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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Joyce L. Grahn and David X. Swenson

Suggests ways to improve the quality of cross‐cultural training by the analysis of needs within expatriates. Identifies the countries for this training and matches the…

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Abstract

Suggests ways to improve the quality of cross‐cultural training by the analysis of needs within expatriates. Identifies the countries for this training and matches the indicated needs with global business growth patterns. Reports on an internet survey of trainers and a review of global commerce which reveals a high mismatch between countries identified and emerging global markets. Cites a strong need for reformulating cross‐cultural training strategies and processes together with suggestions for the enhancement of global training.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Joyce L. Grahn, David X. Swenson and Ryan O’Leary

Identifies the contrasts and similarities between the American Indian and Anglo American style of leadership. Finds the results show differing values in areas of…

Abstract

Identifies the contrasts and similarities between the American Indian and Anglo American style of leadership. Finds the results show differing values in areas of communication, strategic initiative, technology, decision‐making, and vision. Discusses the implications for enhancing American Indian/Anglo American relationships in light of these differences.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

David X. Swenson

Macro change drivers like global competition, information and technology innovations, and demographic shifts have required organizations to rethink their structures and…

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2803

Abstract

Macro change drivers like global competition, information and technology innovations, and demographic shifts have required organizations to rethink their structures and processes. In particular, the flattening and downsizing of organizations has led to the empowerment of teams in an attempt to increase flexibility, adaptability, customer responsiveness, and productiveness. While transition to teams has been a widely adopted strategy, there are many examples of team failures that eventually undermine empowerment. It is argued in this article that the formation of teams requires the presence of certain external and internal conditions. The external requisites include support and direction, such as congruence with strategy, top management support, clear goals and parameters, and effective selection of employees. The internal requisites include an emphasis on preparation and training of employees through initial team building and ongoing team development, and encouragement of a continual reflective learning cycle. Without the internal processes for team learning, even an initially successful team may defeat itself and become unproductive, thereby discouraging further support for team empowerment initiatives.

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Empowerment in Organizations, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4891

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Richard E. Kopelman, David J. Prottas and David W. Falk

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical…

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11140

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures. The present research seeks to describe the development and construct validation of a measure pertinent to Theory X/Y behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys completed by 512 working adults provide the present data. A total of 26 initial Theory X/Y behavior items are reduced to 13 through factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validities are examined through correlational and regression analyses with measures of proximal, distal, and unrelated constructs. Test re‐test reliability is assessed using longitudinal panel data from a subset of respondents.

Findings

The results provide evidence of the construct validity of the new measure.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents are relatively young and drawn from one region of the USA. Future research should collect multi‐source and multi‐level data.

Practical implications

The 13‐item scale may be useful as a diagnostic tool for individual and organizational development.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first research endeavor that focuses on construct‐validating a measure of managerial X/Y behaviors, as distinct from attitudes. The scale can be used in substantive research, including a more robust test of McGregor's theorizing.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2016

Marc Wouters, Susana Morales, Sven Grollmuss and Michael Scheer

The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product development, and it provides a comparison to an earlier review of the management accounting (MA) literature (Wouters & Morales, 2014).

Methodology/approach

This structured literature search covers papers published in 23 journals in IOM in the period 1990–2014.

Findings

The search yielded a sample of 208 unique papers with 275 results (one paper could refer to multiple cost management methods). The top 3 methods are modular design, component commonality, and product platforms, with 115 results (42%) together. In the MA literature, these three methods accounted for 29%, but target costing was the most researched cost management method by far (26%). Simulation is the most frequently used research method in the IOM literature, whereas this was averagely used in the MA literature; qualitative studies were the most frequently used research method in the MA literature, whereas this was averagely used in the IOM literature. We found a lot of papers presenting practical approaches or decision models as a further development of a particular cost management method, which is a clear difference from the MA literature.

Research limitations/implications

This review focused on the same cost management methods, and future research could also consider other cost management methods which are likely to be more important in the IOM literature compared to the MA literature. Future research could also investigate innovative cost management practices in more detail through longitudinal case studies.

Originality/value

This review of research on methods for cost management published outside the MA literature provides an overview for MA researchers. It highlights key differences between both literatures in their research of the same cost management methods.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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53910

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

David D. Ginsburg

It's been three years since my previous survey in RSR. Superb reference books in pop music have been appearing so frequently that I've been having trouble keeping up…

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136

Abstract

It's been three years since my previous survey in RSR. Superb reference books in pop music have been appearing so frequently that I've been having trouble keeping up. Let's hope “next year's” survey will only be 12 months in the making and not 36.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

P.R. Masani

Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the…

Abstract

Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the entry that the incomplete determinism in Nature opens to the occurrence of innovation, growth, organization, teleology communication, control, contest and freedom. The new tier to the methodological edifice that cybernetics provides stands on the earlier tiers, which go back to the Ionians (c. 500 BC). However, the new insights reveal flaws in the earlier tiers, and their removal strengthens the entire edifice. The new concepts of teleological activity and contest allow the clear demarcation of the military sciences as those whose subject matter is teleological activity involving contest. The paramount question “what ought to be done”, outside the empirical realm, is embraced by the scientific methodology. It also embraces the cognitive sciences that ask how the human mind is able to discover, and how the sequence of discoveries might converge to a true description of reality.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2005

Edward Weiner and Elizabeth S. Riklin

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-0804-4115-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

Agachai Sumalee, Anthony D. May and Simon P. Shepherd

This study reports on the effect of demand variation on the optimal location of road-pricing cordons. The optimal road-pricing cordon, in this study, aims to maximise the…

Abstract

This study reports on the effect of demand variation on the optimal location of road-pricing cordons. The optimal road-pricing cordon, in this study, aims to maximise the social welfare function. This optimisation program is categorised as Bi-level optimisation programming which is a NP hard problem. The paper first describes the method developed to solve the optimal toll problem for a given set of chargeable links. The tests were carried out with a small toy network and a larger scale network. For the small network, four single user class demand characteristics were varied individually; these were the elasticity of trip generation with respect to increases in travel cost, value of travel time, volume of traffic, and traffic distribution pattern. For the larger scale network, only elasticity, value of time, and trip volume were tested. The results of the larger scale network are also analysed by including the cost per toll point. The tests with the larger scale network were modified so that the constraint of uniform charge is applied. The results showed that demand variation could influence the best location of toll points. This finding raises the question of whether the implementation of the same cordon all day in an urban traffic network is the optimal approach under the existence of demand variations by time of day, and also whether the evaluation process of the cordon location should consider the effect of different time periods together.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

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