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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Yi-Feng Chen, Yi Kang and Dean Tjosvold

How can governments and survivors prepare for and manage natural disasters? Post-disaster reconstruction researchers advocate that community involvement is needed to help…

Abstract

Purpose

How can governments and survivors prepare for and manage natural disasters? Post-disaster reconstruction researchers advocate that community involvement is needed to help survivors recover effectively. This study aims to propose that cooperative goals between government officials and survivors develop guanxi relationships and constructive controversy wherein survivors voice their opinions to aid disaster recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted the critical incident technique (CIT), which has proved especially useful for studying complex issues, as well as site-intensive research for interviews and participant observation. After developing a local reputation and rapport by working in a residential resettlement area for two months, an author used the CIT to ask 118 survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake to describe specific incidents when they interacted with government officials about recovery issues and then to rate survey items that measure independent and dependent variables.

Findings

Results, including structural equation analyses, support the reasoning that cooperative goals between government and survivors facilitate guanxi and constructive controversy, which in turn produced effective disaster recovery, as indicated by survivors’ social support, satisfaction, reduced stress and beliefs that government officials led effectively.

Research limitations/implications

The data are self-reported and subject to biases and may not be accurate.

Practical implications

In addition to developing theoretical understanding, the results can have important practical implications for strengthening relationships and constructive controversy between government and survivors.

Social implications

Results suggest that communities have practical ways to prepare for disasters. Structuring cooperative goals among survivors, encouraging guanxi relationships, and training in constructive controversy should promote effective recovery from natural disasters.

Originality/value

The paper develops theory and research on how leaders can promote community involvement for effective disaster management. The paper proposes that high-quality interpersonal relationships, also referred to guanxi, and the open-minded discussion of opposing ideas, labeled constructive controversy, are major components of effective community involvement. The paper adds to the literature by empirically documenting the utility of the Western-developed theory of cooperation and competition and the concept of constructive controversy for understanding the effectiveness of government leadership for disaster recovery in China.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Nancy Chen, Mike Chen-ho Chao, Henry Xie and Dean Tjosvold

Scholarly research provides few insights into how integrating the western values of individualism and low power distance with the eastern values of collectivism and high…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholarly research provides few insights into how integrating the western values of individualism and low power distance with the eastern values of collectivism and high power distance may influence cross-cultural conflict management. Following the framework of the theory of cooperation and competition, the purpose of this paper is to directly examine the impacts of organization-level collectivism and individualism, as well as high and low power distance, to determine the interactive effects of these four factors on cross-cultural conflict management.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a 2×2 experiment study. Data were collected from a US laboratory experiment with 80 participants.

Findings

American managers working in a company embracing western low power distance and eastern collectivism values were able to manage conflict cooperatively with their Chinese workers. Moreover, American managers working in a company valuing collectivism developed more trust with Chinese workers, and those in a company culture with high power distance were more interested in their workers’ viewpoints and more able to reach integrated solutions.

Originality/value

This study is an interdisciplinary research applying the social psychology field’s theory of cooperation and competition to the research on employee-manager, cross-cultural conflict management (which are industrial relations and organizational behavior topics, respectively), with an eye to the role of cultural adaptation. Furthermore, this study included an experiment to directly investigate the interactions between American managers and Chinese workers discussing work distribution conflict in four different organizational cultures.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

Alfred Wong, Xiaohui Wang, Xinyan Wang and Dean Tjosvold

The purpose of this paper is to propose that effective ethical leaders develop high quality relationships with team members; in particular, they manage their conflicts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that effective ethical leaders develop high quality relationships with team members; in particular, they manage their conflicts with team members cooperatively.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors empirically tested this hypothesis with responses from 117 managers and 302 subordinates.

Findings

Through cooperative conflict management, leaders develop trusting, mutually committed relationships. Ethical leaders and their employees avoid competitive conflict where they try to impose their ideas and resolutions on each other.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that ethical leaders can have a significant impact by fostering cooperative conflict management and reducing competitive conflict management. Thus, organizations are encouraged to adopt training and selection procedures to develop more ethical leaders.

Originality/value

This study adds to leadership research that effective leaders develop high quality relationships that help them influence employees as well as to be open and influenced by them.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Dean Tjosvold, Jane Moy and Shigeru Sasaki

Managers and employees need a crisp understanding of the nature of the teamwork that improves quality service to customers. Field and experiment studies have shown the…

Abstract

Managers and employees need a crisp understanding of the nature of the teamwork that improves quality service to customers. Field and experiment studies have shown the utility of Deutsch’s theory of co‐operation and competition for understanding quality enhancing teamwork in East Asia. Co‐operative goals have been found to contribute to a constructive, open‐minded discussion of opposing views that in turn result in quality service and strong work relationships. Managers and employees can together develop shared goals, integrated roles, and common tasks that build co‐operative goals. Then they feel that they are on the same side so that as one succeeds, other methods can foster an open‐minded discussion of opposing views. Team members can use this framework to develop their relationships with customers as well as with one another.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Alfred Wong, Wei Lu, Dean Tjosvold and Jie Yang

Funding small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may be especially valuable in China to stimulate innovation and its emerging market economy. These firms have been…

Abstract

Purpose

Funding small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may be especially valuable in China to stimulate innovation and its emerging market economy. These firms have been advised to build on the Chinese value of guanxi to manage conflicts and develop relationships with banks. This study aims to explore the nature of relationships that help SMEs inform banks and convince them to provide credit.

