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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Carolyn Jackson, Tamsin McBride, Kim Manley, Belinda Dewar, Beverley Young, Assumpta Ryan and Debbie Roberts

This paper aims to share the findings of a realist evaluation study that set out to identify how to strengthen nursing, midwifery and allied health professions (NMAHP) leadership…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to share the findings of a realist evaluation study that set out to identify how to strengthen nursing, midwifery and allied health professions (NMAHP) leadership across all health-care contexts in the UK conducted between 2018 and 2019. The collaborative research team were from the Universities of Bangor, Ulster, the University of the West of Scotland and Canterbury Christ Church University.

Design/methodology/approach

Realist evaluation and appreciative inquiry were used across three phases of the study. Phase 1 analysed the literature to generate tentative programme theories about what works, tested out in Phase 2 through a national social media Twitter chat and sense-making workshops to help refine the theories in Phase 3. Cross-cutting themes were synthesised into a leadership framework identifying the strategies that work for practitioners in a range of settings and professions based on the context, mechanism and output configuration of realist evaluation. Stakeholders contributed to the ongoing interrogation, analysis and synthesis of project outcomes.

Findings

Five guiding lights of leadership, a metaphor for principles, were generated that enable and strengthen leadership across a range of contexts. – “The Light Between Us as interactions in our relationships”, “Seeing People’s Inner Light”, “Kindling the Spark of light and keeping it glowing”, “Lighting up the known and the yet to be known” and “Constellations of connected stars”.

Research limitations/implications

This study has illuminated the a-theoretical nature of the relationships between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes in the existing leadership literature. There is more scope to develop the tentative programme theories developed in this study with NMAHP leaders in a variety of different contexts. The outcomes of leadership research mostly focussed on staff outcomes and intermediate outcomes that are then linked to ultimate outcomes in both staff and patients (supplemental). More consideration needs to be given to the impact of leadership on patients, carers and their families.

Practical implications

The study has developed additional important resources to enable NMAHP leaders to demonstrate their leadership impact in a range of contexts through the leadership impact self-assessment framework which can be used for 360 feedback in the workplace using the appreciative assessment and reflection tool.

Social implications

Whilst policymakers note the increasing importance of leadership in facilitating the culture change needed to support health and care systems to adopt sustainable change at pace, there is still a prevailing focus on traditional approaches to individual leadership development as opposed to collective leadership across teams, services and systems. If this paper fails to understand how to transform leadership policy and education, then it will be impossible to support the workforce to adapt and flex to the increasingly complex contexts they are working in. This will serve to undermine system integration for health and social care if the capacity and capability for transformation are not attended to. Whilst there are ambitious global plans (WHO, 2015) to enable integrated services to be driven by citizen needs, there is still a considerable void in understanding how to authentically engage with people to ensure the transformation is driven by their needs as opposed to what the authors think they need. There is, therefore, a need for systems leaders with the full skillset required to enable integrated services across place-based systems, particularly clinicians who are able to break down barriers and silo working across boundaries through the credibility, leadership and facilitation expertise they provide.

Originality/value

The realist evaluation with additional synthesis from key stakeholders has provided new knowledge about the principles of effective NMAHP leadership in health and social care, presented in such a way that facilitates the use of the five guiding lights to inform further practice, education, research and policy development.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Employment Secretary Tom King MP, outlining a simple management checklist to the IPM Conference in Harrogate, advised all senior managers to place a second notice above their…

Abstract

Employment Secretary Tom King MP, outlining a simple management checklist to the IPM Conference in Harrogate, advised all senior managers to place a second notice above their desks, alongside the one saying The Buck stops here, saying Communication starts here, to serve as a constant reminder to them to see that the company's system of communication actually works.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2023

Paula Hall and Debbie Ellis

Gender bias in artificial intelligence (AI) should be solved as a priority before AI algorithms become ubiquitous, perpetuating and accentuating the bias. While the problem has…

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Abstract

Purpose

Gender bias in artificial intelligence (AI) should be solved as a priority before AI algorithms become ubiquitous, perpetuating and accentuating the bias. While the problem has been identified as an established research and policy agenda, a cohesive review of existing research specifically addressing gender bias from a socio-technical viewpoint is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the social causes and consequences of, and proposed solutions to, gender bias in AI algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive systematic review followed established protocols to ensure accurate and verifiable identification of suitable articles. The process revealed 177 articles in the socio-technical framework, with 64 articles selected for in-depth analysis.

