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Expert briefing
Publication date: 31 October 2022

The debt problem is more serious, and the tools available to deal with it less developed, than often assumed. To develop plans to deal with debt problems, the…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB273691

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2022

Aziza Naz and Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether capital structure affects accruals and real earnings management (AEM and REM) of nonfinancial firms listed on Pakistan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether capital structure affects accruals and real earnings management (AEM and REM) of nonfinancial firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). Moreover, to investigate whether institutional development (ID) moderates the relation between capital structure and earnings management (EM).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were taken from annual reports of nonfinancial firms listed on the PSX during 2012–2019. Data of 150 firms for a period of eight years were found completed with respect to the variables used in this study. The generalized moments of methods estimator is used to estimate the effects of explanatory variables on earning management. Furthermore, fixed and random effects methods were used to estimate the impact of capital structure on AEM and REM.

Findings

Results show that all three measures of capital structure (i.e. total debt ratio, long-term debt ratio and short-term debt ratios) are inversely related to AEM. In contrast, all measures of capital structure are positively related to abnormal cash flow from operations. Total debt ratio and long-term debt ratio are negatively while short-term debt ratio is positively related to abnormal discretionary expenses. Total debt ratio and short-term debt ratio are significant and negatively related to abnormal production cost. Additionally, interaction terms of ID (i.e. rule of law and regulatory quality) significantly moderate the controlling role of debt on discretionary accruals. In sum, results show that the use of debt induces lender's monitoring. Consequently, managers move toward REM because of lower probability of being exposed.

Practical implications

Findings of this study have significant implications for managers and regulatory authorities. For instance, the use of debt increases the lender’s influence which restricts the managers to be involved in EM practices. Moreover, regulatory authorities are required to address the loopholes in regulations to refrain the managers to be engaged in EM.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in Pakistan that has explored the impact of capital structure on AEM and REM. More importantly, a careful review of the literature affirms that this study is among the few studies that have used ID as a moderating variable to explain the relation between capital structure and EM.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2022

Hsin-I Chou, Xiaofei Pan and Jing Zhao

This paper aims to examine the relationship between executive pay disparity and the cost of debt.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between executive pay disparity and the cost of debt.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of syndicated bank loans granted to United States (US) listed firms from 1992 to 2014 and adopt the loan yield spread (Chief Executive Officer (CEO) pay slice) as the main proxy for the cost of debt (executive pay disparity). The authors also use the Heckman two-stage model to address the sample selection bias and the two-stage least squares and propensity score matching methods to control the potential endogeneity issues. To test different views about executive pay disparity, the authors adopt the cash-to-stock ratio to proxy for managerial risk-shifting incentives.

Findings

The authors find that the cost of debt is significantly higher for firms with larger executive pay disparity, which is robust to sample selection bias, endogeneity concerns, alternative measures and various controls. This positive relationship increases with the risk-shifting incentives of CEOs instead of other top executives, which supports the managerial power view, and is stronger for firms with higher levels of financial distress. The findings suggest that creditors view executive pay disparity are associated with higher credit risk and CEO entrenchment.

Originality/value

This paper reveals one “dark” side of executive pay disparity: it increases the cost of debt and identifies a significant role played by CEOs' risk-shifting incentives. The authors provide direct evidence of the relevance of pay differential to corporate credit analysis.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2022

Nisha Prakash, Aditya Maheshwari and Aparna Hawaldar

Capital structure is an important corporate financing decision, particularly for companies in emerging economies. This paper attempts to understand whether the pandemic…

Abstract

Purpose

Capital structure is an important corporate financing decision, particularly for companies in emerging economies. This paper attempts to understand whether the pandemic had any significant impact on the capital structure of companies in emerging economies. India being a prominent emerging economy is an ideal candidate for the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes three leverage ratios in an extended market index, BSE500, for the period 2015–2021. The ratios considered are short-term leverage ratio (STLR), long-term leverage ratio (LTLR) and total leverage ratio (TLR). A dummy variable differentiates the pre-epidemic (2015–2019) and pandemic (2020–2021) period. Control variables are used to represent firm characteristics such as growth, tangibility, profit, size and liquidity. Dynamic panel data regression is employed to address endogeneity.

Findings

The findings point out that Covid-19 has had a significant, negative effect on LTLR, while the impact on STLR and TLR was insignificant. The findings indicate that companies based in a culturally risk-averse environment, such as India, would reduce the long-term debt to avoid bankruptcy in times of uncertainty.

Research limitations/implications

The study covers the impact of the pandemic on Indian companies. Hence, generalization of the findings to global context might not be valid.

Practical implications

To maintain economic growth in the post-crisis period, Indian policymakers should ensure accessibility to low-cost capital. The findings provide impetus to deepen the insignificant corporate bond market in India for future economic revival.

Originality/value

Developing countries are struggling to revive the economies postpandemic. This is particularly true for Asian economies which are heavily reliant on banks for survival. This research finds evidence to utilize bond market as a source of raising capital for economic revival.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Zun Yuan Wong, Suhal Kusairi and Zairihan Abdul Halim

The persistent increase in household indebtedness is an alarming issue that is becoming a major concern for economists and governments in developing nations. Although…

Abstract

Purpose

The persistent increase in household indebtedness is an alarming issue that is becoming a major concern for economists and governments in developing nations. Although household consumption is an essential source of economic growth, households’ failure to meet their financial obligations will be one of the causes of economic problems if the increase in consumption is largely financed by household borrowing. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the nexus between households’ indebtedness and consumption and the roles of household characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a microdata set of the Household Expenditure and Income Survey in 2019, which contained a simple random sampling of 4,730 households.