Design/methodology/approach

As this study’s theorizing is about whether banks and firms that manage their conflicts for mutual benefit set the foundation for bank’s confidence in extending credit, therefore, both the bank officers and the company managers were asked to provide information for the study. In total, 106 pairs of bank officers in the loan department of four banks and SME managers in Shanghai, China, completed a questionnaire survey for this study.

Findings

Results support the argument that marketing research on customer orientation and organization behavior research on conflict management identify how to develop effective marketing relationships between SMEs and banks in China. Banks that were customer-oriented laid the groundwork for managing conflict cooperatively and not competitively with borrowing firms. Cooperative conflict management in turn was found to convince banks that they could confidently provide credit and to convince borrowers that their transaction costs will be reasonable.

Originality/value

This study identifies that developing guanxi and the capacity to manage conflict cooperatively are an important foundation for providing credit to SMEs in China.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2018

Leigh Anne Liu, Wendi L. Adair, Dean Tjosvold and Elena Poliakova

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and organizational levels. The authors integrate previous studies from multiple disciplines to articulate the contextual importance of intercultural dynamics. The authors also suggest three overarching themes to expand the field of research on intercultural dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an integrative literature review to articulate the importance of intercultural dynamics, provide an introduction to the new contributions in this special issue, and propose new directions for future research.

Findings

Intercultural dynamics research has the potential to expand in three overarching areas: constructive controversy, collaborative communication, and global competency and identity at multiple levels.

Research limitations/implications

Intercultural dynamics is still a nascent field emerging from cross-cultural and strategic management. The authors hope the review lays the groundwork for more studies on intercultural dynamics at the interpersonal, team, organizational, and mixed levels of analysis in both theory building and empirical works.

Practical implications

Understanding intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation can help individuals and managers in multinationals and born global organizations navigate cultural complexity and foster cooperation.

Social implications

The authors hope the ideas on intercultural dynamics can facilitate collaboration and reduce conflict in intercultural encounters at the individual, organization, and societal levels.

Originality/value

This paper offers an overview on the state of the field and lays groundwork for more systematic inquiries on intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation.

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Alfred Wong, Lu Wei, Xinyan Wang and Dean Tjosvold

This study aims to identify mechanisms to manage conflicts that occur when organizations with different cultures, habits and experiences try to coordinate effectively in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify mechanisms to manage conflicts that occur when organizations with different cultures, habits and experiences try to coordinate effectively in international joint ventures (IJV). This study proposes that partners can promote their joint venture performance to the extent that they rely on cooperative rather than competitive conflict management. This study further hypothesizes that adopting collectivist values strengthens relationships and thereby provides a foundation for cooperative conflict management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data for this study in Shanghai, which is currently the most attractive province in China for FDI (FDI Intelligence, 2014). In all, 75 pairs of foreign and Chinese managers at middle and senior levels, knowledgeable about the joint venture relationships, completed their respective questionnaires.

Findings

Results of the structural equation analyses support the hypotheses that collectivist values support cooperative conflict management that in turn facilitates joint venture learning and performance. In contrast, individualistic values promoted competitive conflict management which in turn frustrated IJV performance.

Practical implications

Results suggest that IJV managers can strengthen their venture by developing collective values and training such cooperative conflict management skills as self-expression and demonstrating understanding of opposing views.

Originality/value

This study directly documents that while conflicts may interfere they can also stimulate discussions and decisions that promote coordination and performance of IJVs. This study contributes to conflict management research that has largely focused on investigating the consequences of approaches by examining conditions that promote constructive conflict management approaches.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Renhuai Liu, Steven Si, Song Lin, Dean Tjosvold and Richard Posthuma

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Yifeng Chen, Dean Tjosvold and Sofia Su Fang

Given the susceptibility of cross‐cultural interaction to misunderstandings and disagreements, conflict management may be especially useful for helping employees develop…

Abstract

Given the susceptibility of cross‐cultural interaction to misunderstandings and disagreements, conflict management may be especially useful for helping employees develop quality leader relationships with their foreign managers. One hundred and eleven Chinese employees from various industries in Shanghai were interviewed on specific incidents where they had a conflict, defined as incompatible actions, with their Japanese manager or American manager. A qualitative analysis of the incidents and statistical tests of the data supported the hypotheses that a cooperative approach to conflict, rather than competitive or avoidance approaches, help Chinese employees and their foreign managers strengthen their relationship and improve their productivity. Cooperative conflict management may be an important way to overcome obstacles and develop an effective leader relationship across cultural boundaries.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Dean Tjosvold and Haifa F. Sun

Maintaining relationships may be difficult in conflict because strong influence attempts can communicate disrespect, especially among Chinese people. The theory of…

Abstract

Maintaining relationships may be difficult in conflict because strong influence attempts can communicate disrespect, especially among Chinese people. The theory of cooperation and competition was used to investigate the effects of persuasion and control influence attempts and social context in conflict. Results from an experimental study support the reasoning that persuasion communicates respect and develops a cooperative relationship. In contrast, coercion communicates disrespect, develops competitive relationships, and results in rejection of the opposing view and negotiator. Consistent with North American research, cooperative compared to competitive context was found to lead to more openness toward the opposing position and negotiator. These results were interpreted as suggesting that persuasion, communication of respect, and a cooperative context facilitate productive conflict management between Chinese people.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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