Findings

Most previous research has focused on technical rather than social causes, consequences and solutions to AI bias. From a social perspective, gender bias in AI algorithms can be attributed equally to algorithmic design and training datasets. Social consequences are wide-ranging, with amplification of existing bias the most common at 28%. Social solutions were concentrated on algorithmic design, specifically improving diversity in AI development teams (30%), increasing awareness (23%), human-in-the-loop (23%) and integrating ethics into the design process (21%).

Originality/value

This systematic review is the first of its kind to focus on gender bias in AI algorithms from a social perspective within a socio-technical framework. Identification of key causes and consequences of bias and the breakdown of potential solutions provides direction for future research and policy within the growing field of AI ethics.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-08-2021-0452

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2017

Louise Gillies and Helen M. Burrows

Families conduct their affairs through processes that are built upon those of previous generations and also social capacities such as culture, class, oppression and poverty. The…

Abstract

Families conduct their affairs through processes that are built upon those of previous generations and also social capacities such as culture, class, oppression and poverty. The media has played a part in stereotyping the lower classes through their portrayal on the television programmes such as Benefits Street and Jeremy Kyle and tabloid newspaper stories. This chapter is a case study of two families who are at the opposing ends of the social scale, the Horrobin/Carter and Aldridge families. The two families were chosen due to them being linked by marriage in the younger generation. Through the use of genograms, we explore how the families differ in their attitudes towards relationships within their individual families, and also how they relate to each other as separate family groups. Despite the many differences, there are also a number of key similarities, particularly regarding the key females in the families, in terms of family background and snobbery. We also show that there is little family loyalty in the more privileged family and a power differential between the two families (oppressors vs. oppressed) in terms of the crimes committed.

Details

Custard, Culverts and Cake
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-285-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Timothy Clark

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and illustrate the potential relationships between doctoral students’ life histories and educational experiences and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and illustrate the potential relationships between doctoral students’ life histories and educational experiences and their methodological understanding and assumptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative research design consisted of life-history interviews with nine doctoral researchers in the UK in disciplines relating to the social sciences.

Findings

The study indicated that the students’ methodological assumptions may be understood as a socially constructed product of their life histories and academic experiences. Experiences of postgraduate research training were presented as having the potential to unlock the methodological consciousness required to re-frame these experiences, improve understanding and resolve methodological conflict.

Originality/value

This paper provides an insight into the complex nature of the development of methodological understanding and a provocation for considering methodological becoming through the lens of socialisation. This may have utility for both doctoral students and educators.

Details

Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4686

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Robert N. Roberts

The article examines the potential impact of FAR Subpart 3:10, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct on the system for regulating defense procurement integrity. The…

Abstract

The article examines the potential impact of FAR Subpart 3:10, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct on the system for regulating defense procurement integrity. The article argues that the adoption of the new Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct will not change the already heavy emphasis placed on full compliance with criminal and civil statutes directed at protecting procurement integrity. The article also argues that the defense procurement integrity program should devote equal attention to adoption of non-criminal standards of conduct directed at assuring the impartiality and objectivity of contractor employees. Finally, the article argues that in order to rebuild public trust in contractor employees the FAR Council should require contractor employees who perform duties similar to full-time federal employees to comply with a new uniform set of non-criminal standards of conduct rules directed at assuring the impartiality and objectivity of contractor employees.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Gayle A. Sulik and Astrid Eich-Krohm

Purpose – This chapter examines medical consumerism and the changing relations between patients as consumers and the medical system across two women's health contexts, breast…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines medical consumerism and the changing relations between patients as consumers and the medical system across two women's health contexts, breast cancer and infertility.

Methodology/approach – The analysis draws on two qualitative studies: The first explores the experiences of 60 breast cancer survivors through in-depth interviews and participant observation (Sulik, 2005), and the second uses in-depth interviews to analyze 18 women's experiences with infertility (Eich-Krohm, 2000).

