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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Barry J. Gledson and David Greenwood

British construction industry KPI data collected over recent years shows a trend in projects exceeding their time schedules. In 2013, the UK Government set a target for…

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2620

Abstract

Purpose

British construction industry KPI data collected over recent years shows a trend in projects exceeding their time schedules. In 2013, the UK Government set a target for projects timeframes to reduce by 50 per cent. Proposed interventions included more rapid project delivery processes, and consistent improvements to construction delivery predictions, deployed within the framework of 4D Building Information Modelling (BIM). The purpose of this paper is to use Rogers’ Innovation Diffusion theory as a basis to investigate how this adoption has taken place.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 97 construction planning practitioners were surveyed to measure 4D BIM innovation take-up over time. Classic innovation diffusion research methods were adopted.

Findings

Results indicated an increasing rate of 4D BIM adoption and reveal a time lag between awareness and first use that is characteristic of this type of innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Use of a non-probability sampling strategy prevents the results being generalisable to the wider construction population. Future research directions and methods are suggested, including qualitative investigations into decision-making processes around 4D BIM, and case studies exploring the consequences of 4D BIM adoption.

Practical implications

Recommendations of how to facilitate the adoption of 4D BIM innovation are proposed, which identify the critical aspects of system compatibility and safe trialling of the innovation.

Originality/value

This paper reinforces 4D BIM as an innovation and records its actual UK industry adoption rate using an accepted diffusion research method. By focusing on UK industry-wide diffusion the work also stands apart from more typical research efforts that limit innovation diffusion exploration to individual organisations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2020

James Charlton, Kenneth Kelly, David Greenwood and Leo Moreton

The adoption of building information modelling (BIM) in managing built heritage is an exciting prospect, but one that presents complexities additional to those of modern…

Abstract

Purpose

The adoption of building information modelling (BIM) in managing built heritage is an exciting prospect, but one that presents complexities additional to those of modern buildings. If challenges can be identified and overcome, the adoption of historic BIM (HBIM) could offer efficiencies in how heritage buildings are managed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Durham Cathedral as a case study, we present the workflows applied to create an asset information model to improve the way this unique UNESCO World Heritage Site is managed, and in doing so, set out the challenges and complexities in achieving an HBIM solution.

Findings

This study identifies the need for a better understanding of the distinct needs and context for managing historic assets, and the need for heritage information requirements (HIR) that reflect this.

Originality/value

This study presents first-hand findings based on a unique application of BIM at Durham Cathedral, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The study provides a better understanding of the challenges and drivers of HBIM adoption across the heritage sector and underlines the need for information requirements that are unique to historical buildings/assets to deliver a coherent and relevant HBIM approach.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2018

Mohamed Zaher, David Greenwood and Mohamed Marzouk

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the process of monitoring construction projects. Classic practice for construction progress tracking relies on paper reports…

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2599

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the process of monitoring construction projects. Classic practice for construction progress tracking relies on paper reports, which entails a serious amount of manual data collection as well as the effort of imagining the actual progress from the paperwork.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a new methodology for monitoring construction progress using smartphones. This is done by proposing a new system consisting of a newly-developed application named “BIM-U” and a mobile augmented reality (AR) channel named “BIM-Phase”. “BIM-U” is an Android application that allows the end-user to update the progress of activities onsite. These data are used to update the project’s 4D model enhanced with different cost parameters such as earned value, actual cost and planned value. The “BIM-Phase” application is a mobile AR channel that is used during construction phase through implementing a 4D “as-planned” phased model integrated with an augmented video showing real or planned progress.

Findings

The results from the project are then analysed and assessed to anticipate the potential of these and similar techniques for tracking time and cost on construction projects.

Originality/value

The proposed system through “BIM-U” and “BIM Phase” exploits the potential of mobile applications and AR in construction through the use of handheld mobile devices to offer new possibilities for measuring and monitoring work progress using building information modelling.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Nnamdi Stanley Maduka, Helen Edwards, David Greenwood, Allan Osborne and Solomon Olusola Babatunde

Global competition and advances in technology have enhanced the growing trend of virtual teams in order to execute business strategies. Thus, understanding the…

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7732

Abstract

Purpose

Global competition and advances in technology have enhanced the growing trend of virtual teams in order to execute business strategies. Thus, understanding the competencies needed for virtual leadership effectiveness is essential and vital to organisational success. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the required competencies for virtual team leadership and its effectiveness in an organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted case study methodology to undertake an exploratory study of a manufacturing organisation. Using a questionnaire that was designed following a focussed literature review to identify the specific virtual leadership competencies, structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with 14 respondents from two major virtual team groups. The interviews were designed to elucidate the opinions and perceptions of virtual team members with respect to selected characteristics of their virtual team leaders (VTLs). The responses obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.

Findings

The study identified the competencies required for effective leadership in virtual teams in order to achieve the organisational project success. The performance of the two VTLs in the organisation was then assessed in the light of these identified competencies. The study also identified transformational leaders as important to be considered when selecting VTLs because they are known to achieve high-performing team. However, the study found that considering the virtual leadership competencies, the two VTLs were found to have not, on the whole, performed well because they are lacking in some of the leadership competencies required for effective leadership in a virtual team and this has led to their organisation not achieving the required success in virtual teams.

Practical implications

The study has implications for organisations’ virtual team project leaders. The identification of specific leadership competencies for virtual team leadership will enable organisations to be more informed when looking for effective leaders in their virtual teams in order to achieve high-performing virtual teams, which will lead to organisational growth and success. The study is expected to enhance the success rate of any typical organisation using virtual teams.

