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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

David W Cravens, Thomas N Ingram and Raymond W LaForge

Presents a portfolio model for multi‐sales channel effortdeployment. Shows how the approach can help sales management restructuresales channels. Notes that combining an…

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1036

Abstract

Presents a portfolio model for multi‐sales channel effort deployment. Shows how the approach can help sales management restructure sales channels. Notes that combining an organization′s selling effort into multiple sales channels can be facilitated through an analytical approach that considers variations in customer requirements, buying power and contact costs. Concludes that implementing a successful multiple sales channel strategy offers impressive productivity opportunities.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens and Neil A. Morgan

Reports a study of sales management in UK companies, which explores the relationship between behaviour‐based control systems and outcome‐based control systems. Although…

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7213

Abstract

Reports a study of sales management in UK companies, which explores the relationship between behaviour‐based control systems and outcome‐based control systems. Although conventional theory has suggested that behaviour performance and outcome performance result from different stimuli, we find that behaviour‐based control is positively associated with both behaviour performance and outcome performance. We find also that organizational commitment and sales territory design are significantly related to salesforce performance. This suggests a number of important avenues for improving salesforce performance. These findings and the growing emphasis on building long‐term, collaborative buyer‐seller relationships favour the use of behaviour‐based control systems in many sales management situations, and suggest a new agenda for management attention in improving salesforce effectiveness.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Artur Baldauf, David W. Cravens and Nigel F. Piercy

The effective management of sales organizations is important to managers of international marketing operations spanning multiple countries, but also to managers of local…

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3099

Abstract

The effective management of sales organizations is important to managers of international marketing operations spanning multiple countries, but also to managers of local operations who may question the validity of many of the prescriptions of US‐based research. Studies sales management control in companies in Austria and the UK to contribute a European perspective on behaviour‐based control compared to outcome‐based control. Focuses on the pivotal role of the field sales manager compared to prior research at the salesperson and chief sales executive levels. Confirms the robustness of the behaviour‐based control in these international contexts, and also contributes a number of new insights to the general sales management control research literature. Identifies a number of important research directions in this important area, as well as implications for managers of international selling organizations.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1972

James Cotham, David Cravens and Allan Pennington

Questions the value of ‘morale boosting’ as a device for salesman improvement, concludes that attention to specific attitudes is likely to prove more rewarding. Specifies…

Abstract

Questions the value of ‘morale boosting’ as a device for salesman improvement, concludes that attention to specific attitudes is likely to prove more rewarding. Specifies the improvement of sales‐force morale is often seen as vital to effective performance. Sheds light on the scarcity of research efforts and the inconclusiveness of available findings indicate the effects of job attitudes on sales performance are uncertain and, at best, are likely to be situation specific. Chronicles that this study was designed to contribute to a small but growing body of research efforts into the question of job attitudes and selling performance.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Ken Grant and David W. Cravens

Examines the impact of manager and salesforce antecedents on sales organization effectiveness, using a sample of 146 Australian sales units. Indicates that sales manager…

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2494

Abstract

Examines the impact of manager and salesforce antecedents on sales organization effectiveness, using a sample of 146 Australian sales units. Indicates that sales manager monitoring, directing, evaluating and rewarding activities distinguish between high and low sales unit profitability and managers’ satisfaction with their units. Suggests that sales territory design displays significant differences between high and low sales/market share and unit satisfaction. Discovers that several salesperson characteristics and performance were significantly different between high and low customer satisfaction effectiveness and managers’ satisfaction with sales units. Highlights significant antecedent roles for sales manager and salesforce antecedents of sales organization effectiveness.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens and Neil A. Morgan

The significance of the search for sales organization effectiveness is underlined by the major costs represented by the field salesforce for many organizations, and it is…

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5308

Abstract

The significance of the search for sales organization effectiveness is underlined by the major costs represented by the field salesforce for many organizations, and it is heightened by the pressures of global competition and new challenges to develop long‐term customer relationships as the foundation for competitive and sustainable marketing strategies. A study of sales management in British companies adds to an emerging research stream by identifying certain characteristics of superior performance and effectiveness in the business‐to‐business sales organization. We find that conventional measures of salesforce size, call‐rates, costs and productivity reveal relatively little about the differences between more effective and less effective sales organizations and may be dangerously misleading. The hallmarks of effective sales organizations we found to be: balanced compensation strategy; successful salesperson characteristics, in terms of motivation, customer orientation, team orientation, and sales support orientation; high performance in the drivers of sales effectiveness, i.e. sales presentation, technical knowledge, but most particularly adaptiveness, teamwork, sales planning, and sales support; the use of behaviour‐based control approaches involving effective monitoring, directing, evaluating and rewarding activities by sales managers; and, sound organizational structures. The research findings contribute benchmarks to a powerful management agenda to be addressed by executives in pursuing sales organization effectiveness.

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Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

David W. Cravens, Ken Grant, Thomas N. Ingram, Raymond W. LaForge and Clifford Young

Analyses salesforce performance and examines high and lowperformance Australian sales organizations. Chief sales executives in 99companies describe their sales…

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1515

Abstract

Analyses salesforce performance and examines high and low performance Australian sales organizations. Chief sales executives in 99 companies describe their sales organizations′ characteristics, management priorities, salesforce performance and sales organization effectiveness. The companies are divided into two performance groups and compared across 31 salesforce performance activities. Important differences between the high and low performance groups concern expense control, sales presentation effectiveness, and sales results performance of salespeople. Identifies important performing issues and indicates guidelines for improving sales organization performance.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Nigel F. Piercy, Nikala Lane and David W. Cravens

Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is discretionary employee behaviour that promotes organizational effectiveness, and has become recognized as an issue of…

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4523

Abstract

Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is discretionary employee behaviour that promotes organizational effectiveness, and has become recognized as an issue of potentially substantial importance in the management of sales operations. Identifies sales management control strategy as an important antecedent to salesperson OCB, which has been neglected in prior OCB research. Uncovers an important gender dimension in the display of OCB by salespeople, not previously investigated, and identifies an important relationship between sales manager gender and the OCB displayed by a sales unit or team, which is associated with the effectiveness of the sales unit. The findings have a number of important implications for managers concerned with enhancing sales organization effectiveness, as well as identifying a number of promising research directions.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 17 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Artur Baldauf and David W. Cravens

Salesperson behavior performance is conceptualized as a predictor of outcome performance and sales organization effectiveness. The research considers the effects of…

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4771

Abstract

Salesperson behavior performance is conceptualized as a predictor of outcome performance and sales organization effectiveness. The research considers the effects of salesperson capabilities, industrial/consumer products, and industry growth moderators on salesperson performance and sales organization effectiveness relationships. Empirical analyses are conducted using data from a sample of 174 field sales managers in Austrian sales organizations. The results of moderator regression analyses indicate that salesperson capabilities, product type, and industry growth are relevant moderators. The roles of the moderators vary across the relationships analyzed. Several management and research implications are examined.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Emin Babakus, David W. Cravens, Ken Grant, Thomas N. Ingram and Raymond W. LaForge

Examines how sales managers can affect and improve salesforceperformance. Describes the similarities and differences between high‐and low‐performance salesforces and the…

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1748

Abstract

Examines how sales managers can affect and improve salesforce performance. Describes the similarities and differences between high‐ and low‐performance salesforces and the ways in which sales management can create the opportunity for salespeople to perform well. Discusses research implications and offers management guidelines to improve the effectiveness of sales organizations.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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