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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

David W. Parker and William W. Lawrence

This study explores the role of business model as a state variable during transformation of a financial institution to become a multinational enterprise. Prior studies of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the role of business model as a state variable during transformation of a financial institution to become a multinational enterprise. Prior studies of the Uppsala model overlooked business model evolution for cross-border productivity and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design employs the resource-based view for an in-depth case study of JMMB, a family-managed Jamaica-based financial firm, using data from primary and secondary sources, covering the period 1992 to 2014.

Findings

JMMB's business model was the channel through which resources and capabilities gave rise to an innovative product for successful positioning in an international network. This was augmented by strong family orientation toward customer service, a distinctive asset that shaped the nature and trajectory of the business model. Cross-border alliancing and risk management were crucial dynamic capabilities for replicating the business model in foreign markets.

Research limitations/implications

While the observations are not generalizable to other firms, they indicate that a business model is a key unit of analysis for understanding how the firm makes the transition to become a multinational enterprise.

Practical implications

Financial institutions may internationalize in a small island, developing stages through a strategy of focused product differentiation based on disruptive innovation with cross-border partnerships for ease of market entry and experiential learning.

Social implications

The research has identified opportunities for effective and efficient work methods in pursuit of productivity gains.

Originality/value

The study is the first to illustrate business model as a state variable in the Uppsala model of multinational enterprise evolution for a financial firm.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

David W. Parker, Rosina Kunde and Luca Zeppetella

The authors explore several aspects of communications theory to identify their relevance to managing a project-based productivity improvement intervention. The literature…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors explore several aspects of communications theory to identify their relevance to managing a project-based productivity improvement intervention. The literature on communication accommodation theory, groupthink and trust appear to have important implications for improvements. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research methodology used in conducting empirical data collection in the field to test the developed conceptual framework. The authors emphasize the importance of management theory to project-based interventions. The focus of this work is summarized by the research question: “what facets of communication impact on the success of a project-based improvement intervention?”.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a focused literature review, learnings from specific research were used to identify a series of propositions. The scope of the work was established to limit the range of issues under review. Next, a conceptual framework was designed that allowed a case study to be tested with regard to validity of the propositions. Further testing will be undertaken in a single company.

Findings

There is clear evidence showing the relevance of effective communication when executing an intervention to seek performance improvement. In particular, understanding the need of stakeholders’ is paramount that allows the design of a communications strategy. Each phase in a project-based intervention requires different styles of communication. There is also a need to have varying degrees of trust. Total unchallenged trust invariably leads to groupthink that hinders critical decision making.

Research limitations/implications

The work contributes to the understanding of the application of communication theory to project-based interventions – that invariably aim at performance improvement initiatives. While currently the work is in the early stages of research, it does nevertheless show some useful early findings. Clearly further work is needed in international projects in the context of multi-cultural teams and external stakeholders.

Practical implications

With many interventions failing to meet their planned objectives there is a need to isolate possible reasons and to rectify or mitigate the causes. Project management and change management training should include a comprehensive understanding of management theories. This research will contribute to this knowledge base.

Social implications

Project-based activities are used in most walks of life; the need for excellent management is therefore important. Invariably interventions involve considerable capital investment and their success advances productivity of nations. Understanding and integrating communication theories to their management, therefore, has significant social benefits.

Originality/value

The importance of communications is identified in the project management literature and adjunct disciplines. Professional associations and leading bodies in performance and project management, while emphasizing the need for excellent communication, have not adequately addressed underpinning theories. There is little research focusing on communication accommodation theory, groupthink and risk in the context of project management. The authors’ have not been able to identify any research on an integrated framework that combines these theories with managing a project-based performance improvement intervention.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

David W. Parker, Uwe Dressel, Delroy Chevers and Luca Zeppetella

Agency theory suggests that divergences will occur when a principal, e.g. client, and agent e.g. a project manager, interests are different in the execution of a project…

Abstract

Purpose

Agency theory suggests that divergences will occur when a principal, e.g. client, and agent e.g. a project manager, interests are different in the execution of a project. The purpose of this paper is to explore if the agency theory can explain the subtleties integral to the behaviours and relationships between players delivering a public-private-partnership (PPP) in the context of an international development (ID) project. The intra-/interpersonal dynamics include governments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and private commercial service providers. The authors develop a conceptual framework and provide evidence from a case study of the testing of a Road Safety Toolkit in Kenya to explore several propositions.

Design/methodology/approach

Extant literature identified application of the agency theory, and the development of a conceptual framework. A case study describing an ID project was used to validate the propositions prior to the expansion of a research instrument for data collection in the field.