Originality/value

The study would be highly beneficial to both the potential and current stakeholder organisations considering virtual teams to execute business strategies. This study has also added to the body of knowledge by further exploring the leadership competencies needed for virtual teams.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1994

Shafaq Ahmed, Richard Campbell, David Greenwood, Craig Milner, Ian Webb and Nicola Whitehouse

Describes work currently being done by the Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU) in action‐based learning and its use in the development of graduates and regional industry…

Abstract

Describes work currently being done by the Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU) in action‐based learning and its use in the development of graduates and regional industry. Examines a pilot scheme – the Company Associate Partnership Scheme (CAPS) – which aims to increase the employment of graduates within small businesses. This, it is hoped, will enable companies to introduce strategic change projects. Includes observations of LMU associates, companies involved, academic institutions and the Department of Trade and Industry. Concludes that the greatest challenge for associates is managing the integration of academia and industry to form a learning partnership.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

David Greenwood, Keith Hogg and Stanley Kan

The normal way of dealing with damages for delay in a construction contract is to use a Liquidated and Ascertained Damages clause. Such clauses specify a preset sum to be…

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1069

Abstract

The normal way of dealing with damages for delay in a construction contract is to use a Liquidated and Ascertained Damages clause. Such clauses specify a preset sum to be due to the client for every day, week or month by which the contractor fails to meet the works completion date. However, the greater part of the value of construction work is actually carried out by subcontractors, and there is little or no published evidence as to how their contractual responsibilities for delays are determined and pursued. Theoretically, there are a number of possibilities (none of which is entirely satisfactory to both parties) and the logic and implications of each is discussed. A survey was conducted to discover the methods that are actually used, their incidence, and whether it was possible to relate the different approaches to the attributes of particular subcontractors or to specific situations. The most commonly encountered approach was for subcontract damages to be based upon a proportion of those set under the main contract. Interestingly, this is neither the approach incorporated within industry‐standard subcontract conditions, nor is it the one preferred by subcontractors. Furthermore, this method places considerable risks on the main contractor due to the possibilities of under‐recovery and the creation of secondary risks. This method, indeed all the methods that were encountered, seems to be the result of a rather uneasy compromise between the parties, the outcome of which may be related to their relative bargaining power.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

David Greenwood and James Baxter

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241

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Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Zaid Alwan, David Greenwood and Barry Gledson

The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of using 3D simulation transfer processes to streamline the environmental assessment of buildings that have been…

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1798

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of using 3D simulation transfer processes to streamline the environmental assessment of buildings that have been designed digitally using building information modelling (BIM). The case study presented relates to a competition (“Build Qatar Live”) in which one of the winning team’s objectives was to create a smart process for assessing the design against the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria. The experience indicated that a rapid, concurrent and efficient LEED evaluation was possible within the BIM process. The study presents technological approaches that can be adopted within the BIM environment to simplify the environmental assessments and embrace practices that reduce environmental and ecological impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology encompassed an overview of how rapid high-value data exchange occurs within BIM to achieve a sustainable building design as part of an international design competition. Achieving a LEED rating through sustainable design was a key requirement of the competition.

Findings

The findings of this case study has revealed that key credits in LEED can be integrated within the BIM design process. Therefore, tackling such important environmental design issues in parallel to building design and providing key information on building elements needed to meet the sustainability criteria.

Originality/value

This research highlights the benefits of streamlined, architectural and data software exchange through applying data interoperability of a building design; thus, skipping conventional 2D building and conventional documentation for environmental and energy designs simulations needed for LEED certifications and general low carbon design.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Udechukwu Ojiako, Eric Johansen and David Greenwood

Failure is encountered regularly within project‐based industries and there has been research for decades into this phenomenon. Much of it has considered the failure of…

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4287

Abstract

Purpose

Failure is encountered regularly within project‐based industries and there has been research for decades into this phenomenon. Much of it has considered the failure of projects in terms of the classic project progress issues such as time, cost and quality. Using cases from two major industries the authors aim to develop a different understanding of project measurement criteria. This work is part of a larger completed investigation into information systems and information technology (IS/IT) project management models, developed for industry comparisons.

Design/methodology/approach

During the study, the concept of project failure and success is investigated. The authors carry out a UK‐based, grounded study of two project‐based industries of differing maturity levels (construction and IS/IT) to investigate measures of project failure or success across the two industries.

Findings

The paper presents a reassessment of project measurement criteria. This is based on the separation of measures for project performance and project progress.

Research limitations/implications

The adopted strategy of naturalistic inquiry has always been susceptible to the criticism that it relies too much on subjective interpretation of data. In addition, no clear relationship was established between the factors discussed and the criteria for measuring project success.

Originality/value

The paper discusses current differences in perception of what actually constitutes a failed or successful project. The paper highlights that often two different (but closely related) concepts, are being discussed by project stakeholders.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 108 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

David J. Edwards, Junli Yang, Ruel Cabahug and Peter E.D. Love

The productivity and output levels of construction plant and equipment depends in part upon a plant operator’s maintenance proficiency; such that a higher degree of…

Abstract

The productivity and output levels of construction plant and equipment depends in part upon a plant operator’s maintenance proficiency; such that a higher degree of proficiency helps ensure that machinery is maintained in good operational order. In the absence of maintenance proficiency, the potential for machine breakdown (and hence lower productivity) is greater. Using data gathered from plant and equipment experts within the UK, plant operators’ maintenance proficiency are modelled using a radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN). Results indicate that the developed ANN model was able to classify proficiency at 89 per cent accuracy using 10 significant variables. These variables were: working nightshifts, new mechanical innovations, extreme weather conditions, planning skills, operator finger dexterity, years experience with a plant item, working with managers with less knowledge of plant/equipment, operator training by apprenticeship, working under pressure of time and duration of training period. It is proffered that these variables may be used as a basis for categorizing plant operators in terms of maintenance proficiency and, that their potential for influencing operator training programmes needs to be considered.

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