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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Peter Michl, David Lorenz, Thomas Lützkendorf and Sarah Sayce

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a survey conducted by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) to discuss the extent to which…

2371

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a survey conducted by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) to discuss the extent to which qualified valuers have adapted their valuation practices in the light of guidance published by RICS in respect of sustainability and commercial property. The findings are placed within a wider debate between assessment of market value and investment value (worth).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a theoretical discussion incorporating the results from an empirical survey of valuation practitioners.

Findings

The paper reveals that guidance published by RICS in 2011 has achieved limited, but variable, impact in terms of impacting on valuation practice due to a combination of factors including lack of knowledge of the guidance, non-requirement of clients to request sustainability reporting within valuations, paucity of data. It found that where worth (investment value) is required, sustainability factors are more likely to impact the calculation than where an estimate of market value is prepared. The paper identifies theoretical problems and practical barriers hindering an integration of sustainability aspects into valuation practice.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical work was conducted prior to the embedding of guidance within the mandatory provisions of the “Red Book”; the study therefore reports on a direction of travel rather than the current position. The implications for research are the requirement to enhance data capture and to seek ways to break down the barriers to more comprehensive integration of such data so that worth and market values may begin to converge.

Practical implications

The paper has practical implications for both the education of valuers which is proposed through the RenoValue project discussed in the paper and for the RICS in monitoring progress towards more specific integration within valuers’ calculations. Further, the paper identifies that clients and lenders have a key role to play through the instructions given to valuers.

Social implications

There is now widespread recognition that properties which are not resource efficient and which are not equipped to flex to changing occupier needs may not currently be “future proofed” in investment value terms and are likely to see value erosion over time. Further, buildings have a key role in terms of climate change policy. Whilst new buildings can be mandated to meet improved efficiency standards, the ways in which buildings owners can be encouraged to upgrade will be important moving forward. One way is through a value chain response.

Originality/value

The survey is the most comprehensive investigation of valuer’s practice in relation to sustainability and the assessment of market value and worth undertaken. This provides a unique insight into the effectiveness of professional guidance and enables an informed discussion as to appropriate ways to enhance guidance moving forward.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Abstract

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

David Lorenz and Thomas Lützkendorf

The aims of this paper are to: provide a systematic overview of various publications and international research efforts undertaken to integrate sustainability…

6176

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are to: provide a systematic overview of various publications and international research efforts undertaken to integrate sustainability considerations into the property valuation process; summarize the key results of these publications and research efforts; highlight the role of key valuation‐input variables in considering sustainability issues when applying traditional methods of valuing income‐producing properties; briefly present and comment on a broader concept of property value and the resulting implications for property valuation practice; and provide recommendations for change in the everyday practice of individual valuation professionals and for the future operation of professional organisations and valuation‐standard‐setting bodies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds on the authors' previous contributions to the discussion on sustainability and valuation, presents advances on these previous works and condenses the more theoretical issues debated earlier into concrete recommendations for future action. Starting from a literature review of the different strands of research relating to the new discipline of sustainable property investment, 31 publications and ten research projects that investigate in detail the topic of sustainability and property valuation are identified and the current stage of discussion is briefly commented on. On this basis, a systematisation of existing approaches for the integration of sustainability issues into the valuation process is presented, followed by further explanations of practical valuation issues such as identifying the key “adjustment screws” or valuation input parameters of traditional valuation methods. Finally, the underlying concept of property value is discussed and a “value map” is presented which conceptualises the relationships between different components of value as well as other value‐influencing forces.

Findings

Changes are required in the processes of gathering, processing and presenting property‐related information, as well as in the methods for determining individual valuation‐input parameters and for explicitly stating formerly implicit assumptions and qualitative judgement. This includes but is not limited to the extension of the scope and informational content of standard valuation reports to include sensitivity analyses, risk documentation and a separate section on sustainability. The required changes should be supported by actions that could be undertaken by the professional and valuation‐standard‐setting bodies and organisations within the valuation world. These actions include: embracing and improved marketing of the qualitative nature of the valuation service; the development of educational material and formal guidelines; the provision of dedicated market research to assist valuation practitioners operating in different market segments, geographic regions and local sub‐markets; and adjusting and further developing existing valuation standards to enable and support individual practitioners in offering a two‐tier valuation service to clients.

