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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Roni Reiter-Palmon, Salvatore Leone, Vignesh Murugavel and Joseph A. Allen

Debriefs are a type of workplace meeting that often use after events and critical incidents. Debriefs are used to review performance, promote shared learning and…

Abstract

Debriefs are a type of workplace meeting that often use after events and critical incidents. Debriefs are used to review performance, promote shared learning and understanding, and improve future team performance. Similarly, reflexivity refers to the extent to which team members reflect upon and openly discuss group processes, procedures, and actions to improve future team performance. In this chapter, the authors review the separate literatures and explore the relationship between debriefs and reflexivity. While the debrief literature does focus on aspects of reflection, what occurs between the aspects of reflection, planning, and action is left unexplored. The concept of reflexivity fits well with the successful use of debriefs, as reflexivity ensures that reflection results in outcomes and moves beyond just an overview or discussion during debriefing. Additionally, important constructs such as psychological safety and sensemaking are relevant to both debriefs and reflexivity such that open and honest discussion as well as developing shared understanding are necessary for effective debriefing and reflection. Using the constructs of psychological safety and sensemaking, the authors propose a model that situates both reflexivity and effective debriefs in the context of team learning. This model integrates team reflexivity with team debriefs, provides a better understanding of how teams can carry out more effective debriefs, and explains how more effective debriefing and greater team reflexivity lead to enhanced learning and improvement in team performance.

Details

Managing Meetings in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-227-0

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Sharon Ruck, Nicola Bowes and Noreen Tehrani

There has been wide debate around early interventions following traumatic exposures. Many of the studies examining the effectiveness of debriefing have not been undertaken…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been wide debate around early interventions following traumatic exposures. Many of the studies examining the effectiveness of debriefing have not been undertaken in a workplace setting for which they were designed. The study was undertaken with prison staff and evaluated the debriefing provided as part of a trauma support programme provided by the prison service. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and a programme of support for prison service staff following a traumatic incident within a prison environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Prison staff exposed to a range of traumatic events were offered debriefing. Measurements were taken soon after the incident and again one month later. The scores of those receiving debriefing were compared with those who did not receive debriefing.

Findings

The results showed that the prison staff receiving debriefing showed a significant reduction in their traumatic stress, anxiety and depression scores. There was no significant difference in the symptoms of the non-debriefed group.

Research limitations//implications

The findings suggest that group-based well structured debrief sessions can be useful in reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress following exposure to critical incidents in the workplace. The findings were accepted with the limitation that the groups were self-selecting, a randomised control trial was not allowed for the purpose of this study due to ethical concerns.

Originality/value

The results suggest that there are benefits in undertaking group debriefing within an organisational setting.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Kristian Firing, Linn Therece Johansen and Frode Moen

– The purpose of this paper is to explore a better understanding of Holistic Debriefing processes from a learning perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a better understanding of Holistic Debriefing processes from a learning perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

During a terror attack in which 69 people were killed and 66 were wounded, a Search and Rescue crew experienced “fear of death” while giving life-saving help to victims of the attack. Afterwards, the crew conducted a Holistic Debriefing. The crew participated in interviews to share their experience of this type of debriefing.

Findings

The findings from the Holistic Debriefing sessions suggest that the debriefing process was experienced as positive in terms of social support, emotions and meaning. These experiences are further explained from a learning perspective.

Research limitations/implications

This research was conducted on a small group of individuals experiencing an extreme situation, and findings may not readily generalize to other populations or situations.

Practical implications

Holistic Debriefing has been adopted by an increasing number of squadrons in the Norwegian Air Force.

Social implications

Holistic Debriefing has been implemented at the Norwegian Air Force Academy, and may be relevant for other units involved in similar operations.

