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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Sharon Ruck, Nicola Bowes and Noreen Tehrani

There has been wide debate around early interventions following traumatic exposures. Many of the studies examining the effectiveness of debriefing have not been undertaken…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been wide debate around early interventions following traumatic exposures. Many of the studies examining the effectiveness of debriefing have not been undertaken in a workplace setting for which they were designed. The study was undertaken with prison staff and evaluated the debriefing provided as part of a trauma support programme provided by the prison service. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and a programme of support for prison service staff following a traumatic incident within a prison environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Prison staff exposed to a range of traumatic events were offered debriefing. Measurements were taken soon after the incident and again one month later. The scores of those receiving debriefing were compared with those who did not receive debriefing.

Findings

The results showed that the prison staff receiving debriefing showed a significant reduction in their traumatic stress, anxiety and depression scores. There was no significant difference in the symptoms of the non-debriefed group.

Research limitations//implications

The findings suggest that group-based well structured debrief sessions can be useful in reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress following exposure to critical incidents in the workplace. The findings were accepted with the limitation that the groups were self-selecting, a randomised control trial was not allowed for the purpose of this study due to ethical concerns.

Originality/value

The results suggest that there are benefits in undertaking group debriefing within an organisational setting.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Kristian Firing, Linn Therece Johansen and Frode Moen

– The purpose of this paper is to explore a better understanding of Holistic Debriefing processes from a learning perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a better understanding of Holistic Debriefing processes from a learning perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

During a terror attack in which 69 people were killed and 66 were wounded, a Search and Rescue crew experienced “fear of death” while giving life-saving help to victims of the attack. Afterwards, the crew conducted a Holistic Debriefing. The crew participated in interviews to share their experience of this type of debriefing.

Findings

The findings from the Holistic Debriefing sessions suggest that the debriefing process was experienced as positive in terms of social support, emotions and meaning. These experiences are further explained from a learning perspective.

Research limitations/implications

This research was conducted on a small group of individuals experiencing an extreme situation, and findings may not readily generalize to other populations or situations.

Practical implications

Holistic Debriefing has been adopted by an increasing number of squadrons in the Norwegian Air Force.

Social implications

Holistic Debriefing has been implemented at the Norwegian Air Force Academy, and may be relevant for other units involved in similar operations.

Originality/value

This study is unique when it comes to exploring Holistic Debriefing of rescue personnel in the aftermath of a terror attack. Moreover, Holistic Debriefing is also addressed as a reflection process in order to enhance individual and group learning processes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Lauren A. Monds, Helen M. Paterson and Keenan Whittle

Operational debriefing and psychological debriefing both involve groups of participants (typically from the emergency services) discussing a critical incident. Research on…

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Abstract

Purpose

Operational debriefing and psychological debriefing both involve groups of participants (typically from the emergency services) discussing a critical incident. Research on post‐incident debriefing has previously raised concerns over the likelihood that this discussion may affect not only psychological responses, but also memory integrity. It is possible that discussion in this setting could increase susceptibility to the misinformation effect. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this study was to investigate whether including a warning to the debriefing instructions about the possibility of memory contamination could reduce the misinformation effect. Participants viewed a stressful film, and were assigned to one of three conditions: debriefing with standard instructions, debriefing with a memory warning, or an individual recall control condition. Free recall memory and distress for the film were assessed.

Findings

Results indicate that participants in both debriefing conditions reported significantly more misinformation than those who did not participate in a discussion. Additionally it was found that the warning of memory contamination did not diminish the misinformation effect.

Originality/value

These findings are discussed with suggestions for the future of debriefing, with a particular focus on the emergency services.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Vered Holzmann, Shoshana Mischari, Shoshana Goldberg and Amitai Ziv

This article aims to present a unique systematic and validated method for creating a linkage between past experiences and management of future occurrences in an organization.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present a unique systematic and validated method for creating a linkage between past experiences and management of future occurrences in an organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on actual data accumulated in a series of projects performed in a major medical center. Qualitative and quantitative content analyses were performed on 158 debriefing documents that were generated during two years. The analyses yielded a dataset which was utilized for cluster analysis to construct an organizational hierarchical risk tree.

