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This paper proposes a framework for understanding the concept of a learning organization from a normative perspective. A questionnaire was developed to operationally…
This paper proposes a framework for understanding the concept of a learning organization from a normative perspective. A questionnaire was developed to operationally measure the described management practice attributes of a learning organization. Using a sample of four organizations and 612 subjects, support was found for three a priori predictive hypotheses derived from a conceptual framework. Implications of the results and further empirical research are discussed, especially for linking learning organization attributes to performance using larger samples and multiple measures.
Time is a resource that all companies have. Using it to compete in the global market is now an essential strategy.
The transformation of US manufacturing, led by computer‐integratedmanufacturing (CIM) systems, has already begun to take root. Thisarticle examines the potential benefits…
The transformation of US manufacturing, led by computer‐integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems, has already begun to take root. This article examines the potential benefits to firms which understand and can exploit CIM technology to its fullest extent. Because CIM simultaneously provides high product variety with low costs, conventional assumptions about competitive strategy and organisation design need reevaluation. As companies must work with increasingly scarce capital, human resources and time, CIM becomes an attractive option not only for highly capital‐intensive industries such as automobiles, but also for fast‐changing areas such as textiles, fashion design, and consumer appliances. CIM combines the benefits of economies of scope with the scale economies traditionally garnered only with large, rigid and dedicated factories. Success with CIM and other new manufacturing technologies depends on new organisational designs and incentives that foster fast innovation and cross‐functional integration. CIM′s promising role in transforming the manufacturing firm into a service business across many different industries will spur many US firms′ efforts to enter a global marketplace.
The Peters and Waterman framework of eight management principles,focused largely on organisational design issues, is used to examinedifferences between 19 “excellent” and…
The Peters and Waterman framework of eight management principles, focused largely on organisational design issues, is used to examine differences between 19 “excellent” and 50 “non‐excellent” firms. Data from large United States manufacturers show that the “excellent” companies earn higher returns on capital, have less variable returns and are more innovative. They also tend to operate businesses which emphasise high value‐adding activities further downstream, closer to the final market. Twenty‐two measured items associated with the eight Peters and Waterman principles differ systematically between the “excellent” and “non‐excellent” firms. In addition, 13 measures associated more directly with strategy also differ systematically. High investment in R&D, a strong international posture, and strong market positions provide an alternative explanation to the Peters and Waterman principles for good profit and innovation performance by the “excellent” firms, thus reinforcing the need to better understand industry and global strategy dynamics – as well as the ingredients of entrepreneurial, open climates.
Recent advances in product design and manufacturing technologiesallow for high levels of product variety at low cost, leading toeconomies of scope. Economies of scope…
Recent advances in product design and manufacturing technologies allow for high levels of product variety at low cost, leading to economies of scope. Economies of scope allow for multiple product operations without the cost penalty of traditional economy‐of‐scale‐based technology. Examines the implications of flexible manufacturing for marketing strategy and organization. Shortening of product life cycles, re‐acceleration of product differentiation strategies and more customer involvement in the entire manufacturing‐to‐marketing process are some of the effects of advanced manufacturing technology on the marketplace.
The final consummation of the twelve nations in the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1992 as a unified, consolidated market represents the single most important step toward the integration of Europe into the global economy. More than simply a date, Europe 1992 captures an ideal, a shift in psychology from economic defensiveness and stagnation to one of bold, aggressive moves to confront the future.
Organizational structures are changing. Hardly a surprising statement ‐ the world in which organizations exist is changing. Old barriers are coming down and new barriers…
Organizational structures are changing. Hardly a surprising statement ‐ the world in which organizations exist is changing. Old barriers are coming down and new barriers are going up. Knowledge is increasing at a rate which can only be described as staggering ‐ overwhelming almost, but not quite. Because organizations are changing.
You are an executive of a U.S. multinational corporation, and you want to introduce some major change in the way that you operate overseas.
Explores the changing relationship between work and leisure with particular reference to women’s equality in economic and other activities through a review of the history…
Explores the changing relationship between work and leisure with particular reference to women’s equality in economic and other activities through a review of the history of leisure opportunities since the industrial revolution; indicates the ways in which social and economic changes have had a major impact on women’s leisure needs and activities. Focuses in particular on the provision of workplace fitness facilities, undertaking a survey of more than 200 companies across a number of industry sectors (the rationale for selection is outlined here) to discover the reasons behind such provision and the actual facilities provided; identifies the reasons behind provision as primarily commercial (e.g. being seen as an additional benefit to help recruit high quality employees) and notes that assessment of user group needs was not carried out, with the result that women’s particular needs tended not to be taken into account, for example gyms (favoured by men) being more widely provided than space for aerobic exercise (favoured by women). Concludes that the findings strongly suggest that women remain unequal in their leisure as well as working lives.
We make use of the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) data to extract the total extent of the roads using remote sensing images. VGI data is often provided only as…
We make use of the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) data to extract the total extent of the roads using remote sensing images. VGI data is often provided only as vector data represented by lines and not as full extent. Also, high geolocation accuracy is not guaranteed and it is common to observe misalignment with the target road segments by several pixels on the images. In this work, we use the prior information provided by the VGI and extract the full road extent even if there is significant mis-registration between the VGI and the image. The method consists of image segmentation and traversal of multiple agents along available VGI information. First, we perform image segmentation, and then we traverse through the fragmented road segments using autonomous agents to obtain a complete road map in a semi-automatic way once the seed-points are defined. The road center-line in the VGI guides the process and allows us to discover and extract the full extent of the road network based on the image data. The results demonstrate the validity and good performance of the proposed method for road extraction that reflects the actual road width despite the presence of disturbances such as shadows, cars and trees which shows the efficiency of the fusion of the VGI and satellite images.