Originality/value

This study is unique when it comes to exploring Holistic Debriefing of rescue personnel in the aftermath of a terror attack. Moreover, Holistic Debriefing is also addressed as a reflection process in order to enhance individual and group learning processes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Lauren A. Monds, Helen M. Paterson and Keenan Whittle

Operational debriefing and psychological debriefing both involve groups of participants (typically from the emergency services) discussing a critical incident. Research on…

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Abstract

Purpose

Operational debriefing and psychological debriefing both involve groups of participants (typically from the emergency services) discussing a critical incident. Research on post‐incident debriefing has previously raised concerns over the likelihood that this discussion may affect not only psychological responses, but also memory integrity. It is possible that discussion in this setting could increase susceptibility to the misinformation effect. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this study was to investigate whether including a warning to the debriefing instructions about the possibility of memory contamination could reduce the misinformation effect. Participants viewed a stressful film, and were assigned to one of three conditions: debriefing with standard instructions, debriefing with a memory warning, or an individual recall control condition. Free recall memory and distress for the film were assessed.

Findings

Results indicate that participants in both debriefing conditions reported significantly more misinformation than those who did not participate in a discussion. Additionally it was found that the warning of memory contamination did not diminish the misinformation effect.

Originality/value

These findings are discussed with suggestions for the future of debriefing, with a particular focus on the emergency services.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Vered Holzmann, Shoshana Mischari, Shoshana Goldberg and Amitai Ziv

This article aims to present a unique systematic and validated method for creating a linkage between past experiences and management of future occurrences in an organization.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present a unique systematic and validated method for creating a linkage between past experiences and management of future occurrences in an organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on actual data accumulated in a series of projects performed in a major medical center. Qualitative and quantitative content analyses were performed on 158 debriefing documents that were generated during two years. The analyses yielded a dataset which was utilized for cluster analysis to construct an organizational hierarchical risk tree.

Findings

Three major project phases were found to be the most influential: planning, executing, and controlling. The major risk areas identified were found to be those related to the initial work plan, professional responsibility definition, quality control, and communication management.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on the aspects of organizational learning and suggests a new interpretation method for debriefing documents and a utilization method to mitigate potential risks. The most important outcome of the synergy was a new ability enabling staff members to improve their qualifications on a continuous basis. However, further research is required to examine the medical center debriefing and risk management from a long‐term perspective.

Originality/value

The current study was conceived during a discussion on the subject of safety improvement, where the impact of human behavior on risk events occurrence was debated. Hence, the paper was dedicated to analyzing the effects of the expanding limits of the prognosis “to err is human”. The method enables organizations to develop a tailored risk mitigation plan based on its accumulated processes and projects lessons‐learned. Although the paper describes a process conducted in a medical center, the method and findings are applicable to many other organizations.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Cécile Godé and Pierre Barbaroux

This article aims to examine the nature and logics of organizational learning considered as a process by which organizations capitalize on the variety of experiences

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322

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine the nature and logics of organizational learning considered as a process by which organizations capitalize on the variety of experiences accumulated by their members.

Design/methodology/approach

Complementing the current literature on experiential learning, the authors build on a case study to investigate how organizations benefit from action learning and seek to identify the properties of the architecture supporting it. The case study focuses on how French Air Force fighter and airlift aircrews carry out debriefing sessions in their daily activities.

Findings

Within this framework, it can be observed that learning in debriefing sessions ultimately depends on the capacity of the learning agents to integrate individual and collective functions (namely, individual progression and collective performance).

Originality/value

Building on the foregoing, the paper elaborates on a conceptual model of the debriefing procedure made up of three components: a learning mode, a learning structure and a learning culture. It follows that the organization is likely to capitalize on individual experiences to improve knowledge and action if it is capable of providing its members with a flexible learning architecture enabling individuals to combine distinctive learning modes along with heterogeneous structures and cultural values.