Findings

Using a simultaneous equations model, our results show a negative nexus between households’ consumption and their indebtedness. We find that household savings and size have an indirect impact on the debt service ratio, while the assets and total debt repayment instalments indirectly influence household consumption. We also identify differences in the relationship between the gender of the household head, rural and urban locations and income groups in consumption and indebtedness.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of this study is that governments should adopt several programmes to increase the awareness of household financial and debt management, especially for those in the low-income group.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the empirical literature by establishing a microeconomic perspective of consumption and an indebtedness model focusing on the differences in household characteristics in explaining consumption and indebtedness.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Hamdiyah Alhassan and Paul Adjei Kwakwa

The rise in public debt and the increased extraction of natural resources in Ghana at a time that environmental degradation is escalating, especially with carbon dioxide…

Abstract

Purpose

The rise in public debt and the increased extraction of natural resources in Ghana at a time that environmental degradation is escalating, especially with carbon dioxide emission, is worrying. This seems to cast doubt on the country's ability to meet the goals of the Paris agreement for climate change and ensuring sustainable development. Consequently, in this study, the effect of natural resources extraction and government debt on carbon dioxide emission is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was adopted for this study. The Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square Model was used for assessing the data. An annual data from 1971 to 2018 was used for the analysis.

Findings

The long-run results based on the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square analysis reveal that natural resources extraction increases carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the joint effect of post-oil production in commercial quantities and natural resources rent increases carbon dioxide emission. Further, the findings document that the initial stage of government debt improves environmental quality up to a point, beyond which an increase in debt hurts the environment. On the environmental degrading effect of economic growth, the findings validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. It is also observed that urbanization degrades environmental quality.

Practical implications

The study offers appropriate recommendations policymakers need to embrace towards the attainment of lower carbon emissions from the loans and natural resources rent to achieve environmental sustainability.

Originality/value

The effect of debt on carbon dioxide emission is assessed for the Ghanaian economy. It also contributes to studies on the natural resources-carbon emission nexus.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Nicholas Apergis

This study explores the role of rising US student loan debt in explaining income inequality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the role of rising US student loan debt in explaining income inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach to explore the short- and long-run impact of college debt on income inequality in the US through quarterly data over the period 2000–2019.

Findings

The results demonstrate the detrimental impact of student debt on national and regional income inequality. Moreover, the regional analysis highlights a more pronounced impact of student debt on income distribution in South and West regions. The findings document that these regions, with the lower student debt proportions, have the lowest average cost of attending college. Finally, the analysis explores two potential channels – i.e. race and homeownership – that could explain the link between college student debt and income inequality.

Practical implications

The results can be helpful for policymakers and researchers to formulate practical approaches for assessing and addressing the rising national student debt and income inequality.

Originality/value

This is the first, to the best of the author's knowledge, study that explores the impact of US college debt on income inequality.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2022

Chwee-Ming Tee and Teng-Tenk Melissa Teoh

This cross-border study’s main purpose is to examine whether there is a significant association between political institutions and the cost of debt. In addition, it also…

Abstract

Purpose

This cross-border study’s main purpose is to examine whether there is a significant association between political institutions and the cost of debt. In addition, it also investigates whether this association is moderated by the country’s corruption levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a unique cross-border data set comprising 45,848 firms from 117 countries from 2002 to 2017 to investigate these research questions. Further, the authors use the two-stage least squares method to mitigate issues of endogeneity.

Findings

This study finds that political institutions are significantly associated with cost of debt. Specifically, the cost of debt is lower in countries with stronger democratic institutions, smaller government bureaucracies and higher adherence to the rule of law. Further, this association is strengthened by low corruption levels.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the relationship between political institutions and the cost of debt. Overall, the results reveal that democratic institutions, government bureaucracy and the rule of law are significantly associated with cost of debt. This association is stronger in countries with low levels of corruption and consistent with Transparency’s International notion that accountability and transparency by government political institutions promote sustainable economic growth.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

E.A. Evans

Considerable debate centres around the use of debt finance as opposed to new equity and internally generated funds for the financing of new investment projects. The…

1689

Abstract

Considerable debate centres around the use of debt finance as opposed to new equity and internally generated funds for the financing of new investment projects. The favourable corporate tax treatment of debt interest payments compared to equity returns appears to be a government incentive to debt finance. In addition, the differential tax treatment of financial institutions' income and individual investors' income under the tax code, all leads to the idea, that debt financing may increase the market value of a firm beyond the expected value of its operational cash flows.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Jacques A. Schnabel

This paper aims to examine the nexus between hedging, which reduces the volatility of corporate assets, and the anomaly of debt overhang, whereby corporate management is…

1154

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the nexus between hedging, which reduces the volatility of corporate assets, and the anomaly of debt overhang, whereby corporate management is motivated to reject positive net present value (NPV) projects. The question of whether hedging ameliorates or aggravates debt overhang is addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

The Black–Scholes isomorphism between common shares and call options is exploited to determine the allocation of a project’s NPV between debt- and stock-holders. The effect of hedging on this NPV-partitioning is then gauged to determine the resulting likelihood of debt overhang.

Findings

If the volatility of corporate assets is below a critical maximum, hedging ameliorates debt overhang consistent with extant theoretical research. However, above that critical value of volatility, hedging aggravates debt overhang.

Originality/value

The novel result of this note, namely, hedging may exacerbate debt overhang, is demonstrated both analytically and intuitively. The latter is explained by allusion to a second agency-theoretic conflict between debt- versus stock-holders, namely, risk shifting. The disparate effects of hedging on debt overhang imply a non-monotonic relationship between metrics for these two variables, which is a phenomenon that extant empirical studies have failed to take into account.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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