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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Christine Martin

W.E.B. DuBois, in his 1903 collection of writings entitled The Souls of Black Folk, describes what he calls “The Veil,” which succinctly sums up the deadly and adverse…

Abstract

W.E.B. DuBois, in his 1903 collection of writings entitled The Souls of Black Folk, describes what he calls “The Veil,” which succinctly sums up the deadly and adverse experiences of African Americans in the US. With DuBois contemplations of a Veil under which US Blacks alone live and die as context, this paper takes a look at the modern condition of African Americans in the US, whether they continue to exist within DuBois Veil in modern times (twentieth and twenty-first centuries), and if so, to what extent. As a routine examination and inspection of the condition of Blacks in the US, focus is placed on black lives lost, beginning with an appraisal of their size in the US population overtime, and in comparison with other racial and ethnic groups in the US. US census data, health data collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and crime data collected from the Federal Bureau of Investigation are examined to construct a composite of the condition of contemporary Blacks in the US as compared to other groups in the US, focusing attention specifically on the rates at which their lives are lost compared to others through infant mortality, low fertility rates, abortion, and high rates of homicide. This analysis concludes with a look at death from homicide before, during, and after the post-1990s drop in the crime rate.

Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Elliott Currie

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the…

Abstract

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the magnitude of this task, focussing on the persistence – and in some cases intensification – of stark differences both within and between societies around the world in the level of suffering and death imposed by ‘ordinary’ violence in the streets and homes. These differences dramatically shape the lived experience of people on different sides of what I call the ‘violence divide’. At the extreme, they produce rates of violent death that are over 200 times higher in the most dangerous countries than in the least. These disparities are both a consequence and a cause of failures of sustainable and equitable development. They are sharpest and most consequential between parts of the global South and most of the advanced industrial societies, but they also appear in stark relief within some advanced societies, most notably the United States, reflecting broader, enduring inequities that are only weakly challenged, if at all, in the current political climate. Reducing these fundamental disparities in life and death will require moving well beyond the relatively minor criminal justice reforms and limited prevention efforts that often dominate national and international dialogue, to grapple seriously with the structural forces that breed them.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-355-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2022

Mohammadreza Mahmoudi

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of uniform COVID-controlling policies that were implemented by the US government in 2020 and compare it with hypothetical…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of uniform COVID-controlling policies that were implemented by the US government in 2020 and compare it with hypothetical targeted policies that consider the heterogenous effect of COVID-19 on different age groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The author began by showing that the adjusted SEQIHR model is a good fit to the US COVID-induced daily death data in that it can capture the nonlinearities of the data very well. Then, he used this model with extra parameters to evaluate the economic effects of COVID-19 through its impact on the job market.

Findings

The results show that targeted COVID-controlling policies could reduce the US death rate and GDP loss to 0.03% and 2%, respectively. By comparing these results with uniform COVID-controlling policies, which led to a 0.1% death rate and 3.5% GDP loss, we could conclude that the death rate reduction is 0.07%. Approximately 378,000 Americans died because of COVID-19 during 2020, therefore, reducing the death rate to 0.03% means saving a significant proportion of the COVID-19 casualties, around 280,000 lives.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, this paper is the first study to assess the economic impacts of COVID-controlling policies by using the multirisk SEQIHR model.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Mary J. Becker, Lindsay N. Calkins, Walter Simmons, Andrew M. Welki and Thomas J. Zlatoper

This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a fatality, given a crash (vulnerability rate) and the probability of a crash (crash rate).

Design/methodology/approach

Using state-level data for 1995–2015, the paper estimates models explaining all three rates. Explanatory factors include obesity and a representative set of potential determinants.

Findings

Results indicate that obesity has a statistically significant positive relationship with the highway death rate and the crash rate. Also having a statistically significant positive association with at least one of the three rates are the proportions of young and old drivers, alcohol consumption, the ratio of rural to urban vehicle miles and temperature. Factors with a statistically significant negative relationship with at least one of the rates include primary seat belt laws and precipitation. In 2016, a total of 928 traffic fatalities could have been avoided if obesity rates decreased by one percentage point.

Practical implications

Seat belts and crash dummies should be better designed to fit and represent those with higher BMIs, and education efforts to increase seat belt use should be supplemented with information about the adverse impact of obesity on highway safety.

Originality/value

This paper uses 21 years of state-level information, including socio-economic and regulation data, and contributes to the existing research on the relationship between obesity and highway safety.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Louisa Snow, Jo Paton, Chris Oram and Rebecca Teers

This paper summarises the findings of an unpublished Prison Service report into self‐inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales over the period 1990‐2001. The key…

Abstract

This paper summarises the findings of an unpublished Prison Service report into self‐inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales over the period 1990‐2001. The key findings are that the number and rate of deaths in prisons has increased during the period examined. The majority of deaths are among men, although there has been a recent increase in the number of women who have died over and above any increase in their proportion in the prison population. Women are likely to be younger than men when they die. There is a statistically significant association between increased rates of throughput in local prisons and an increase in the rate of self‐inflicted deaths. Deaths are most likely to occur soon after prisoners have been received into custody. Few prisoners who die have been identified as at increased risk of suicide. There is some evidence that the period immediately following closure of an F2052SH is a high‐risk period. Most prisoners who die are in single cells. Those who die in shared cells are usually alone at the time of death. The findings support the direction of the current Safer Custody strategy: in particular the focus on local prisons, on improved vigilance and care in the early days of custody and on providing improved facilities and care in health care centres and segregation units.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Book part
Publication date: 31 August 2001

