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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Christine Martin

W.E.B. DuBois, in his 1903 collection of writings entitled The Souls of Black Folk, describes what he calls “The Veil,” which succinctly sums up the deadly and adverse…

Abstract

W.E.B. DuBois, in his 1903 collection of writings entitled The Souls of Black Folk, describes what he calls “The Veil,” which succinctly sums up the deadly and adverse experiences of African Americans in the US. With DuBois contemplations of a Veil under which US Blacks alone live and die as context, this paper takes a look at the modern condition of African Americans in the US, whether they continue to exist within DuBois Veil in modern times (twentieth and twenty-first centuries), and if so, to what extent. As a routine examination and inspection of the condition of Blacks in the US, focus is placed on black lives lost, beginning with an appraisal of their size in the US population overtime, and in comparison with other racial and ethnic groups in the US. US census data, health data collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and crime data collected from the Federal Bureau of Investigation are examined to construct a composite of the condition of contemporary Blacks in the US as compared to other groups in the US, focusing attention specifically on the rates at which their lives are lost compared to others through infant mortality, low fertility rates, abortion, and high rates of homicide. This analysis concludes with a look at death from homicide before, during, and after the post-1990s drop in the crime rate.

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Elliott Currie

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the…

Abstract

A central focus of Sustainable Development Goal 16 is to ‘Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere’. This chapter explores the magnitude of this task, focussing on the persistence – and in some cases intensification – of stark differences both within and between societies around the world in the level of suffering and death imposed by ‘ordinary’ violence in the streets and homes. These differences dramatically shape the lived experience of people on different sides of what I call the ‘violence divide’. At the extreme, they produce rates of violent death that are over 200 times higher in the most dangerous countries than in the least. These disparities are both a consequence and a cause of failures of sustainable and equitable development. They are sharpest and most consequential between parts of the global South and most of the advanced industrial societies, but they also appear in stark relief within some advanced societies, most notably the United States, reflecting broader, enduring inequities that are only weakly challenged, if at all, in the current political climate. Reducing these fundamental disparities in life and death will require moving well beyond the relatively minor criminal justice reforms and limited prevention efforts that often dominate national and international dialogue, to grapple seriously with the structural forces that breed them.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-355-5

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Mary J. Becker, Lindsay N. Calkins, Walter Simmons, Andrew M. Welki and Thomas J. Zlatoper

This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a fatality, given a crash (vulnerability rate) and the probability of a crash (crash rate).

Design/methodology/approach

Using state-level data for 1995–2015, the paper estimates models explaining all three rates. Explanatory factors include obesity and a representative set of potential determinants.

Findings

Results indicate that obesity has a statistically significant positive relationship with the highway death rate and the crash rate. Also having a statistically significant positive association with at least one of the three rates are the proportions of young and old drivers, alcohol consumption, the ratio of rural to urban vehicle miles and temperature. Factors with a statistically significant negative relationship with at least one of the rates include primary seat belt laws and precipitation. In 2016, a total of 928 traffic fatalities could have been avoided if obesity rates decreased by one percentage point.

Practical implications

Seat belts and crash dummies should be better designed to fit and represent those with higher BMIs, and education efforts to increase seat belt use should be supplemented with information about the adverse impact of obesity on highway safety.

Originality/value

This paper uses 21 years of state-level information, including socio-economic and regulation data, and contributes to the existing research on the relationship between obesity and highway safety.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Louisa Snow, Jo Paton, Chris Oram and Rebecca Teers

This paper summarises the findings of an unpublished Prison Service report into self‐inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales over the period 1990‐2001. The key…

Abstract

This paper summarises the findings of an unpublished Prison Service report into self‐inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales over the period 1990‐2001. The key findings are that the number and rate of deaths in prisons has increased during the period examined. The majority of deaths are among men, although there has been a recent increase in the number of women who have died over and above any increase in their proportion in the prison population. Women are likely to be younger than men when they die. There is a statistically significant association between increased rates of throughput in local prisons and an increase in the rate of self‐inflicted deaths. Deaths are most likely to occur soon after prisoners have been received into custody. Few prisoners who die have been identified as at increased risk of suicide. There is some evidence that the period immediately following closure of an F2052SH is a high‐risk period. Most prisoners who die are in single cells. Those who die in shared cells are usually alone at the time of death. The findings support the direction of the current Safer Custody strategy: in particular the focus on local prisons, on improved vigilance and care in the early days of custody and on providing improved facilities and care in health care centres and segregation units.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Book part
Publication date: 31 August 2001

Irina Farquhar, Alan Sorkin, Kent Summers and Earl Weir

We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls…

Abstract

We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls within employable age groups. We estimate that disease combination-specific increase in case fatality has resulted in premature diabetic mortality costing $3.2 billion annually. The estimated annual direct cost of treating high-risk diabetics reaches $36 billion, of which Medicare and Other Federal Programs compensate 54%. Respiratory conditions among diabetics comprise the same proportion of high-risk diabetics as do the disease combinations including coronary heart diseases. Treating of general diabetic conditions has become more efficient as indicated by the estimated declines in per unit health care costs.

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Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-070-8

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Abstract

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Challenges of the Muslim World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53243-5

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

John M. Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Mingming Shi and Michael E. Andrew

Law enforcement is a dangerous profession not only due to assaults, accidents and homicides but also due to health risks. This study examined trends in the national…

Abstract

Purpose

Law enforcement is a dangerous profession not only due to assaults, accidents and homicides but also due to health risks. This study examined trends in the national frequency and rate of law enforcement job-related illness deaths in the United States over a 22-year period (1997–2018).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) on death frequencies related to health issues at work. Death rates were based on the total number of police officers in the United States [rate = (frequency/population at risk) × 100,000]. Trends were examined using standardized regression.

