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This paper constructs real wage series for nineteenth-century Algeria and Tunisia, and compares them with existing Egyptian and Syrian series. Archival sources are used…
This paper constructs real wage series for nineteenth-century Algeria and Tunisia, and compares them with existing Egyptian and Syrian series. Archival sources are used for price and nominal wage data. Following Allen (2001), nominal wages are deflated with a consumer price index. The series are tested for robustness. Real wages were initially dispersed, but converged to similar levels by the end of the period. There is no evidence of a broad-based improvement in living standards over the period, with real wage series declining in Algeria, and stagnating in Egypt, Tunisia and Syria. The findings paint a less optimistic picture of living standards compared to other measures like GDP per capita and compared to some of the historical literature. Data for the Maghreb are scarce, and more work will need to be done on finding more wage and price observations.
This chapter is an exercise in speaking, letting individuals speak for themselves insofar as possible. As Marx famously put it, “they cannot represent themselves, they…
This chapter is an exercise in speaking, letting individuals speak for themselves insofar as possible. As Marx famously put it, “they cannot represent themselves, they must be represented.” The “they” were peasants, potato farmers in 1840s France, and by extension peasants, workers, and other lower class groups, not to mention women and minorities who rarely made it into the historical record, and even more rarely in their own words. To give “voice to the voiceless,” as the now old new social historians of the 1960s and 1970s put it, I consciously include here numerous speakers, arranged in two sets of different voices: quotes in the text and endnotes to further document and amplify points. With this plethora of voices, the aim is not to complicate but to speak clearly, listen carefully, and engage respectfully. To multiply the speakers speaking is the single best way to make two primary points concerning what is most important about the Chief Illiniwek mascot controversy: that the sheer number of individuals speaking out is in itself significant, and that this community colloquy all comes down to identity – who we are, individual identity, communal identity.
Since its inception in 1926, the tradition of playing Indian at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana (UIUC) has fostered powerful devotion and deep affection, creating powerful spaces of identification and narration for thousands of (largely EuroAmerican) students, fans, and community members. Embodied by Chief Illiniwek, this tradition had proven popular and pleasurable for more than 60 years when a small, but persistent, collection of students and faculty began challenging the prevailing uses and understandings of Indianness at UIUC. At first, these interventions appeared awkward and idiosyncratic as they worked to unsettle established interpretations and preferred practices. Over time, a vital and creative counter-hegemonic movement crystallized, fostering protest, internal efforts at reform, and critical scholarship. In conjunction with a broader, national movement (see King, 2010), these local initiatives culminated in a policy change by the National Collegiate Athletic Association that would eventually prompt UIUC, after initial resistance, to retire Chief Illiniwek. Nevertheless, alumni, fans, and several media outlets not only continued to defend the schools mascot, but went so far as to celebrate it as well. Indeed, almost immediately after Chief Illiniwek performed for the last time, the local paper in Champaign-Urbana released a volume commemorating the mascot and its import (Foreman, 2007). As much of the media and public has mourned for their “Indian” and longed for their lost traditions, they have silenced and marginalized local and national network of resistance intent to re/claim dignity, humanity, and community.
For the last two years, the Forensic Mental Health Service at South London & Maudsley NHS has been one of the pilot sites funded by the DSPD programme. In this paper we…
For the last two years, the Forensic Mental Health Service at South London & Maudsley NHS has been one of the pilot sites funded by the DSPD programme. In this paper we are reporting on one segment of the Personality Disorder Service. As of December 2006, the service will have been operating for two years. This is one of several Home Office‐funded forensic personality disorder treatment sites in the UK. It consists of a 15‐bed medium secure inpatient service, a community team and two hostels.We begin by describing briefly our treatment model and the theoretical underpinnings of our service. However, the bulk of this paper will report on the lessons we have learned.
Despite growing attention to the prevalence and consequences of cyberbullying within the social sciences, research on cyber-bystander reactions has been largely…
Despite growing attention to the prevalence and consequences of cyberbullying within the social sciences, research on cyber-bystander reactions has been largely overlooked. Drawing from Latane and Darley’s (1970) bystander engagement model, the current study sought to fill this gap by exploring how common it is for adolescents to encounter cyberbullying on social networking sites (SNS), how youth react to the cyberbullying witnessed on SNS, and most importantly to uncover factors that may be related to two potential bystander trajectories on SNS, namely traditional bystanding and prosocial bystander engagement.
