices at Malaysian POMs. The sample, which consisted of 51 Malaysian POMs, represented an important sector of the Malaysian economy. Reliance on stated, rather than revealed, preferences may limit the implications of the analysis undertaken for this study, but it does represent a major step forward in understanding the past in what was a highly recommended sector for investigation due to the paucity of extant data. A more broadly based, random sample of POMs from other countries would provide a better understanding of issues related to sustainable manufacturing practices.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be used by practitioners to adjust the sustainable manufacturing practices currently applied and further studies may go on to examine the reasons and implications for discrepancies between priorities and desired sustainability goals in more detail.

Originality/value

The survey conducted about sustainable manufacturing practices amongst Malaysian POMs was focussed on the three dimensions of sustainability, namely, the economic, environmental, and social elements involved.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Book part
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Normalisa Md Isa, Arunnaa Sivapathy and Nur Nadia Adjrina Kamarruddin

Since the 1970s, the sustainable development was developed from science and environmental crusade. Since then, there were many programs done in the field but not named as…

Abstract

Since the 1970s, the sustainable development was developed from science and environmental crusade. Since then, there were many programs done in the field but not named as “Sustainable Development.” The environments have affected because of the process of the development which was noticed by the world community. Malaysia has made a commitment to the 2030 Agenda in September 2015 for the future of mother earth. Despite the increasing attention toward sustainable development and circular economy across the world, understanding of the potential sustainability synergy among developing countries remains sluggish. This chapter therefore briefly discusses the development of circular economy within developed and developing countries. The chapter then narrowed the discussion toward Malaysian practices of the circular economy. Malaysia also recorded among the countries that faced waste management issues in Asia. The detailed discussion includes Malaysian acceptance and initiatives in reaching a circular economy within the past years, present, and future. The discussion surrounds the circular economy practiced by Malaysian industrial players as well as government's initiatives in encouraging and educating Malaysian toward embracing the idea of circular economy and sustainable consumption. As most countries embrace green technologies, Malaysia has taken proactive steps toward adopting green technology. Among the four main policy priorities are energy, environment, economy, and social, the key to green technology in driving the country's economy while promoting sustainable development. In fact, the major economic drivers of the Malaysian economy involve industrial activities such as palm oil, mining, and manufacturing, which are now beginning to take steps toward the development of green technology development. The application of green technology can provide a balance between economic development and environmental preservation as well as solutions to climate change issues. The initiative aims to make Malaysia one of the best countries in the world with sustainable economic growth, innovation, and prosperous citizens by 2050.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-806-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1958

The cultivation of the vine, and the making and drinking of wine date back into unrecorded past history of the human race, occurring in many parts of the world; as soon as…

Abstract

The cultivation of the vine, and the making and drinking of wine date back into unrecorded past history of the human race, occurring in many parts of the world; as soon as the Flood was subsided, the Scriptures tell us, Noah planted a vineyard, and the Psalmist refers to wine making glad the heart of man. But this country of ours is not a place where the vine can grow, at least with any degree of comfort; as a consequence the drinking of wine has never been a typically British habit, and up to comparatively recent times it was mainly confined to the “ upper ” classes. It used to be customary, however, among some of less elevated rank and station, particularly when it was desired to show some signs of aspiration toward, or pretence of, gentility, to keep the odd decanter of wine on or in the sideboard, for production on particular occasions and for special visitors. There had been much hard drinking in the “ good old days ”, both of spirits and malted liquors by the lower orders, and of wine by their betters, and one of the early manifestations of the Victorian conscience was a reaction against this lamentable tendency of our forebears, leading to the formation of a strong temperance movement, which has remained with us to this day, labouring with varied success. That “ wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging ”, was accepted as an awful truth in certain circles, and in them the use of wine was proscribed. But the word “ wine ” still retained a sort of cachet, having been so long associated with high life and social eminence, and the blue ribbon hostess still felt the need to remain fashionable, and to be able to offer to the occasional caller the customary glass of something genteel and comme il faut. Here was a commercial opportunity which led to the appearance on the market of “ non‐alcoholic” wines, and the Non‐conformist madam could now still say her polite “ A glass of wine?” with no qualms of conscience or straining of her temperance principles.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 60 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2015

