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Examines some of the underlying assumptions, research objectives and practical applications of the repertory grid technique (RGT) in consumer research. It explains why the…
Examines some of the underlying assumptions, research objectives and practical applications of the repertory grid technique (RGT) in consumer research. It explains why the use and evaluation of the RGT should be grounded in the assumptions of the theory from which it derives, George Kelly’s personal construct psychology (PCP), and examines the way in which it is both congruent with and can contribute to the development of the emerging interpretive paradigm in consumer research. The specific questions that the RGT can help to answer about consumer behaviour experience are identified and illustrated with the findings from a short empirical study. Overall, it is argued that when the RGT is employed within the guidelines of PCP it provides a useful interpretive research framework for exploring some of the similarities and differences in the content and structure of consumers’ subjective meaning systems.
This article seeks to examine the experiences of the recent introduction of performance‐related pay (PRP) in German public services. From an industrial relations…
This article seeks to examine the experiences of the recent introduction of performance‐related pay (PRP) in German public services. From an industrial relations perspective, it addresses the question of how different designs of PRP schemes and the circumstances under which PRP is implemented influence its functionality and its acceptance by employees.
The paper uses an analysis of 215 works and establishment agreements, 17 case studies in municipalities of the federal state of North Rhine‐Westphalia (including employee attitude surveys in three cases), and interviews with experts from the employers' federation and the trade union.
It is shown that – in accordance with the literature – enhancing employee motivation is not the only objective pursued by the collective actors in the introduction of PRP. Different PRP schemes have differing effects: highly selective PRP schemes tend to fail; schemes resembling conventional appraisal systems have little positive effect on motivation and performance, whereas participative systems focusing on the inclusion of employees can offer an opportunity to renegotiate performance objectives in the public services.
Factors such as balancing material interest and social recognition, and strengthening participative elements could be crucial for improving the acceptance and functionality of PRP schemes.
This paper provides first findings on the recent introduction of PRP in the German public sector and contributes to the discussion on the functionality of PRP in public services.
In the context of the publication of a survey commissioned by the Library Association into library and learning resources in further education (FE), the authors identify…
In the context of the publication of a survey commissioned by the Library Association into library and learning resources in further education (FE), the authors identify the key findings of a series of similar surveys of libraries and learning resource centres in the FE sector in Wales, carried out between 1984 and 1997. The impact of growth in student numbers, changes in funding and management arrangements at national and local levels, and quality assurance mechanisms, is explored. The study also describes the major problems associated with quantitative and qualitative research in this sector, compares the results achieved and identifies areas for future research.
Many organizations have implemented formal mentoring programs within the last few years. Some organizations have realized success with their formal mentoring programs…
Many organizations have implemented formal mentoring programs within the last few years. Some organizations have realized success with their formal mentoring programs, while others have not fared so well. A missing link with many formal mentoring programs is a corporate level mentoring strategy. The lack of a corporate level mentoring strategy inhibits the mentoring process from becoming an integral part of an organization’s culture, therefore not allowing for the maximization of benefits that can be gained from effective formal mentoring processes and programs. Thus, this paper offers a framework for creating a corporate level mentoring strategy; a standardized mentoring process; and customized mentoring programs, all of which should align with the organization’s strategic positioning to facilitate the achievement of maximum effectiveness from the implementation of formal mentoring programs.
In an age of growing skepticism about the development industry and about the appropriateness of the predominant paradigms of modernisation and immutable technology…
In an age of growing skepticism about the development industry and about the appropriateness of the predominant paradigms of modernisation and immutable technology transfer, many scholars and practitioners are now attempting to re‐define approaches to development (e.g. Taylor, 1979; Galtung et al., 1980; Chambers, 1986; World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Out of this general effort to re‐consider the ways in which social and economic development should be conducted has emerged the notion of participation. In conceptual terms it is now widely agreed that development plans and policies must not only account for the perceptions and opinions of local populations, but that community groups should participate in the underlying processes of consultation and decision‐making. What is much less understood, however, are the mechanisms by which participation is operationalised and institutionalised, and the stresses as well as the advantages which accrue from participatory practices. This is particularly the case in the realm of scientific inquiry where participatory research (PR),(1) has emerged as part of the search to render science more germane to the needs and opinions of local people.
How individuals allocate their time between work and leisure has important implications regarding worker well-being. For example, more time at work means a greater return to human capital and a greater proclivity to seek more training opportunities. At the same time, hours spent at work decrease leisure and depend on one's home environment (including parental background), health, past migration, and government policies. In short, worker well-being depends on trade-offs and is influenced by public policy. These decisions entail time allocation, effort, human capital investment, health, and migration, among other choices. This volume considers worker well-being from the vantage of each of these alternatives. It contains ten chapters. The first three are on time allocation and work behavior, the next three on aspects of risk in the earnings process, the next two on aspects of migration, the next one on the impact of tax policies on poverty, and finally the last chapter on the role of labor market institutions on sectoral shifts in employment.
Who works, how much one works, and what one earns are the cornerstones of labor economics. However, determining the answers to these questions can be tricky because many factors are involved in estimating labor supply, explaining the implications of labor demand, and determining the resulting earnings. This volume contains 13 chapters on these components of the labor market. Five deal directly with labor supply; four deal with labor demand, most notably the effect of cyclical demand fluctuations; and the remaining four deal with compensation, particularly wages, wage distributions, and fringe benefits.