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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

David L. Ortega and David L. Tschirley

Food safety in emerging and developing regions is receiving increased attention from economists, researchers and policymakers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a…

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Abstract

Purpose

Food safety in emerging and developing regions is receiving increased attention from economists, researchers and policymakers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the economics of food safety in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Of interest are studies exploring consumer demand and producer behavior regarding food safety. Particular attention is given to areas in need of additional research. The studies’ common implications for future research are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Two English language searches were conducted in the summer of 2013 to identify relevant studies on the economics of food safety, one each in Google Scholar and Web of Science. The authors carefully reviewed the abstracts of these studies for content, and select papers were identified that capture overarching themes found in the literature. Findings are presented by region.

Findings

Consumers in developing countries will become increasingly aware of food safety issues as urbanization proceeds and incomes continue to rise at robust rates. However, assuring food safety in modernizing food systems involves significant costs, and current incomes in developing SSA are far lower than in Asia. The authors find that overall consumer awareness of food safety problems in SSA is low relative to Asia. Moreover, knowledge of producer behavior and consumer demand for food safety in developing countries is very limited.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include a lack of information available on domestic food safety issues and overall knowledge of how food safety affects developing agrifood systems.

Originality/value

The findings from this review contribute to a better understanding of the economics of food safety in emerging and developing regions.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

David L Tschirley, Jason Snyder, Michael Dolislager, Thomas Reardon, Steven Haggblade, Joseph Goeb, Lulama Traub, Francis Ejobi and Ferdi Meyer

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the unfolding diet transformation in East and Southern Africa is likely to influence the evolution of employment within its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the unfolding diet transformation in East and Southern Africa is likely to influence the evolution of employment within its agrifood system (AFS) and between that system and the rest of the economy. To briefly consider implications for education and skill acquisition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors link changing diets to employment structure. The authors then use alternative projections of diet change over 15- and 30-year intervals to develop scenarios on changes in employment structure.

Findings

As long as incomes in ESA continue to rise at levels near those of the past decade, the transformation of their economies is likely to advance dramatically. Key features will be: sharp decline in the share of the workforce engaged in farming even as absolute numbers rise modestly, sharp increase in the share engaged in non-farm segments of the AFS, and an even sharper increase in the share engaged outside the AFS. Within the AFS, food preparation away from home is likely to grow most rapidly, followed by food manufacturing, and finally by marketing, transport, and other AFS services. Resource booms in Mozambique and (potentially) Tanzania are the main factor that may change this pattern.

Research limitations/implications

Clarifying policy implications requires renewed research given the rapid changes in Africa over the past 15 years.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explicitly link changing diets to changing employment within the AFS.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

John B. Kaneene, Steven Haggblade and David L Tschirley

The papers in this special issue measure the pace of change and the employment consequences of rapid ongoing transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agri-food system. After…

Abstract

Purpose

The papers in this special issue measure the pace of change and the employment consequences of rapid ongoing transformation of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agri-food system. After quantitatively assessing the pace of change in consumer diets, a succession of papers examines the resulting change in public health, employment structure, job skill requirements and the educational challenges facing agricultural education and training (AET) institutions charged with preparing African youth with workforce skill required to succeed in the continent’s rapidly changing, rapidly growing agri-food system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in consumer demand and workforce skill needs emerge from a quantitative projection model using Living Standards Measurement Studies in half a dozen countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Based on surveys of employers, graduates and staff at AET institutions in a range of 14 different countries, the analyses evaluate the workforce skill needs and educational challenges for preparing Africa’s emerging youth bulge to seek productive careers on the farm and in post-farm segments of the agri-food system. Throughout, the papers contrast findings from countries at different stages in the food system transformation using a typology developed in this paper.

Findings

The concluding paper in this issue by Kabasa, Kirsten and Minde summarizes key findings emerging from this collection.

Originality/value

The contributions in this special issue report original research based on analysis of LSMS data and on interviews with agri-food system employers, agricultural education institutions and professionals in over a dozen African countries.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

John David Kabasa, Johann Kirsten and Isaac Minde

African agri-food systems are undergoing major structural change in response to growing urbanization, rising incomes and shifting patterns of food consumption. The purpose…

452

Abstract

Purpose

African agri-food systems are undergoing major structural change in response to growing urbanization, rising incomes and shifting patterns of food consumption. The purpose of this paper is to explore four major dimensions of this surprisingly rapid structural shift in African food systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter synthesizes the six chapters and in addition discusses future implications for agricultural education and training (AET) in Africa.

