Reviews NHS policy for the introduction of new technology and drug developments into the NHS with reference to HIV therapy. Also reviews current policy issues related to…
Reviews NHS policy for the introduction of new technology and drug developments into the NHS with reference to HIV therapy. Also reviews current policy issues related to NHS rationing and priority setting with reference to commissioning services for HIV infection and AIDS. Confirms the destabilisation of HIV contracts in the North East of England caused by the introduction of double therapy in 1996 and triple therapy in 1997 in relation to the above policy areas. Also reviews purchaser and provider contracting following the introduction of triple therapy for HIV infection. Finally, concludes by reviewing local policy and management arrangements and recommendations for change.
At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on the 9th May, Councillor R. DUDLEY BAXTER, Chairman of the Law and General Purposes Committee of the Council, brought up a Report as follows:—
Strategic marketing is confronted with an array of global challenges and opportunities at the beginning of the twenty‐first century. Some opinion leaders question the role…
Strategic marketing is confronted with an array of global challenges and opportunities at the beginning of the twenty‐first century. Some opinion leaders question the role and importance of marketing strategy. Others are convinced the discipline is more vital than ever before.
Several important trends and issues have been articulated by leaders in the marketing discipline concerning how marketing thought and practice are expected to change in the future. Interestingly, opinion leaders offer very different interpretations concerning the role and importance of marketing in organizations today. FindingsThus, it is apparent that a complete vision about the future of marketing strategy has not emerged, although several challenges are indicated. Our objective is to identify these strategy challenges and their implications regarding marketing thought and practice. Importantly, the challenges highlight several marketing strategy opportunities which are relevant to scholars and managers.
Marketing Science Institute interviews with CEOs and top marketing executives from a diversified sample of 12 corporations indicate “The strategic influence of marketing, as previously understood, appears to have diminished as short‐term revenue goals become more dominant and the role of the sales force is strengthened”. McGovern and Quelch in their survey of 120 companies and 18 interviews with CMOs and/or CEOs from global companies indicate that large corporations are “looking for strategic and operational leadership from the marketing organization more than ever before. The result is the increasing prominence of a senior executive whose title didn’t even exist ten years ago: the chief marketing officer or CMO”. Interviews with more than 40 CMOs from a range of companies around the globe by McKinsey & Company indicate that the top priority concern “is that an explosion of customer segments, products, media vehicles, and distribution channels has made marketing more complex, more costly, and less effective”. Vargo and Lusch propose that “marketing thought is not so much fragmented as it is evolving toward a new dominant logic – the exchange of intangibles, specialized skills and knowledge, and processes”.
Several forces are expected to impact the strategic marketing decisions of a wide range of companies throughout the world. Moreover, these forces need to be addressed in managerial initiatives, course design, and several offer promising research opportunities.
This study compares filmic and televisual representations of fictional black presidents to white Americans’ reactions to the advent of the United States’s first African…
This study compares filmic and televisual representations of fictional black presidents to white Americans’ reactions to the advent of the United States’s first African American president. My main goal is to determine if there is convergence between these mediated representations and whites’ real-world representations of Barack Obama. I then weigh the evidence for media pundits’ speculations that Obama owes his election to positive portrayals of these fictional heads of state.
The film and television analyses examine each black president’s social network, personality, character traits, preparation for office, and leadership ability. I then compare the ideological messages conveyed through these portrayals to the messages implicated in white Americans’ discursive and pictorial representations of Barack Obama.
Both filmic and televisual narratives and public discourses and images construct and portray black presidents with stereotypical character traits and abilities. These representations are overwhelmingly negative and provide no support for the argument that there is a cause–effect relationship between filmic and televisual black presidents and Obama’s election victory.
Neither reel nor real-life black presidents can elude the representational quagmire that distorts African Americans’ abilities and diversity. Discourses, iconography, narratives, and other representations that define black presidents through negative tropes imply that blacks are incapable of effective leadership. These hegemonic representations seek to delegitimize black presidents and symbolically return them to subordinate statuses.