Charlotta Windahl

This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the innovation challenges firms face when developing and commercialising solutions in the capital goods sector;…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the innovation challenges firms face when developing and commercialising solutions in the capital goods sector; challenges related to the interdependencies between the supplier/innovator and the customers, as well as the solution’s impact on their competencies and activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws upon the emerging body of literature on solutions and established frameworks within innovation management literature. It explores a real-time longitudinal case study of “Alpha” (an international specialist in centrifugal separation, heat exchange and fluid handling), including an R&D project, the project’s transformation into an internal corporate venture and the years of the venture up until its integration into the corporate.

Findings

This paper characterises solutions as involving product and business innovation. By clarifying the differences between how the solution affects the customers and the suppliers, the use of the proposed framework develops a deeper understanding of the obstacles and difficulties involved in solution innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Although some customers were interviewed in this study, a more in-depth study of the customers and the actors within the business network would provide further insight into solution innovations. Merging the two discussions on co-creation and role of users in innovation could provide an avenue for fruitful research within this area.

Practical implications

This paper provides a framework for deconstructing solution innovation, enabling detailed comparison between the innovation’s impact on both suppliers’ and customer’s competencies. Such a tool is helpful for increased understanding of how to facilitate internal and external acceptance for a disruptive and radical business innovation.

Originality/value

This paper links the development and commercialisation of solutions with established innovation frameworks. Understanding solutions as technology-driven business innovations provides a multifaceted and complex perspective on solutions and contributes to better understanding of radical business innovations.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1900

The latest information from the magazine chemist is extremely valuable. He has dealt with milk‐adulteration and how it is done. His advice, if followed, might, however…

Abstract

The latest information from the magazine chemist is extremely valuable. He has dealt with milk‐adulteration and how it is done. His advice, if followed, might, however, speedily bring the manipulating dealer before a magistrate, since the learned writer's recipe is to take a milk having a specific gravity of 1030, and skim it until the gravity is raised to 1036; then add 20 per cent. of water, so that the gravity may be reduced to 1030, and the thing is done. The advice to serve as “fresh from the cow,” preferably in a well‐battered milk‐measure, might perhaps have been added to this analytical gem.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1923

The popular misconception which exists respecting the duties of a Public Analyst is well illustrated by the remarks attributed recently to a borough coroner.

Abstract

The popular misconception which exists respecting the duties of a Public Analyst is well illustrated by the remarks attributed recently to a borough coroner.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1945

