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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

De-Xing Peng

Engine component endurance is related to fuel properties. Decreasing the sulfur content of a fuel reduces its lubricity, thus damaging engines and fuel systems. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

Engine component endurance is related to fuel properties. Decreasing the sulfur content of a fuel reduces its lubricity, thus damaging engines and fuel systems. Therefore, promoting the use of a biofuel must involve assessing the functionality and lubricity of the fuel.

Design/methodology/approach

The ball-on-ring (BOR) wear tester was applied to determine the optimal additive concentration and the mechanism of reduction of the wear and friction of the diesel engine fuel injection system. The lubricating efficiency of the fuels was estimated by using a photomicroscope to measure the average diameter of the wear scar produced on the test ball. An optical microscope and scanning electronic microscope were used for wear surface examinations.

Findings

The wear test revealed that the wear diameter of the steel ball lubricated with either the pure petrodiesel or 20 Wt.per cent Jatropha curcas biodiesel blends was 1.36 or 1.05 mm, respectively. The experimental results indicated that when Jatropha curcas biodiesel was added into petrodiesels to reduce friction, the wear resistance of the fuel blends increased concurrently with increasing Jatropha curcas biodiesel concentration. This was attributed to the presence of stearic acid in Jatropha curcas biodiesel blends. Stearic acid has a strong affinity for metal surfaces; therefore, a chemical coating was formed between the two motion surfaces to protect the two contacted surfaces from wear. Therefore, the proposed Jatropha curcas biodiesel can be used to effectively enhance the lubricity of a petrodiesel under the condition of boundary lubrication.

Originality/value

Using biofuels as the fuels for diesel engines can assist developed and developing countries in reducing the impacts of their fossil fuel consumption on the environment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

De-Xing Peng

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and renewable alternatives to mineral-based fuels and cause low pollution; thus, they can be used to comply with future emission regulations to safeguard environmental and human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of diesel fuel, pure petrodiesel and soybean oil, were compared for their fuel properties and tribological performance. The ball-on-disk wear testing method was used as an analytical tool for this purpose. The lubricating efficiency of the fuels was estimated using a photomicroscope to measure the average diameter of the wear scar produced on the test ball.

Findings

The wear experiments showed that the wear scar diameters were 1.13 and 0.94 mm for lubrication of the pure petro-diesel and soybean oil, respectively. However, fatty acids containing biodiesel typically have thicker molecular layers than mineral pure petro-diesel, and thus can reduce the wear rate of the sliding metals. This improved the boundary lubrication conditions and the lubricity of the fuel. Biodiesel fuels are effective lubricity enhancers and have greater lubricity enhancing properties than petro-diesel.

Originality/value

The ability of biodiesel to be highly biodegradable and its superior lubricating property when used in compression ignition engines make it an excellent fuel. Biofuel is an attractive alternative fuel to various energy sectors, particularly the transportation sector. Biofuel has immense potential for use in a sustainable energy mixture in the future.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

De-Xing Peng

Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth depends heavily on the long-term availability of…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth depends heavily on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. Regulating the sulfur content in diesel fuel is expected to reduce the lubricity of these fuels, which may result in increased wear and damage of fuel injection systems in diesel engines.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of the biodiesels as additive in pure petro-diesel are studied by ball-on-ring wear tester to find optimal concentration, and the mechanism of the reduction of wear and friction will be investigated by optical microscopy.

Findings

Studies have shown that low concentrations of biodiesel blends are more effective as lubricants because of their superior polarity. Using biodiesel as a fuel additive in a pure petroleum diesel fuel improves engine performance and exhaust emissions. The high biodegradability and superior lubricating property of biodiesel when used in compression ignition engines renders it an excellent fuel.

Originality/value

This detailed experimental investigation confirms that biodiesel can substitute mineral diesel without any modification in the engine. The use of biofuels as diesel engine fuels can play a vital role in helping the developed and developing countries to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

De-Xing Peng

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends…

Abstract

Purpose

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends and pure unleaded gasoline.

Design/methodology/approach

Biofuels with a concentration of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 per cent were added to unleaded gasoline to form ethanol-blended fuels named E0, E1, E2, E5 and E10. Next, the ethanol-blended fuels and unleaded gasoline were used to power engines to facilitate comparisons between the pollution created from exhaust emissions.

Findings

Using ethanol as a fuel additive in pure unleaded gasoline improves engine performance and reduces exhaust emissions. Because bioethanol does not contain lead but contains low aromatic and high oxygen content, it induces more complete combustion compared with conventional unleaded gasoline.

Originality/value

Using biofuels as auxiliary fuel reduces environmental pollution, strengthens local agricultural economy, creates employment opportunities and reduces demand for fossil fuels.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

De-Xing Peng, Yuan Kang and Yu-Jun Huang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the wear performance of carbon steel cladded with TiC powders by gas tungsten arc welding method. Because of poor wear resistance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the wear performance of carbon steel cladded with TiC powders by gas tungsten arc welding method. Because of poor wear resistance, carbon steels have limited industrial applications as tribological components.

Design/methodology/approach

The cladding microstructures were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The wear behavior of the clad layer was studied with a block-on-ring tribometer.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the metallurgical interface provided an excellent bond between the cladding and the carbon steel substrate. The cladding revealed no porosity or cracking, and particles were evenly distributed throughout the cladding layer. Hardness was increased from HRc 6.6 in the substrate to HRc 62 in the cladded layer due to the presence of the hard TiC phase.

