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Individual psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with learning disabilities has been more available since the 1980s, with numerous case studies and reports of…
Individual psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with learning disabilities has been more available since the 1980s, with numerous case studies and reports of effectiveness, yet little is know about the history of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper is a historical account of the international development of psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with learning disabilities. It discusses some of the clinicians' case reports, views and conclusions. It is important that, as therapists, we continue to learn and develop. This is a story of ‘opportunities lost’. Although a number of therapists were well‐placed to develop psychotherapy as a valuable treatment option, it did not happen. The paper discusses the reasons, ranging from widespread therapeutic pessimism to inability in the therapist to process the ‘disability transference’. It outlines the various British contributions before and since the ground‐breaking and well‐known work of Valerie Sinason, whose 1992 book is still the most influential contribution. Psychodynamic psychotherapy has developed more of a tradition than other therapy approaches in this field, but there is still only sparse literature on and recognition of this work.
After the end of the Napoleonic War, few issues of public policy dominated discussions in England as fervently as the issue of currency and the national debt. A time of…
After the end of the Napoleonic War, few issues of public policy dominated discussions in England as fervently as the issue of currency and the national debt. A time of civil unrest and social radicalisation, the circulation of ideas and pamphlets was prolific. The difficulties of post-war reconstruction sparked a long debate on issues of monetary reform and repayment of the national debt. The growth of national debt increased the size of the financial market and had important consequences for a changing class dynamic in domestic political affairs. The distributional aspects of the conflict were present, as was the satirical mockery of mishandling of public affairs. In much of the subsequent scholarship the organisation of taxation and expenditure, and the financial system and the issue of currency have been analysed as separate. This chapter brings them together. In particular, it focuses on Ricardo’s monetary thought and his views on public finance and contextualises them in light of his contemporaries.
Central to the study of intercultural communication has been the question of what promotes closer ties between nations. This research replicates and extends a model that…
Central to the study of intercultural communication has been the question of what promotes closer ties between nations. This research replicates and extends a model that specifies three factors (perceptions of homophily, shared interests, and threats), drawn from social distance and systems perspectives, that are posited to have an influence on the desire for closer ties between Brazil and the U.S. Each of the factors have previously been identified as occupying central positions in the development of international relationships. This research extends this model by explicitly incorporating a range of communication channels which are impacted by these factors and which are also hypothesized to effect the desire for closer ties. The results were supportive of the model, with excellent goodness of fit measures for the specified model to the observed data. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for conflict management.
Discourses on ageing and childlessness coalesce around the notion that childless women will experience regret and loneliness in old age. In the United Kingdom, the idea…
Discourses on ageing and childlessness coalesce around the notion that childless women will experience regret and loneliness in old age. In the United Kingdom, the idea that children (mostly women) will provide care in old age tends to be normalised and underpins social care provision. In recent times, media coverage of childless women has also tended to sustain and promote this. This discourse occurs within a context where childlessness is on the rise and where there is little academic interest in the topic.
Our chapter will report on a constructivist grounded theory study with women who choose not to have children. A key aim of the study was to explore the consequences of participants’ choices on their lives. Twenty-one women aged between 45 and 75, from across England, Scotland and Wales participated. The age criteria were chosen to reflect the category that is used by the Office of National Statistics to denote that women’s reproduction ends at 45. This also helps to construct a social norm that women aged 45 and over are seen as older women. Findings reveal that most participants experience no regrets following their choice not to have children. Some express ‘half regrets’ while all challenge the societal expectation that without children there will be no one to care for them when they are older.
This supports the limited, mainly autobiographical literature, on loss and regret. It also refutes the unquestioned and widely believed assumption that women who choose not have children will live to regret it. For participants, the choice for motherhood was but one choice from a menu of many others. Their choice was for something more meaningful for them rather than a choice against motherhood. Consequently, participants had no reason to experience loss or regret. These findings also question the discourse, which implies that children will ensure care in older age. It presents a challenge to the myth that the family is a haven of happiness and support in an ever-changing world. Crucially, it supports calls for more inclusive policy making to address the care needs of all older people.
This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of the contributions of the Austrian school of economics, with specific emphasis on post-WWII developments. We provide a brief…
This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of the contributions of the Austrian school of economics, with specific emphasis on post-WWII developments. We provide a brief history and overview of the original theorists of the Austrian school in order to set the stage for the subsequent development of their ideas by Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek. In discussing the main ideas of Mises and Hayek, we focus on how their work provided the foundations for the modern Austrian school, which included Ludwig Lachmann, Murray Rothbard and Israel Kirzner. These scholars contributed to the Austrian revival in the 1960s and 1970s, which, in turn, set the stage for the emergence of the contemporary Austrian school in the 1980s. We review the contemporary development of the Austrian school and, in doing so, discuss the tensions, alternative paths, and the promising future of Austrian economics.
The notion of what is meant by “value” is explored and summarised in terms of its involvement in delivering the product/service attributes, considered necessary to create…
The notion of what is meant by “value” is explored and summarised in terms of its involvement in delivering the product/service attributes, considered necessary to create customer satisfaction. Investigates the business system in relation to the value chain, as well as citing the conflicting views of a number of authors upon this topic. A specific company is used as a template to bring out many of the notions that have been put forward. Concludes with the fact that the traditional value chain begins with the company’s core competences, whereas evidence suggests that modern value chain analysis reverses this approach and uses customers as its starting point.
Although the global economic crisis that began in 2007 has renewed interest in Keynes among the wider educated public, graduate courses in macroeconomics usually teach…
Although the global economic crisis that began in 2007 has renewed interest in Keynes among the wider educated public, graduate courses in macroeconomics usually teach little about Keynes and the issues he analyzed, and what little they teach is often wrong (e.g., that Keynes assumed an arbitrarily fixed money wage rate or that he ignored expectations). Consequently, as macroeconomists turn their attention to the possibility, causes and consequences of financial crises and global depression, they do not have access to the insights into these questions produced by earlier generations of economists. The time and attention constraints of theory courses do not allow simply directing the students to the extensive scholarly literature on the economics of Keynes, so this paper offers a suggested introduction to the economics of Keynes for a graduate course in macroeconomics.
Past decades have witnessed significant contributions to theories of the firm, innovation and economic growth from two closely related paradigms, namely, the Capabilities…
Past decades have witnessed significant contributions to theories of the firm, innovation and economic growth from two closely related paradigms, namely, the Capabilities School and National Innovation Systems Approach. Unlike the neoclassical models of the firm and growth, these two paradigms place emphasis on the knowledge and learning process in understanding economic development. Despite being closer to reality in their treatment of economic issues than their neoclassical school counterpart, the two paradigms have not put human agency in the forefront of their analysis. This paper constructs a theory of national capabilities in the subjectivist perspective, which is then extended to understand firm and national capabilities and competitiveness. While this paper recognizes the influence of institutions on firms' decision making, unlike contemporary evolutionary literatures, the subjectivist perspective highlights the fact that all institutions are the coordinating effort of human actions which attempt to interpret external events or make sense out of social or economic interactions.