Findings

Three major project phases were found to be the most influential: planning, executing, and controlling. The major risk areas identified were found to be those related to the initial work plan, professional responsibility definition, quality control, and communication management.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on the aspects of organizational learning and suggests a new interpretation method for debriefing documents and a utilization method to mitigate potential risks. The most important outcome of the synergy was a new ability enabling staff members to improve their qualifications on a continuous basis. However, further research is required to examine the medical center debriefing and risk management from a long‐term perspective.

Originality/value

The current study was conceived during a discussion on the subject of safety improvement, where the impact of human behavior on risk events occurrence was debated. Hence, the paper was dedicated to analyzing the effects of the expanding limits of the prognosis “to err is human”. The method enables organizations to develop a tailored risk mitigation plan based on its accumulated processes and projects lessons‐learned. Although the paper describes a process conducted in a medical center, the method and findings are applicable to many other organizations.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Cécile Godé and Pierre Barbaroux

This article aims to examine the nature and logics of organizational learning considered as a process by which organizations capitalize on the variety of experiences

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322

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine the nature and logics of organizational learning considered as a process by which organizations capitalize on the variety of experiences accumulated by their members.

Design/methodology/approach

Complementing the current literature on experiential learning, the authors build on a case study to investigate how organizations benefit from action learning and seek to identify the properties of the architecture supporting it. The case study focuses on how French Air Force fighter and airlift aircrews carry out debriefing sessions in their daily activities.

Findings

Within this framework, it can be observed that learning in debriefing sessions ultimately depends on the capacity of the learning agents to integrate individual and collective functions (namely, individual progression and collective performance).

Originality/value

Building on the foregoing, the paper elaborates on a conceptual model of the debriefing procedure made up of three components: a learning mode, a learning structure and a learning culture. It follows that the organization is likely to capitalize on individual experiences to improve knowledge and action if it is capable of providing its members with a flexible learning architecture enabling individuals to combine distinctive learning modes along with heterogeneous structures and cultural values.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Roni Reiter-Palmon, Salvatore Leone, Vignesh Murugavel and Joseph A. Allen

Debriefs are a type of workplace meeting that often use after events and critical incidents. Debriefs are used to review performance, promote shared learning and…

Abstract

Debriefs are a type of workplace meeting that often use after events and critical incidents. Debriefs are used to review performance, promote shared learning and understanding, and improve future team performance. Similarly, reflexivity refers to the extent to which team members reflect upon and openly discuss group processes, procedures, and actions to improve future team performance. In this chapter, the authors review the separate literatures and explore the relationship between debriefs and reflexivity. While the debrief literature does focus on aspects of reflection, what occurs between the aspects of reflection, planning, and action is left unexplored. The concept of reflexivity fits well with the successful use of debriefs, as reflexivity ensures that reflection results in outcomes and moves beyond just an overview or discussion during debriefing. Additionally, important constructs such as psychological safety and sensemaking are relevant to both debriefs and reflexivity such that open and honest discussion as well as developing shared understanding are necessary for effective debriefing and reflection. Using the constructs of psychological safety and sensemaking, the authors propose a model that situates both reflexivity and effective debriefs in the context of team learning. This model integrates team reflexivity with team debriefs, provides a better understanding of how teams can carry out more effective debriefs, and explains how more effective debriefing and greater team reflexivity lead to enhanced learning and improvement in team performance.