Findings

Through the lens of the agency theory and the limitations imposed by exploring a series of propositions, several insightful conclusions have been derived from the case. ID projects have particular nuisances that make them unique when compared to the majority of commercial applications. An added dimension and level of complexity is a consequence of the PPP incorporating government, NGOs and private corporations. The case exemplified the need for PPP ID projects to build on partner networks to influence and disseminate outcomes. Some agency problems were far less prominent than would normally be seen in a commercial project.

Research limitations/implications

The methodologies presented in this paper need to be adapted and practiced in different kinds of ID projects in order to get confirmatory analytical results. The limitations imposed by the use of the single case, whilst drawing insightful conclusions, would necessitate greater testing in the field.

Practical implications

Although the problems of the agency theory are well researched in the operations management literature, there is limited application to ID projects and no previous research within the context of a PPP. Therefore, this work is important for greater understanding of the specific issues associated with project delivery of an ID.

Social implications

Conflicting goals between principals and agents are common for organisations, which in turn affect inter-relationships on an international footing. The agency theory has had little attention in the project management field, yet is fundamental to relationships and communication.

Originality/value

There has been little research that explores the agency theory in the context of a PPP involving governments, NGOs and private commercial service providers, executed as an ID project. This work, therefore, exhibits new and novel findings.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

David W Parker, Melanie Holesgrove and Raghhuvar Pathak

Many organisations remain adverse to self-organised teams. The reasons are non-trivial and complex, but it is suspected that not willing to let go to direct control by…

Abstract

Purpose

Many organisations remain adverse to self-organised teams. The reasons are non-trivial and complex, but it is suspected that not willing to let go to direct control by senior management is at the root cause. There is a perceived security in following traditional, hierarchical chains of command under the guise of reducing risks and maintaining efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a research agenda that will empirically test in the field a range of widely held assumptions around leadership of self-organised teams. In total, 23 companies have agreed to participate in the proposed longitudinal research.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review has identified extant theories, frameworks, and methodologies adopted by researchers to gain greater understanding of self-organised teams. This knowledge will be used as the basis for generating hypotheses for subsequent testing in the field.

Findings

There is a considerable knowledge base established for self-organised teams. However, there is limited understanding of the benefits or detrimental effects of self-organised teams on organisational productivity and the appropriate style of leadership. This initial research has identified several hypotheses that will be used to develop questionnaires and instruments for information collection.

Research limitations/implications

The tools and techniques presented in this article need to be adapted to the organisation’s specificities as well as to the contextual situation.

Practical implications

The work is of significant practical use. The research will be completed in a number of companies. There will be continuous input from operational and executive management. The findings from the work will be disseminated through various channels including workshops and conferences. Companies implementing and using self-organised teams will benefit from the knowledge generated.

Social implications

Self-organised teams are used in a variety of settings – commercial businesses, not-for-profit, NGOs. The work will explore issues around behavioural networks and inter- intra-team relationships.

Originality/value

There is much rhetoric around the adoption and uses of self-organised teams, yet there appears to be little understanding of the effect of leadership style of these teams and effect on productivity. This work will therefore contribute to the understanding of self-organised teams. While prior research has been conducted in the motivational and behavioural implications of self-organised teams, the knowledge is at best scant when leadership models for self-organised teams and operational factors are explored.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 1996

Abstract

Details

The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Benjamin Crouzet, David W. Parker and Raghhuvar Pathak

The purpose of this paper is to cite resistance to change as a significant reason why productivity initiatives fail. Therefore, effectively managing and overcoming…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to cite resistance to change as a significant reason why productivity initiatives fail. Therefore, effectively managing and overcoming resistance to change is a critical factor for the successful outcome of any intervention. This paper explores current knowledge of resistance to change and seeks to review the literature and so understand what methods can be used to manage change initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review has identified theories, frameworks and methodologies to successfully manage and overcome resistance to organisational change.

Findings

Managing and overcoming opposition to change starts by assessing the types of resistance; and this classification will form the basis for the development of an implementation strategy to reduce resistance. This includes creating readiness and urgency for change, creating a vision for change, having employees participate in the change effort, training and coaching employees, effectively communicating the change, creating and planning for quick wins and refreezing the organisation.

Research limitations/implications

The tools and techniques presented in this paper need to be adapted to the organisation's specificities as well as to the contextual situation.

Practical implications

The work has developed materials to-date that could be used by practitioners that are engaged with productivity improvement interventions.