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Ann Marie Wernick, Jillian Marie Conry and Paige Daniel Ware

This study investigates how debrief conversations unfold during virtual coaching sessions that provide embedded opportunities to practice teaching within a mixed reality…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how debrief conversations unfold during virtual coaching sessions that provide embedded opportunities to practice teaching within a mixed reality simulation (MRS). We examine how teacher and coach topical episodes function (agreeing, explaining, clarifying, probing, recapping, reflecting and suggesting) to activate reflection as part of virtual coaching.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and the belief that learning is collaborative and impacts how pre- and in-service teachers construct knowledge, this exploratory case study draws on insights from 15 graduate students (5 pre-service teachers (PSTs) and 10 in-service teachers (ISTs)) who participated in virtual coaching with embedded practice opportunities. Data sources were video recordings and transcripts of 15 virtual coaching sessions, and one-on-one postcoaching interviews. Coding categories were determined through the constant comparative analysis method.

Findings

Findings indicate that an MRS provides an immediate context for reflection, which guided the debrief conversations. Additionally, functions occurred with varying frequency among PSTs and ISTs, and across both groups, probing questions often led directly to reflecting and recapping the shared simulation context.

Research limitations/implications

This study had a small sample (n = 15) and the use of an MRS, while widely used, is not necessarily a scalable practice.

Originality/value

In times of remote teaching, like during corona virus 2019 (COVID-19), opportunities to simulate clinical experiences become vital. With a limited research base, learning how teachers engage with and learn from simulated experiences is a key to creating rich learning opportunities for teachers.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Douglas Paton

The recognition that disaster workers may be victimized as a consequence of fulfilling their disaster relief role has resulted in the development of several interventions…

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992

Abstract

The recognition that disaster workers may be victimized as a consequence of fulfilling their disaster relief role has resulted in the development of several interventions to assist their recovery. Psychological debriefing is a prominent support resource. Uses recent concerns over the effectiveness of debriefing to frame a discussion of the nature of recovery and the longer‐term determinants of its effectiveness. Focuses on the role of social, psychological, familial and organizational factors as determinants of the quality of recovery. Discusses the implications of these factors for the design and delivery of support resources for disaster workers.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Timothy John Mavin and Wolff-Michael Roth

– This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern.

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1298

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes included face-to-face classroom-based training; pilots assessing pre-recorded videos in classroom-based training; pilots assessing videos with fellow pilot of similar rank (paired training); pilots undertaking traditional 4-hour simulator session with 1-hour debriefing using a variety of technologies for replaying the simulator session; and pilots undertaking 2-hour simulator sessions with extended 3-hour debriefing utilizing simulator replay video.

Findings

Although traditional classroom-based, face-to-face instruction was viewed as acceptable, pilots who critically assessed the practice of other pilots in pre-recorded videos felt empowered by transferring classroom instruction to the workplace. The study also establishes a need to determine the correct balance between high-workload simulator training and low-workload debriefing.

Research limitations/implications

A move towards developing a typology for workplace learning patterns was viewed negatively if job performance was the focus. However, pilot practitioners felt empowered when provided with the right mix of performance-oriented learning opportunities, especially when these provided an appropriate mix of high-fidelity simulations with time for reflection on practice.

Practical implications

By focusing on one learning pattern – job performance – the paper demonstrates the benefits of learning via a variety of instructional modes. Whereas aviation has a unique workplace environment, many other high- and low-risk industries are acknowledging the impact of technical and non-technical skills on job performance. This may suggest that findings from this study are transferable across a broader range of workplace settings.

Originality/value

The findings demonstrate that broadening research across many professional workplace settings may assist in developing a more robust framework for the micro-organization of each workplace learning pattern.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1981

Don Binsted and Robin Snell

This paper is the first of five based on research carried out in the Centre for the Study of Management Learning at University of Lancaster. It concentrates on the…

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87

Abstract

This paper is the first of five based on research carried out in the Centre for the Study of Management Learning at University of Lancaster. It concentrates on the relationships between tutors and learners and the facilitating strategies of tutors, and the effect of these on learners' feelings and their learning and interest.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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