Data was drawn from the 2011 Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project (Princeton Survey Research Associates International, 2011). The secondary analysis was restricted to only adolescents who ranged in age from 12 to 17. Grounded in existing research on face-to-face bystander behaviors, two Ordinary Least Squares regression models were run testing which independent variables (age, gender, frequency of SNS use, perceived peer norms, and prior cyberbully victimization) were related to traditional and to prosocial bystander behavior online.
Approximately 88% of youth reported they’ve witnessed a cyberbullying exchange on an SNS. Among these witnesses, the majority reported engaging in both prosocial (62%) and traditional (74%) bystander practices. Based on the regression analyses, a key factor for bystander practice online appears to be observed peer behavior.
The findings from this research provide an initial exploration into cyber-bystander behavior, with potential implications for both future research directions and cyberbully prevention programming.
Observes that UK smoking prevention programmes have limited success. However, there is evidence that individual differences may mediate the effectiveness of such…
Observes that UK smoking prevention programmes have limited success. However, there is evidence that individual differences may mediate the effectiveness of such programmes. In order to measure personality, which is a major source of individual difference, a questionnaire suitable for use with English 11 to 16‐year olds was developed in three distinct phases. First, the words teenagers use to describe their friends were collected in individual interviews. Second, a subset of these terms was tested with a group of young people of various ages and qualitative analyses undertaken. Finally the factor structure of the questionnaire was explored and a 49 statement, self‐report personality instrument was constructed. The personality questionnaire was then used in a two‐wave prospective study of smoking in four English, state secondary schools. Presents the findings from matched data from 2,023 students. The personality questionnaire predicted smoking uptake above and beyond that achieved from knowledge of gender, school year, and family smoking behaviour.
The principal purposes of this paper are to provide normative advice in terms of managing the British Monarchy as a Corporate Heritage Brand and to reveal the efficacy of…
The principal purposes of this paper are to provide normative advice in terms of managing the British Monarchy as a Corporate Heritage Brand and to reveal the efficacy of examining a brand's history for corporate heritage brands generally.
Taking a case history approach, the paper examines critical events in the Crown's history. It is also informed by the diverse literatures on the British Monarchy and also marshals the identity literatures and the nascent literature relating to corporate brands. Six critical incidents that have shaped the monarchy over the last millennium provide the principal data source.
In scrutinising key events from the institution's historiography it was found that the management and maintenance of the Crown as a corporate brand entail concern with issues relating to: continuity (maintaining heritage and symbolism); visibility (having a meaningful and prominent public profile); strategy (anticipating and enacting change); sensitivity (rapid response to crises); respectability (retaining public favour); and empathy (acknowledging that brand ownership resides with the public). Taking an integrationist perspective, the efficacy of adopting a corporate marketing approach/philosophy is also highlighted.
A framework for managing Corporate Heritage is outlined and is called “Chronicling the Corporate Brand”. In addition to Bagehot's dictum that the British Monarch had a constitutional obligation to encourage, advise and warn the government of the day, the author concludes that the Sovereign has a critical societal role and must be dutiful, devoted and dedicated to Her (His) subjects.
This is one of the first papers to examine the British Monarchy through a corporate branding lens. It confirms that the Crown is analogous to a corporate brand and, therefore, ought to be managed as such.
This article presents an overview of the issues of providing care for homeless adolescents who present with comorbid mental health and substance misuse problems within a…
This article presents an overview of the issues of providing care for homeless adolescents who present with comorbid mental health and substance misuse problems within a specialist child and adolescent mental health service. The limited evidence base concerning dual diagnosis among the adolescent population is explored and the application of research based on the adult population to this client group is considered.The intervention strategies that have proved successful in clinical practice are discussed and the evidence to support this is highlighted. The importance of taking an assertive outreach approach to, and investing time in, the engagement process is first considered. Then the application and benefits of harm reduction and motivational interventions are explored before the importance of multi‐agency working is highlighted and a conclusion offered.
Offenders who have intellectual disabilities like any one else may deny their offence. This paper reports a case study of a man who admitted his offence and them accepted…
Offenders who have intellectual disabilities like any one else may deny their offence. This paper reports a case study of a man who admitted his offence and them accepted probation with a condition of treatment. However, when he attended treatment he denied the offence. Thus do those providing treatment send them back into the criminal justice system or work with them try and help them accept what they have done and provide appropriate treatment to help them reduce future risk of offending.
In this case study the assimilation model was used to understand the process of change and monitor change through exploratory psychotherapy. The psychotherapeutic model was psychodymnamic.
The client demonstrated gains through the stages of the model toward acceptance of his problematic behaviour and continued to work on this through further psychotherapy.
The assimilation model offers a useful approach to monitor change in psychotherapy; but especially when the client does not accept the problem the rest of the world feels they have.