Originality/value

The experiments confirm that the cladding surfaces of TiC particles reduce wear rate and friction. Increasing TiC contents also improves hardness and wear resistance at room temperature and under dry sliding wear conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

De-Xing Peng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of abrasive contents, oxidizer contents, slurry flow rate and polishing time in achieving a mirror-like finish on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of abrasive contents, oxidizer contents, slurry flow rate and polishing time in achieving a mirror-like finish on polished surfaces. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is now widely used in the aerospace industry for global planarization of large, high value-added components.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimal parameters are applied in experimental trials performed to investigate the effects of abrasive contents, oxidizer contents, slurry flow rate and polishing time in achieving a mirror-like finish on polished surfaces. Taguchi design experiments are performed to optimize the parameters of CMP performed in steel specimens.

Findings

Their optimization parameters were found out; the surface scratch, polishing fog and remaining particles were reduced; and the flatness of the steel substrate was guaranteed. The average roughness (Ra) of the surface was reduced to 6.7 nm under the following process parameters: abrasive content of 2 weight per cent, oxidizer content of 2 weight per cent, slurry flow rate of 100 ml/min and polishing time of 20 min.

Originality/value

To meet the final process requirements, the CMP process must provide a good planarity, precise selectivity and a defect-free surface. Surface planarization of components used to fabricate aerospace devices is achieved by CMP process, which enables global planarization by combining chemical and mechanical interactions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

De-Xing Peng

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has attracted much attention recently because of its importance as a nano-scale finishing process for high value-added large components…

Abstract

Purpose

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has attracted much attention recently because of its importance as a nano-scale finishing process for high value-added large components that are used in the aerospace industry. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The characteristics of aluminum nanoparticles slurry including oxidizer, oxidizer contents, abrasive contents, slurry flow rate, and polishing time on aluminum nanoparticles CMP performance, including material removal amount and surface morphology were studied.

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the CMP performance depends strongly on the oxidizer, oxidizer contents, and abrasive contents. Surface polished by slurries that contain nano-Al abrasives had a lower surface average roughness (Ra), lower topographical variations and less scratching. The material removal amount and the Ra were 124 and 7.61 nm with appropriate values of the process parameters of the oxidizer, oxidizer content, abrasive content, slurry flow rate and polishing time which were H2O2, 2 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 10 ml/min, 5 min, respectively.

Originality/value

Based on SEM determinations of the process parameters for the polishing of the surfaces, the CMP mechanism was deduced preliminarily.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

De-Xing Peng and Yuan Kang

Thick composite claddings of carbides on a metal matrix are ideal for use in components that are subject to severe abrasive wear. It is a metal matrix composite (MMC) that…

Abstract

Purpose

Thick composite claddings of carbides on a metal matrix are ideal for use in components that are subject to severe abrasive wear. It is a metal matrix composite (MMC) that is reinforced by an appropriate ceramic phase and nano-diamond cladding to reduce friction and to protect the opposing surface. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This work evaluated the wear performance of carbon steel cladded with TiC/nano-diamond powders by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The microstructures, chemical compositions, and wear characteristics of cladded surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

Findings

The cladding was uniform, continuous, and almost defect-free, and particles were evenly distributed throughout the cladding layer. The results of wear test indicate that the friction coefficient of the TiC+1.5% nano-diamond cladding is lower than that of AISI 1020 carbon steel. Thus, the wear scar area of the TiC+1.5% nano-diamond cladding is only one-tenth of the AISI 1020 carbon steel.

Originality/value

The experiments in this study confirm that, by reducing friction and anti-wear, the cladding layer prepared using the proposed methods can prolong machinery operating life.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

De-Xing Peng and Yuan Kang

The purpose of this work is to study tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive, which are made by surface-modification method…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to study tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive, which are made by surface-modification method. Taguchi robust designs for optimization in synthesizing SiO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of the SiO2 nanoparticles as additive in liquid paraffin are studied by ball-on-ring wear tester to find out optimal concentration, and the mechanism of the reduction of wear and friction will be investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM).

Findings

Under optimal conditions identified by Taguchi robust designs method, SiO2 nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution can be obtained and optimal concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles as additives in liquid paraffin have better properties than the pure paraffin oil.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that by reducing friction and AW, the lubricant prepared by the methods described can prolong operating hours of machinery.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

De‐Xing Peng, Cheng‐Hsien Chen, Yuan Kang, Yeon‐Pun Chang and Shi‐Yan Chang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles additive made by a sol‐gel method.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles additive made by a sol‐gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of the SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive in liquid paraffin are measured using a ball‐on‐ring wear tester to determine the optimal additive concentration. The mechanism that wear and friction are reduced is studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and atomic force microscope (AFM).

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the sizes of the synthesized SiO2 nanoparticles are distributed uniformly and that the optimal concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles in liquid paraffin is associated with better tribological properties than pure paraffin oil, and an anti‐wear (AW) ability that depends on the particle size.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that by reducing friction and AW, the lubricant prepared by the methods described can prolong operating hours of machinery.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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