Originality/value

This paper proposes that valuation professionals and their professional bodies are confronted with a new reality of changing value perceptions and systems among market participants, and offers practical recommendations on how to cope with this situation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

David Lorenz and Thomas Lützkendorf

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions…

13755

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions for valuers on how to account for sustainability issues within valuation reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors emphasise the key role of valuation professionals and of the valuation process itself in achieving a broader market penetration of sustainable construction. It is explained that, on the one hand, property valuation represents the major mechanism to align economic return with environmental and social performance of property assets, and thus to express and communicate the advantages and benefits of sustainable buildings. On the other hand, it is explained that gradual changes in market participants' perceptions in favour of sustainable buildings must be reflected within the property valuation and associated risk assessment process (otherwise valuers would produce misleading price estimates). The authors identify both the financial benefits and risk reduction potential of sustainable design as well as valuation input parameters that would allow these benefits to be reflected in property price estimates.

Findings

The authors show that the main reasons for immediately and rigorously integrating sustainability issues into property valuation are as follows: more sustainable patterns of behaviour are urgently necessary to sustain the viability of the Earth's ecosystems; a huge untapped market potential exists for sustainable property investment products and consulting services; sustainable buildings clearly outperform their conventional competitors in all relevant areas (i.e. environmentally, socially and financially); neglecting the benefits of sustainable design leads to distorted price estimates; and reflecting sustainability issues in property price estimates is already possible and the validity of this decision depends solely on the valuer's capability and sophistication to explain and justify his/her assumptions within the valuation report. However, it is also shown that efforts need to be undertaken to improve the description of property assets in transaction databases in order to provide the informational databases necessary to empirically underpin a valuer's decision to assign a “valuation bonus” to a sustainable building or a “valuation reduction” to an unsustainable/conventional one.

Originality/value

The paper postulates that valuation reports should be extended to include the following additional elements: a clear description of the availability of certain sustainability‐related property characteristics and attributes; a statement of the valuer's opinion about the benefits of these characteristics and attributes; and a statement of the valuer's opinion about the impact of these benefits and/or risks on property value.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

David Lorenz and Stefan Trück

The purpose of this paper is to explore capital gains, income, and total returns in various property markets in Europe. In a comparative study the nature of returns for…

1550

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore capital gains, income, and total returns in various property markets in Europe. In a comparative study the nature of returns for different commercial and residential properties is investigated. Hereby, total returns, income returns, and capital growth are distinguished. The paper further presents an analysis of the risk‐return relationship of the different markets and investigates the interactions between property markets, other local financial markets, and macroeconomic variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on the risk‐return relationship of the different asset classes and countries, the Sharpe ratio is used as a risk‐adjusted performance measure to investigate the European markets. Using a simple linear regression model, a comparison of the European commercial property markets with respect to their returns and risk are provided. Finally, a capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and factor models based on arbitrage pricing theory (APT) are used in an effort to further explain the spreads and risk premiums for individual property markets.

Findings

The large differences between the markets regarding spreads, risk premiums, and risk‐return relationships are found. Overall, the Dutch market can be regarded as giving the highest compensation for the risk taken by the investors in the last decade, while the German market performed the worst and was the only market with negative capital growth rates for the considered period. Applying the CAPM, It has also been found total returns in commercial property markets are not significantly related to the performance of stock market indices. On the other hand, factor models using macroeconomic variables are able to explain a higher fraction of property total return spreads over the risk‐free rate in the considered countries. But depending on the country, different macroeconomic variables were estimated to be significant such that there is no single factor model available that could be applied to all European markets. Overall, these findings indicate that classic financial models drawing on existing datasets are unable to satisfactorily explain the performance of property as an asset class. On the other hand, the fact that property office markets yield relatively high returns that exhibit rather low correlations with stock market returns, makes them a very suitable candidate for portfolio diversification.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the risk‐return relationship in various European property markets. The large differences between the markets observed also partly explain the diversity of literature results on this relationship across single countries by, e.g. Goetzmann, Englund, or Bourassa et al. By using classic financial models like the CAPM or APT a contribution to the literature is made by explaining the factors that actually determine property returns over the risk free rate in different countries.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