Findings

A total of 646 deaths were attributed to job-related illness. There was a significant upward trend in overall job-related illness deaths (frequency analyses: β = 0.88, < 0.0001; rate analyses: β = 0.82, p ≤ 0.0001) mainly driven by a significant increase in 911 cancer deaths (frequency analyses: β = 0.88, < 0.0001; rate analyses: β = 0.88, p ≤ 0.0001). Nearly 82 percent of circulatory deaths were from a heart attack, with an average death age of 46.5 years.

Research limitations/implications

Deaths were not included if they failed to meet medical requirements of the NLEOMF. The data are descriptive, do not estimate risk and should be interpreted cautiously.

Practical implications

Police wellness programs may help to reduce the danger of deaths associated with job-related illness.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to examine frequency and rate of police health–related deaths due to job exposures.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Jillian Alderman and Maretno Harjoto

This study aims to examine the relationship between the duration (in days) of states’ shelter-in-place orders; state demographic characteristics; and the rates of spread…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between the duration (in days) of states’ shelter-in-place orders; state demographic characteristics; and the rates of spread (cases), death (mortality), and recovery of COVID-19 in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

State-level data across 50 states and Washington D.C. from January 23, 2020, to June 11, 2020, and a multivariate regression analysis were used to empirically investigate the impacts of the duration of shelter-in-place orders and state demographic characteristics on the rates of cases, mortality and recovery per capita of COVID-19.

Findings

This study finds that a longer duration of a shelter-in-place order is associated with lower cases and deaths per capita from COVID-19. This study also finds that demographic characteristics, such as the percentage of people who are unsheltered homeless, family size, percentage of individuals with health insurance, income inequality, unemployment rate, gender and race, are related to cases, mortality and recovery rates of COVID-19.

Social implications

This study offers policy implications for state and locality (e.g., city, region and country) lockdown decisions and salient demographics to consider curbing the spread and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study results are important to consider as the world braces for the anticipated resurgence of COVID-19.

Originality/value

This study reveals that the duration of shelter-in-place orders and demographics in states are related to the rates of spread, mortality, and recovery of COVID-19.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Nicola Mackenzie, Chris Oram and Jo Borrill

Studies of prison suicides have consistently reported higher numbers of deaths for men than women. However it is not clear whether male or female prisoners have higher…

Abstract

Studies of prison suicides have consistently reported higher numbers of deaths for men than women. However it is not clear whether male or female prisoners have higher rates of self‐inflicted deaths proportionate to their population. This paper explores the number, rate and patterns of self‐inflicted deaths of women in prison over the last ten years (1992‐2001) compared with death rates for male prisoners and identifies from 13 case studies possible precipitating factors and implications for prevention.The female prison population increased by 237% over the period 1992 to 2001, from an average annual figure of 1,577 to 3,739. During the same period there were 33 self‐inflicted deaths: an increase from one death in 1993/94 to a peak of eight in 2000. Just over half (51%) of the women were unsentenced/on remand; 14 (43%) had an open F2052SH at the time of death, compared with 28% of all self‐inflicted deaths in the general prison population between 1997‐2001, and nine were known to have self‐ harmed previously (27%).Of the 13 case studies, all but one had recently used illicit drugs. Many had shown disturbed and difficult behaviour throughout their short time in custody, including non‐compliance with medication for mental health problems and behaviour resulting in adjudications. The women all had multiple problems in the days and weeks prior to their deaths, including withdrawal from drugs, lack of contact with families, bereavement and relationship problems within the prison. However more than two thirds had recently been relocated, often against their wishes or to accommodation they found less acceptable.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Iain McPhee, Barry Sheridan and Steve O’Rawe

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons and risk factors that explain the threefold increase in drug-related deaths from 267 in 1996 to 934 in 2017 in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons and risk factors that explain the threefold increase in drug-related deaths from 267 in 1996 to 934 in 2017 in Scotland. The authors explore the known links between deprivation and problem drug use (PDU) and discuss the impact of drug policy and service provision on PDU and drug-related deaths.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quantitative data sets from the National Records of Scotland (NRS) for drug-related deaths registered in 2017 and data sets from the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), we produce statistical data on mortality rates relating to areas of deprivation, gender and age.

Findings

The data highlight the disproportionate number of deaths in the most deprived areas in comparison to the least deprived areas and the national average. Findings indicate that one quarter of male and female DRD in 2017 were under 35. When examining the least deprived vingtile, drug-related deaths account for 2.84 per 100,000 population. Based on this mortality rate calculation, the amount of drug-related deaths are 23 times higher in the most deprived area than the least deprived area.

Research limitations/implications

The research design uses data obtained from the NRS and data from Scottish Multiple Index of Deprivation. Due to the limitations of available data, the research design focused on SIMD population vingtiles.

Practical implications

This research contributes to making unarguable links between entrenched structural inequality and increased drug-related death.

Social implications

This paper contributes to knowledge on the need for drug policy advisors to recognise the importance of deprivation that plays a major part in risks of problematic drug use and harms.

Originality/value

While several national data sets have published information by SIMD vingtile, no published research has sought to investigate the disproportionate number of deaths by population in the most deprived areas.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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