Irina Farquhar, Alan Sorkin, Kent Summers and Earl Weir

We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls…

Abstract

We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls within employable age groups. We estimate that disease combination-specific increase in case fatality has resulted in premature diabetic mortality costing $3.2 billion annually. The estimated annual direct cost of treating high-risk diabetics reaches $36 billion, of which Medicare and Other Federal Programs compensate 54%. Respiratory conditions among diabetics comprise the same proportion of high-risk diabetics as do the disease combinations including coronary heart diseases. Treating of general diabetic conditions has become more efficient as indicated by the estimated declines in per unit health care costs.

Details

Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-070-8

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Jessica Cataldo

Increases in deaths of despair in the USA have been associated with economic conditions and drug availability. In the state of Illinois, deaths of despair represent a…

Abstract

Purpose

Increases in deaths of despair in the USA have been associated with economic conditions and drug availability. In the state of Illinois, deaths of despair represent a significant public health issue. This study aims to examine the relationship between county-level economic distress, drug availability and mortality from deaths of despair collectively and for each contributing cause of death individually in the state of Illinois to better understand drivers of mortality locally.

Design/methodology/approach

Two cross-sectional analyses were conducted for 2010–2014 and 2015–2019. Correlations, regression analyses and relative weight analyses were applied to assess the relationship between deaths of despair mortality rate and the individual variables.

Findings

Deaths of despair mortality collectively and for each cause of death individually increased significantly from 2010–2014 to 2015–2019 in Illinois. Suicide mortality was higher in rural counties and was related to economic distress, while drug poisoning and alcohol-related deaths were higher in urban counties and were related to drug availability indicators.

Originality/value

While all three causes of death increased in the state, suicide mortality was inversely related to deaths of despair mortality. This may be because of different individual risk factors in rural versus urban areas or issues with coding cause of death. The findings of this study point to a rising public health challenge of deaths of despair mortality, particularly from substance use, in urban counties and from suicide in rural counties.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Challenges of the Muslim World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53243-5

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

John M. Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Erin McCanlies and Michael E. Andrew

The goal of the present study is to determine the proportionate mortality and national rate of duty-related deaths from COVID-19 among US law enforcement officers during…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of the present study is to determine the proportionate mortality and national rate of duty-related deaths from COVID-19 among US law enforcement officers during the year 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the current study were obtained from the National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) database for the year 2020. The database contains deaths designated as caused by incidents that occurred while in the line of duty. The chi-square test and two-sample t-test were used to compare characteristics of officers who died of COVID-19 versus other causes of death. Both the proportionate mortality and rates of death were calculated. To compute the rate of death, the authors obtained data on the total number of law enforcement officers employed in the United States (and therefore at risk) for the year 2020 from Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Findings

COVID-19 deaths (n = 182) accounted for 62% of all duty-related law enforcement officer deaths during 2020. The national rate of death due to COVID-19 (12.8/100,000 per year) for law enforcement officers was higher compared to all other causes of death combined (8.0/100,000 per year).

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is the uncertainty of a definitive assessment that the viral infection was acquired through work (versus at home or other non-work-related community settings). Although highly unlikely, deaths designated as duty related entail financial benefits for the survivors and may be a potential source of bias. Given the complexity of personal exposures, the percentage of COVID-19 deaths attributed to duty may represent an over or under estimation of the actual value. Therefore, the data should be interpreted cautiously.

Practical implications

These findings provide police organizations with information needed to understand the risk of death among officers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to make informed decisions about future preparedness strategies.

Originality/value

There are presently no published scientific studies that examine both the proportionate mortality and national rate of death from COVID-19 among law enforcement officers for the year 2020.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

John M. Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Mingming Shi and Michael E. Andrew

Law enforcement is a dangerous profession not only due to assaults, accidents and homicides but also due to health risks. This study examined trends in the national…

Abstract

Purpose

Law enforcement is a dangerous profession not only due to assaults, accidents and homicides but also due to health risks. This study examined trends in the national frequency and rate of law enforcement job-related illness deaths in the United States over a 22-year period (1997–2018).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) on death frequencies related to health issues at work. Death rates were based on the total number of police officers in the United States [rate = (frequency/population at risk) × 100,000]. Trends were examined using standardized regression.

Findings

A total of 646 deaths were attributed to job-related illness. There was a significant upward trend in overall job-related illness deaths (frequency analyses: β = 0.88, < 0.0001; rate analyses: β = 0.82, p ≤ 0.0001) mainly driven by a significant increase in 911 cancer deaths (frequency analyses: β = 0.88, < 0.0001; rate analyses: β = 0.88, p ≤ 0.0001). Nearly 82 percent of circulatory deaths were from a heart attack, with an average death age of 46.5 years.

Research limitations/implications

Deaths were not included if they failed to meet medical requirements of the NLEOMF. The data are descriptive, do not estimate risk and should be interpreted cautiously.

Practical implications

Police wellness programs may help to reduce the danger of deaths associated with job-related illness.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to examine frequency and rate of police health–related deaths due to job exposures.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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