Findings

AET institutions face multiple pressures as a result of these ongoing changes. High fertility rates have produced a youth bulge that currently strains educational capacity at all levels and places huge pressures accommodating 700 million youth job market entrants over the coming 30 years.

Research limitations/implications

Countries vary considerably in a number of socio-economic and political dimensions making it difficult to completely generalize on each and every issue. Cross-country comparison to the level of determining which country is better than the other in many of the variables is difficult.

Originality/value

Synthesis of key parameters to consider in increasing the relevance of AET institutions in Africa.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Isaac Minde, Stephanus Terblanche, Bernard Bashaasha, Ignacio Casper Madakadze, Jason Snyder and Anthony Mugisha

Agricultural education and training (AET) institutions will play a strategic role in helping to prepare Africa’s rapidly growing youth populations for productive careers…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural education and training (AET) institutions will play a strategic role in helping to prepare Africa’s rapidly growing youth populations for productive careers in agriculture and related agri-businesses. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude of skills and youth employment needs emanating from high-population growth rates. It then explores how agricultural education institutions are responding to these challenges in four different countries at different levels of food system development: South Africa tier 1, Tanzania in tier 2 and Malawi and Uganda in tier 3.

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic and school enrollment data provide information on the magnitude of job market entrants at different levels of education while Living Standards Measurement Studies in the respective countries provide a snapshot of current skill requirements in different segments of the agri-food system. In order to evaluate AET responses, the authors have conducted country-level reviews of AET systems as well as in-depth assessments at key tertiary AET institutions in each of the four case study countries.

Findings

Growth rates in primary school enrollments are high in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, because of budgetary constraints, transition rates decline rapidly – about 40 percent from primary to secondary and 7 percent from secondary to tertiary. As a result, substantial numbers of primary and secondary school graduates seek jobs.

Research limitations/implications

The case study countries are limited to four. Had more financial resources and time been available, researchers could have spread further afield and in so doing increasing the precision of the results.

Originality/value

Estimation of the number of primary and secondary school leavers seeking employment because of failure to proceed to the next level of education. Estimation of the level of education shares in the various components of the agri-food system.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Steven Haggblade, Antony Chapoto, Aissetou Drame-Yayé, Sheryl L. Hendriks, Stephen Kabwe, Isaac Minde, Johnny Mugisha and Stephanus Terblanche

The purpose of this paper is to examine the career trajectories of 66 distinguished African agricultural professionals in order to explore how agricultural education and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the career trajectories of 66 distinguished African agricultural professionals in order to explore how agricultural education and training (AET) institutions can better motivate and prepare youth for productive careers in Africa’s rapidly changing agrifood system.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on in-depth qualitative interviews with these role models, the paper explores the answers to two critical questions: How can Africa motivate its youth to consider careers in agriculture and agribusiness? How can AET institutions better prepare youth for productive careers in agribusiness?

Findings

Rural youth enter agribusiness careers in response to clearly perceived rural needs coupled with demonstrable profitability of modern agricultural and agribusiness opportunities. In contrast, urban youth embark on agricultural career paths in response to inspiring science education, particularly practical applications in biology, coupled with emerging awareness of the range of professional opportunities afforded by modern agribusiness and commercial agriculture.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on the basic premise that seasoned, successful professionals – from the private and public sector – can offer useful insights into ways of improving job preparation training for the youth of today seeking careers in the food system of tomorrow. The approach assumes that the role models have both the practical experience and forward-looking vision necessary to identify key elements of preparation likely to benefit future job market entrants.