David P. Lorenz, Stefan Trück and Thomas Lützkendorf

The basic purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the sustainability of construction on the one hand and market value, worth and property investment…

4668

Abstract

Purpose

The basic purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the sustainability of construction on the one hand and market value, worth and property investment performance on the other hand. This paper aims to analyse price movements and price differences caused by different property characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the estimated log‐linear hedonic regression model, a hedonic price index is calculated. Price movements subject to different property characteristics are examined by constructing various conditional hedonic price indexes.

Findings

The results reveal that, high‐quality flats or flats within preferred locations clearly outperform their competitors in terms of price stability during an overall market downturn. However, it is also shown that contemporary building descriptions or specifications of transactions within property databases are not yet sufficient and need to be widened to meet forthcoming challenges. Therefore, an “integrated building performance approach” is introduced and a proposal for the step‐wise improvement of building descriptions is made.

Practical implications

The paper shows that efforts need to be undertaken by the property profession in combining and transferring financial performance data along with information that is indicative of a building's contribution to sustainable development.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into the relationship between the sustainability of construction and market value.

Details

Property Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

David Lorenz, Stefan Trück and Thomas Lützkendorf

The purpose of this paper is to propose and discuss practical approaches on how to address risk and uncertainty within valuation reports, particularly when there is only…

4462

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and discuss practical approaches on how to address risk and uncertainty within valuation reports, particularly when there is only insufficient comparable transaction evidence available.

Design/methodology/approach

A four stage approach to property valuation is proposed that can be particularly useful if there is insufficient comparable transaction evidence available: Identifying, measuring and expressing risk by making use of property rating approaches. Transforming risk into risk premia for calculating the yield on a risk free basis by partially making use of models of risk and return usually applied in finance. Simulating risk premia (since there is great deal of uncertainty involved in determining these premia) by making use of a statistical method commonly referred to as Monte Carlo Simulation. Using the derived yield's probability distribution in combination with further probability distributions for other valuation input variables (e.g. market rent) to calculate a range of possible outcomes of Market Value as well as a number of statistical measures that can be indicative of the valuer's perceived uncertainty regarding the valuation assignment.

Findings

The empirical part shows that due to data limitations determining idiosyncratic risk premia for property assets is not yet possible. This significantly hampers the development of robust yield pricing models and reinforces the need to create databases including information on both individual property returns and associated building characteristics.

Practical implications

The paper postulates that there are few (if any) rational reasons for valuers not to use rating and simulation approaches as an indispensable element of the valuation process.

Originality/value

A valuation approach that allows simultaneously addressing risk and uncertainty as well as sustainability issues within commercial property valuation practice is proposed.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

John R. Mansfield and David P. Lorenz

The continued globalisation of investment has led to revisions in various regulatory systems and to the development of internationally applicable standards and codes of…

3957

Abstract

The continued globalisation of investment has led to revisions in various regulatory systems and to the development of internationally applicable standards and codes of practice. As a significant asset of many businesses, real estate values are a key element of the financial detail included in annual reports. Accordingly, valuation standards have evolved to align with the requirements of accounting and banking sectors. The international demand for standardised regulatory systems and processes has many benefits and it is of critical importance for valuers not only to be fully aware of the changes in the various influencing regulatory systems but to recognise their changed responsibilities, particularly if third parties are likely to rely upon their valuations.

Details

Property Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Nick French

902

Abstract

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 290