Social implications

Resistance and its wider implications to any change intervention has organisational and social impacts. Therefore this work brings insightful information to support change in its wider application.

Originality/value

Today's competitive, uncertain and fast-paced economic environment requires organisations to change in order to maintain or develop their competitive advantage. This paper combines numerous theories, frameworks and methodologies to successfully manage and overcome resistance in order gain acceptance and meet the desired needs.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Karessa Cullen and David W. Parker

The purpose of this paper is to explore benefits and issues of integrating the theory of constraints (TOC), resource-based view (RBV) and resource-dependence theory (RDT…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore benefits and issues of integrating the theory of constraints (TOC), resource-based view (RBV) and resource-dependence theory (RDT) with conventional project-based management frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

Extant literature is used to develop a conceptual framework of an integrated model that will be tested for applied robustness. The model has been applied to published projects to identify its strengths and weaknesses.

Findings

The work shows important implications for improved success of projects from the use of TOC, RBV and RDT.

Research limitations/implications

While TOC, RBV and RDT are well established in the context of organization theory, there is limited application in project management. Moreover, the model has yet to be applied in the field. The hypotheses identified in this research are currently being tested using empirical investigation.

Practical implications

The research falls short in addressing some resources, e.g. innovation, tacit knowledge and decision-making methods in traditional project management context. Therefore, identifying these critical resources in future work and exploiting them as the means of improving project performance would enhance the success of project-based management.

Social implications

Project management is an emergent discipline and a project is temporary in nature. Therefore, new ideas and development of theories for project management practices are required. This innovative research, for example, may change the way projects are executed in future.

Originality/value

This paper examines the components of a successful project according to the iron triangle, i.e. scope, quality, time and cost. However, through the application of TOC, RBV and RDT into an integrated project-based management framework gives new insights to resources management.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

David W. Parker, Nicholas Parsons and Fitri Isharyanto

The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of integrating the theory of constraints (TOC), resources-based theory (RBT), resource advantage theory (RAT), with a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of integrating the theory of constraints (TOC), resources-based theory (RBT), resource advantage theory (RAT), with a structured project-based methodology e.g., Project Management Body of Knowledge. This paper describes each theory and explores what benefits a unified model would bring to project management. This paper represents the conceptual development of an integrated framework that will be tested in a range of project management scenarios in various industrial sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Extant literature is used to develop a conceptual framework of an integrated model that will be tested in the field for robustness. The model has been applied to published projects to identify its strengths and weaknesses.

Findings

The work shows important implications for improved success of projects from the use of TOC, RAT and resource dependence theory (RDT). Specifically, it emphasizes the need for application of strategic theories to project management.

Research limitations/implications

While TOC, RAT and RDT are well established in the context of organization theory, there is limited application in project management. Moreover, the model has yet to be applied in the field. The hypotheses identified in this research are currently being tested using field-based surveys.

Practical implications

The research falls short in addressing some resources, e.g. innovation, tacit knowledge and decision making methods in traditional project management context. Therefore, identifying these critical resources in future work and exploiting them as the means of improving project performance would enhance the success of project-based management.

Social implications

Project management is an emergent discipline and a project is temporary in nature. Therefore, new ideas and development of theories for project management practices are required. This innovative research, for example, may change the way projects are executed in future.

Originality/value

This paper examines the components of a successful project according to the iron triangle, i.e. scope, quality, time and cost. However, through the application of TOC, RAT and RDT into an integrated project-based management framework gives new insights to resources management.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Graham Manville, Richard Greatbanks, Radica Krishnasamy and David W. Parker

Many organisations are operating in a dynamic competitive environment and experiencing increasing competition. As a result organisations in the service sector are…

Abstract

Purpose

Many organisations are operating in a dynamic competitive environment and experiencing increasing competition. As a result organisations in the service sector are continually seeking opportunities to remove waste and improve performance. Six sigma has been embraced by the service sector and is receiving increasing attention within both academe and practice. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate lean six sigma from a middle managers' perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method approach was adopted involving a structured survey to 200 managers and semi‐structured interviews with two of the management team.

Findings

The paper highlights the importance of developing learning capabilities in the middle management team and the empowering of them. A greater role should be given to middle management in performance improvement and strategy formulation.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings only apply to one case so it is difficult to make assumptions across different sectors. More research is required with regard to change management in lean six sigma implementations.

Originality/value

This paper shows that developing dynamic capabilities in middle management along with a learning culture will facilitate participation in strategy formulation.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Derek Walker

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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