Findings – The medical consumer is an individualized role that shifts attention away from the quality problem in health care and toward the quality of the person as a medical consumer who is characterized to be optimistic, proactive, rational, responsible, and informed.

Research limitations/implications – As medicine has become a form of mass consumption, the category of medical consumer has elevated the individual in medical decision-making. The shift from patient to medical consumer is an ongoing process that is grounded in a tension between medical control and individual agency, and is exacerbated by the intensity and incomprehensibility of modern medicine.

Practical implications – The proliferation of medical information and personal illness narratives through the Internet, advice books, and self-help groups have advanced lay knowledge about preventive medicine and medical treatment while simultaneously introducing new fears and anxiety about the multitude of options and outcomes.

Originality/value of chapter – This study contributes to our knowledge on medical consumerism and its impact on illness experience and the synthesis of lay and professional knowledge.

Details

Patients, Consumers and Civil Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-215-9

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Shafiqur Rahman, Debbie Haski-Leventhal and Mehrdokht Pournader

This paper aims to investigate the relations between employee corporate social responsibility (CSR) attitudes on job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC) in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relations between employee corporate social responsibility (CSR) attitudes on job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC) in the context of Bangladeshi banks in the developing world. Specifically, it examines the relationship of CSR attitudes with the three diverse aspects of OC: affective OC, normative OC and continuance OC.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparisons are made via survey data obtained from 502 employees of two banks in Bangladesh using structural equation modeling analysis. The research instrument in four sections illustrates the most common measures in the literature used to evaluate the constructs and their interrelations according to the proposed conceptual model of the study.

Findings

The outcomes of the study reveal that there is a positive relationship between employee CSR attitudes, and both JS and OC. In addition to establishing a relationship between CSR attitudes and “Affective OC”, this study also found a relationship with “Normative OC”, which is less common in the existing literature.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study mostly revolve around sample and social desirability. To further test the generalizability and cross-sectional validity of the outcomes, it is suggested that the proposed framework be tested in several other industrial/service sectors of developing countries.

Practical implications

The findings of the present research encourage companies in the developing world to adopt CSR practices to increase rates of JS and OC.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on CSR and positive workplace outcomes, specifically in the developing world context. Additionally, and unlike past research, the results show the significant effect of employee CSR attitudes on both affective OC and normative OC.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Pedagogies of Possibility for Negotiating Sexuality Education with Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-743-0

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

David Smith and Kerry Jacobs

This paper aims to present an examination of the characterisation of accounting and accountants in popular music. Some authors have considered the place of accounting in popular…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an examination of the characterisation of accounting and accountants in popular music. Some authors have considered the place of accounting in popular culture and the social perceptions of accounting and accountants. This research aims to advance this work by suggesting that music both offers a powerful insight into social perceptions of accounting, and serves both to reflect and reinforce these perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

Songs featuring accountants were identified, which was verified by a search of song lyric databases using the search terms “accountant/s”, “accounting” and “accounts” and accounting terms. The lyrics were analysed on the basis of how the accountants or accounting activity were presented, and a taxonomy was established.

Findings

Some songs reflect the image of the accountant as both the facilitator and accoutrement of positions of wealth and privilege. The dark side of the image is the assertion that the accountant will abuse their position of trust. The final, and perhaps most sinister image, is that of accountants as the perpetrators of fraud and deception. It is concluded that these images of accountants and accounting illustrate that the accounting profession is facing a significant challenge in terms of its image and relationship to the public.

Originality/value

This study is the first to consider the characterisation of accountants/accounting in popular music. Recent representations have tended to characterise accounting and accountants in a particularly negative light. Accountants are presented as agents in the destruction of the environment, exploiters of the poor, accessories and agents of the wealthy and constructors of a truth” that benefits the rich. Overall, the representation of accounting in music tends to fit the position adopted by many of the most critical accounting authors. A particular aspect of the oppressive role exercised by accountants and accounting in society is as the embodiment of, and advocate for, or even a metaphor for, a particular form of economic reason that progressively suppresses and destroys relationships, the environment and artistic creativity in the interest of financial gain.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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