We investigate whether giving workers autonomy through delegation of contract choice intrinsically motivates effort. In a novel laboratory experiment that controls for…
We investigate whether giving workers autonomy through delegation of contract choice intrinsically motivates effort. In a novel laboratory experiment that controls for contract preferences and outcomes, principals can either choose the contract under which agents work on a real-effort task, or delegate the contract choice to the agents. We evaluate whether agents exert higher effort when they are allowed to choose the contract versus when the contract is imposed on them. We find no difference between the two conditions, even after controlling for baseline ability and for locus of control. Because our design excludes the possibility that preferences play a role, and because workers engaged in a real-effort task, this result casts doubt on an intrinsic link between the autonomy granted through delegation and the motivation of employees in the workplace. Our results do not deny, however, the possible instrumental benefits of autonomy (which did not play a role in our design) and their potentially powerful impact on motivation.
We have reprinted the powerful letter addressed to the Daily Mail by MR. H. W. WILSON, the author of “Ironclads in Action,” advocating the immediate adoption of a policy of reprisals for the Zeppelin murder raids. In our view it is the duty of every journal, whatever may be its raison d'être, to assist in keeping the attention of the public fixed upon this matter, to aid in preventing the general feeling of disgust and indignation from cooling down, and to support those who have the brains to understand the nature of the Hun in their efforts to compel the Government to adopt the most effective means at present available to put an end to the murderous excursions of the German vermin into this country. As MR. WILSON points out, the deliberate Hun policy of slaying women, children and non‐combatants is either permitted by the laws of war recognised by civilised nations or it is not permitted by those laws. If it is permitted, “then clearly the Power which refrains from making similar attacks on the enemy's towns, villages, and residential districts, loses greatly from the military standpoint.” If it is not permitted then the only course— “the force behind the laws of War”—is a policy of drastic reprisals. Moreover, it is the only course that the Hun can understand. The methods of “frightfulness” are definitely laid down in the German military system as methods to be ruthlessly followed whenever this can be done with impunity and the fear of reprisals is also definitely laid down as the only consideration which is to be allowed to operate as a check upn “frightfulness.” “The Power which fails to take reprisals when a great offence is committed is as the negligent judge or the faithless jury that acquits a murderer. It sins against humanity … it encourages the criminal in his crime.”
We are growing accustomed to shock tactics of the US Administration in dealing with toxic residues in food or additives which are a hazard to man, as well as the daily press infusing sensation, even melodrama, into them, but the recent action of the FDA in calling in from the food market several million cans of tuna and other deep sea fish because of the presence of mercury has had the worthwhile effect of drawing world attention to the growing menace of environmental pollution. The level of mercury in the fish is immaterial; it should never have been there at all, but it stresses the importance of the food chain in the danger to man and animal life generally, including fish beneath the sea. Without underestimating risks of pollution in the atmosphere from nuclear fission products, from particulate matter carried in the air by inhalation or even skin absorption, food and drink, which includes aqua naturale would seem to be the greatest danger to life. What these recent events illustrate in a dramatic manner, however, is the extent of pollution.
NOT for a long time have books and libraries featured in the correspondence columns of The Times and other newspapers as regularly as they have in 1960. Earlier in the year Sir Alan Herbert's lending rights' scheme had a good run, and we have clearly not yet heard the last of it. Indeed, a Private Member's bill on the subject is to have its second reading in Parliament on December 9th. More recently, the Herbert proposals have had a by‐product in the shape of bound paperbacks, and a correspondence ensued which culminated in Sir Allen Lane's fifth‐of‐November firework banning hard‐covered Penguins for library use.
INTRODUCTION During the past dozen years a relatively large theoretical literature has grown out of the models proposed by Averch‐Johnson (2) and, to a lesser extent…
INTRODUCTION During the past dozen years a relatively large theoretical literature has grown out of the models proposed by Averch‐Johnson (2) and, to a lesser extent, Wellisz (90). Averch‐Johnson (here‐after A‐J) pointed out the now famous overcapitalization effect‐that a monopoly subject to rate of return regulation has an incentive to use more than the cost minimizing value of capital. The A‐J model was at first regarded as simply a theoretical explanation of what was long thought to be a significant cost of regulation. After languishing in this state for several years, the model achieved some popularity as a vehicle for theoretical explorations of various aspects of rate regulation. To date, the A‐J model has given rise to nearly forty papers on what has come to be called “the theory of regulatory constraint.”