Details

Managing Meetings in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-227-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Douglas Paton

The recognition that disaster workers may be victimized as a consequence of fulfilling their disaster relief role has resulted in the development of several interventions…

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993

Abstract

The recognition that disaster workers may be victimized as a consequence of fulfilling their disaster relief role has resulted in the development of several interventions to assist their recovery. Psychological debriefing is a prominent support resource. Uses recent concerns over the effectiveness of debriefing to frame a discussion of the nature of recovery and the longer‐term determinants of its effectiveness. Focuses on the role of social, psychological, familial and organizational factors as determinants of the quality of recovery. Discusses the implications of these factors for the design and delivery of support resources for disaster workers.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Timothy John Mavin and Wolff-Michael Roth

– This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern.

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1313

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes included face-to-face classroom-based training; pilots assessing pre-recorded videos in classroom-based training; pilots assessing videos with fellow pilot of similar rank (paired training); pilots undertaking traditional 4-hour simulator session with 1-hour debriefing using a variety of technologies for replaying the simulator session; and pilots undertaking 2-hour simulator sessions with extended 3-hour debriefing utilizing simulator replay video.

Findings

Although traditional classroom-based, face-to-face instruction was viewed as acceptable, pilots who critically assessed the practice of other pilots in pre-recorded videos felt empowered by transferring classroom instruction to the workplace. The study also establishes a need to determine the correct balance between high-workload simulator training and low-workload debriefing.

Research limitations/implications

A move towards developing a typology for workplace learning patterns was viewed negatively if job performance was the focus. However, pilot practitioners felt empowered when provided with the right mix of performance-oriented learning opportunities, especially when these provided an appropriate mix of high-fidelity simulations with time for reflection on practice.

Practical implications

By focusing on one learning pattern – job performance – the paper demonstrates the benefits of learning via a variety of instructional modes. Whereas aviation has a unique workplace environment, many other high- and low-risk industries are acknowledging the impact of technical and non-technical skills on job performance. This may suggest that findings from this study are transferable across a broader range of workplace settings.

Originality/value

The findings demonstrate that broadening research across many professional workplace settings may assist in developing a more robust framework for the micro-organization of each workplace learning pattern.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1992

Malcolm MacLachlan

Contends that the quality of debriefing at the conclusion of atraining exercise will determine whether participants are left feelingat a loose end, seeing the exercise as…

Abstract

Contends that the quality of debriefing at the conclusion of a training exercise will determine whether participants are left feeling at a loose end, seeing the exercise as having little relevance to their jobs or thinking that they have been fortunate to have experienced an amount of “accelerated learning”, telescoped into a short time period, equivalent to what might have taken years of on‐the‐job experience to realize. Presents a five‐stage model for the use of exercises during training sessions, developed around the core activity of debriefing.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Yoon Jeon Kim and Oleg Pavlov

The authors developed a pedagogical framework called the game-based structural debriefing (GBSD) to leverage the affordances of video games for teaching systems thinking…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors developed a pedagogical framework called the game-based structural debriefing (GBSD) to leverage the affordances of video games for teaching systems thinking. By integrating system dynamics visualization tools within a set of debriefing activities, GBSD helps teachers make systems thinking an explicit goal of the gameplay and learning when they use available educational games in the classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a design-based research methodology with the goals of validating GBSD and investigating the utility of GBSD across different contexts as a design source to develop game-based curriculum. Over the course of 12 months, the authors conducted one focus group interview and three design workshops with participating teachers and master teachers. Between the workshops, the team rapidly iterated the framework, as well as curricular materials, in collaboration with the teachers.

Findings

The authors developed a curriculum unit that integrates systems dynamics visualization tools and a video game for middle school life science ecosystem curriculum. The unit was implemented by the three teachers who participated in the co-design. The implementations confirmed the flexibility of the unit because teachers created additional instructional materials that supplemented the GBSD protocol and addressed the unique limitations and needs of their classrooms.

Originality/value

GBSD builds on system dynamics, which is a distinct academic discipline and methodology, and it uses its visualization tools, which are not widely used in the systems thinking educational literature. GBSD is also unique, in that it applies these tools within the debriefing activities developed for an off-the-shelf educational game. This paper illustrates how a design framework can be used to support teachers’ thoughtful integration of games in curriculum development.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 120 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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