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations…

Abstract

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations were designed and made when the result of a forced landing of an aircraft flying over polar regions may have to be faced. Having regard to the special circumstances for which the method described by the Department was designed it is perhaps not too much to say that it introduces as great a change in feeding the crews of airships as did Appert in feeding the crews of sailing ships a hundred and thirty‐five years ago. Appert's method did much to eliminate scurvy. This to prevent starvation and loss of life which the accounts of Polar expeditions have too often recorded. Dried fruits and dried vegetables have long been known and used. Milk powder and egg powder are now as well known. If these and tinned foods be regarded as ordinary rations they are too heavy and too bulky to be of use in an emergency such as may arise when a Polar flight ends in an unpremeditated grounding and the crew are left in a Polar desert to make the best they can of the conditions. It will be remembered that in May last the “Aries,” a British Lancaster airship, made a trip of some 17,000 miles. Much of this trip was in the Polar regions. The g eographical North Pole was visited and in the return journey the true position of the magnetic North Pole was ascertained in a 4,000 mile non‐stop return journey from White Horse, Yukon, to Shrewsbury. In view of possibilities an emergency ration had to be designed in which most of the food was in the form of hydrostatically compressed blocks of compounded and dehydrated foods. The compression reducing bulk; dehydration, weight; compounding ensuring variety. The rations so prepared had to be sufficient to feed nine men for twenty‐eight days. An account of the rations so prepared forms the subject of the report issued by the Department. These blocks consist of mixtures of dehydrated foods with added sweetening and flavouring materials where appropriate, so that each is a ready‐made meal requiring only the addition of water. They are fabricated into tablets of standard size (usually 2in. by 2in. by 0·9in.). They need only to be wrapped in high grade waxed films or papers and their standard size facilitates the assembly of mixed rations whilst very little space is wasted as compared for instance with circular cans. They are made by one of two processes—those containing dried foods of large particle size such as dehydrated meat or vegetables are made by compressing the mixture in a hydraulic press. The pressed block can be broken down easily in the hand. Where the particle size of the material is much finer, as with spray dried powders such as milk or egg, such compressed blocks would be very difficult to crumble, and furthermore lumps escaping crumbling would remain as unreconstituted lumps and mar the smoothness of the product. Thus they are prepared by casting the mixture hot into moulds with added molten fat. The block can be dissolved by boiling water. Many of the blocks containing milk powder may be eaten as sweets. Four kinds of menus from these blocks were prepared to relieve monotony of diet. Details of these are given in the report for four days. The total number of calories for each day ranges from 3,550 to 3,380. The weight of food per man in grammes from 715 to 704. Fat in grammes 213 to 177. Percentage of fat 30 to 25. The computed total nett weight was 393 lbs. Rations for two days can be packed in a standard four‐gallon can—gas packed if necessary—as a master container. Fourteen such cans would be necessary. These, together with immediate wrappings, would make a gross weight of 435 lbs. A most important consideration is weight. It is pointed out that the water extracted during the dehydration process would fill another seventeen cans! If light metal alloys instead of tin plate were used for the master cans a reduction of weight would be possible, but even a total weight of 435 lbs. is “very modest” compared with the weight of most emergency rations, even when the weight of master containers is excluded for the rations as drawn up provide for each man three normal meals per day. The Department refers to the theoretical aspect of the provision of a calorific level of 3,400 per day, with a total weight of 704 gms. per man. If the diet were made up of pure carbohydrate, pure fat and pure protein alone, then, using the factors 4·9 and 4 respectively as the number of calories derived from each gramme of food, a diet containing 25 per cent. fat would have an overall calorific value of 5·25 Cals/gm. a diet giving 3,400 calories, as in Day 3, would therefore weigh 647 gms. This is an absolute minimum below which it would be impossible to go. This figure takes no account of the residual water content of dehydrated foods of salt or minerals or roughage. The weight of 715 gms. achieved in practice includes, in addition to water and roughage, some 8 gms. of salt and 13 gms. of tea. It is therefore considered that, for a ration which gives three normal meals a day, it would be virtually impossible with the materials available at present to reduce the weight of the ration further. It may be added that a stove has been designed to burn motor spirit should it be possible to salvage any after a forced landing. It is considered that this type of food may be of great value for future polar expeditions. This is undoubtedly true whether aeroplanes be used as part of the equipment or not. It may be permissible to suggest that rations such as these would prove useful in land expeditions at a pinch. While in the case of a ship having to be abandoned in mid ocean the crew's chance of survival would obviously be bettered by having a supply of such concentrated rations in the ship's boats.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1955

The Transfer of Functions (Food and Drugs) Order, 1955 (S.I. 1955 No. 959), providing for the transfer of certain food hygiene functions from the Minister of Agriculture…

Abstract

The Transfer of Functions (Food and Drugs) Order, 1955 (S.I. 1955 No. 959), providing for the transfer of certain food hygiene functions from the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food to the Minister of Health, was laid before Parliament on July 5th.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 57 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Has 1992 caught the popular imagination of the man in the Clapham commuter train? As Professor Joad would have said: ‘It all depends what you mean by the popular imagination’.

Abstract

Has 1992 caught the popular imagination of the man in the Clapham commuter train? As Professor Joad would have said: ‘It all depends what you mean by the popular imagination’.

Details

Work Study, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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