Originality/value

This paper relies on primary interviews with distinguished agricultural professionals from 14 different African countries.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 December 2021

Bailey Peterson-Wilhelm, Lawton Nalley, Alvaro Durand-Morat, Aaron Shew, Francis Tsiboe and Willy Mulimbi

Weaknesses in the grades and standards system in low-income countries across Sub-Saharan Africa undermine the transparency of agricultural markets. In the Democratic…

Abstract

Purpose

Weaknesses in the grades and standards system in low-income countries across Sub-Saharan Africa undermine the transparency of agricultural markets. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ghana and Mozambique rice is predominately sold in open bags and if rice price does not reflect its quality, then inefficiencies may lead to consumer welfare losses. Importantly, it is possible that impoverished communities are priced out of the market due to inflated and inefficient prices. The objective of this study is to examine determinates of rice price by estimating the impact of selected rice quality attributes on rice prices in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana and Mozambique.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected 363 rice samples from open air markets in Bukavu (DRC), Nampula (Mozambique) and across Ghana in 2019. Each rice sample was analyzed in a food science lab for the quality attributes: percentage of chalk and brokens, chalk impact, length and length-to-width ratio. We used multiple regression analysis to estimate if and to what extent quality attributes were the drivers of price.

Findings

Findings suggest that there are irregularities in the Ghanaian market for broken rice and that regardless of quality, imported rice is priced higher than domestic rice. In the DRC and Mozambique, our results indicate price is driven by length and length-to-width ratio in the former and length-to-width ratio in the latter.

Research limitations/implications

Rice samples were purchased from market vendors and thus consumer preferences for attributes were not revealed.

Originality/value

These results provide valuable insight to policymakers regarding the need for proper labeling and regulation of open bag rice sales in an effort to increase consumer welfare and improve food security.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2015

Lisa F. Clark and Jill E. Hobbs

Discusses how changes in institutional objectives for international food assistance have influenced the organization of supply chains for innovative therapeutic foods…

Abstract

Purpose

Discusses how changes in institutional objectives for international food assistance have influenced the organization of supply chains for innovative therapeutic foods designed to address problems of malnutrition and undernutrition.

Methodology/approach

Draws upon insights from donor and international organization reports, policy documents, and academic publications to reveal the structure, goals, and objectives of international organizations involved in food assistance strategies. Explores how innovations in Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods and Ready-to-Use Supplementary Foods fit into food assistance strategies and broader humanitarian goals.

Findings

Informed by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, international food assistance strategies have broadened beyond acute malnutrition to include chronic undernutrition. Food assistance strategies have shifted toward a focus on local and regional procurement (LRP) over transoceanic aid, with Public Private Partnerships (P3s) playing a facilitating role.

Originality/value

This chapter raises important considerations to factor into the design and execution of international food assistance strategies using LRP/P3 modes of organization. It contributes to an understanding of the challenges of organizing international food assistance strategies that include socioeconomic goals of sustainability and nutrition objectives.

Abstract

Details

SDG 2 – Zero Hunger: Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-803-2

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Salsabeel F.M. AlFalah, David K. Harrison, Vassilis Charissis and Dorothy Evans

Current healthcare applications produce a complex and inaccessible set of data that often needs to be investigated simultaneously. As such the conflicting software…

Abstract

Purpose

Current healthcare applications produce a complex and inaccessible set of data that often needs to be investigated simultaneously. As such the conflicting software applications and mental effort being demanded from the user result in time‐consuming analysis and diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to provide a prototype, interactive system for management of multiple data sets, currently used for gait analysis capturing, reconstruction and diagnosis. In summary, this work is concerned with the development of interactive information‐visualisation software that assists medical practitioners in simplifying and enhancing the retrieval, visualisation and analysis of medical data with the intention of improving the overall system leading to an improved service for the user and patient experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the proposed system aims to combine all the related existing software currently used for gait analysis and diagnosis under one, user‐friendly package. The latter will have the capacity to offer also real‐time, three dimensional (3D) representations of all the derived data (CT, MRI, motion capture) in an interactive virtual reality (VR) environment.

Findings

It is intended that the proposed prototype solutions will enhance interactive systems for management of multiple data sets, currently used for gait analysis capturing, reconstruction and diagnosis. The derived data encapsulate a plethora of multimedia information aiming to enhance medical visualisation.

Originality/value

The proposed system offers simulation capacity and a VR visualisation experience, which enhances the gait analysis diagnostic process. The 3D data can be manipulated in real‐time through a novel human‐computer interface which uses multimodal interaction through the use of graphical user interfaces and gesture recognition. The system aims towards a cost‐effective, clearly presented and timely accessible system that follows a threefold approach; It entails managing the extensive amount of the daily produced medical data, combining the scattered information related to one patient in one interface with a filtering criteria to the required information, and visualising in 3D the data from different sources, in order to improve 3D mental mapping, increase productivity and consequently ameliorate quality of service and management.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 26 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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