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Typical uses of patent information in the South African context are explained briefly, particularly novelty, infringement, family and equivalent searches. Certain…
Typical uses of patent information in the South African context are explained briefly, particularly novelty, infringement, family and equivalent searches. Certain computerised patents databases available on the DIALOG and ORBIT systems are outlined, with comments on the types of search for which they are appropriate, and on their limitations in terms of subjects, countries and time periods covered. Cost‐saving strategies and short‐cuts, aimed at reducing the high cost of online patents searching for the South African user, are suggested. These include using Dialog's Dialindex, MAPping, and OneSearch, as well as the use of low‐cost or training databases such as Dialog's ONTAP files and ORBIT s ORBPAT file.
Football, or soccer as it is known in the United States, is one area in which managerial positions are hugely volatile with what is often called a ‘merry-go-round’ of…
Football, or soccer as it is known in the United States, is one area in which managerial positions are hugely volatile with what is often called a ‘merry-go-round’ of managers sacked for poor performance at their club and reemployed by another club. Not only does this practice often not increase performance but it is also very costly. Considering the nature of football, that is, the relatively high impact of chance on the rare events that goals are, and the high correlation between success and the wage bill, the influence of managers on performance is often over-estimated. However, potentially better preparation of future managers might help to increase competitive advantages. In this chapter, we are looking in depth at leadership in the context of football and the lessons we can draw for other contexts.
The mechanisms through which leaders influence innovative work behaviours (IWB) are important in innovation management. The purpose of this paper is to explain how…
The mechanisms through which leaders influence innovative work behaviours (IWB) are important in innovation management. The purpose of this paper is to explain how leadership and justice relate to IWB through the successive mediating roles of affective commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB).
The study is based on survey of a random sample of 300 employees selected from 652 employees from a public university, and a convenience sample of 159 employees from predominantly service-based enterprises in Lesotho (n=263). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and the analysis of moment structures version 24 are used to analyse data. Specifically, the study uses factor analysis; correlation; structural equation modelling and bootstrapping techniques to examine the hypothesised relationships.
The results suggest that the model that fits data well is the one which shows that the effects of both leadership and organisational justice on IWBs are successively mediated by affective commitment and OCB. Because of its social and affiliation-oriented nature, the study submits that OCB is an effective explanatory factor between predictors and IWBs.
The study makes a novel contribution to the extant literature by evaluating the serial mediating roles of affective commitment and OCB between leadership and IWB on one hand, and justice and IWB on the other hand.
This chapter discusses how attachment theory, a theory that provides insight into the processes through which psychological and emotional bonds are developed in…
This chapter discusses how attachment theory, a theory that provides insight into the processes through which psychological and emotional bonds are developed in relationships, can be useful for understanding mentoring relationships. We develop a conceptual model emphasizing how attachment-related constructs and their relationships with mentors’ and protégés’ behaviors and emotions influence each phase of a mentoring relationship. Recognizing reciprocity in the mentoring process, the model also explains how the interpersonal dynamics of the mentor–protégé relationship influence the benefits gained by both partners. Propositions for future research on mentoring relationships are provided. We contend that examining mentoring through the lens of attachment theory can increase our understanding of the underlying factors or mechanisms that determine individuals’ involvement in mentoring relationships and differentiate successful from unsuccessful mentoring relationships. The research and practical implications are discussed.
Online medical teams (MTs), involving collaboration between remote healthcare workers, can provide comprehensive and rapid healthcare to patients. The growth in MTs is…
Online medical teams (MTs), involving collaboration between remote healthcare workers, can provide comprehensive and rapid healthcare to patients. The growth in MTs is continuing, with popularity growing among doctors and patients, but some MTs disband, which could break the continuity of healthcare services provided. We aim to address this pressing issue by exploring the effects of team diversity and leadership types on team status (i.e. team disbandment (TD)). This paper systematically investigates the influences of team diversity, including separation, variety and disparity diversity and the effects of leadership types, including strong, equal and weak types.
A data set consisting 1,071 online MTs was collected from the Good Doctor website, a leading Chinese online health community (OHC), on January 10, 2018. The data captured included 206 teams which disbanded after 3 months collaboration. Logistic regression and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) were used to examine their effects.
The results show that variety diversity, related to departments, positively affects TD, but disparity diversity, referring to clinician titles, negatively affects TD. Separation diversity, in terms of team member attitudes, exerts a negligible influence on disbandment. Although strong and equal leadership types negatively influence TD, they are seen to strengthen the positive effect of variety diversity, suggesting stable structure combinations of strong or equal-type leadership and low department diversity, as well as the match of weak-type leadership and high department diversity.
This paper extends the current understanding of virtual teams and OHCs by examining the role of leadership types and team diversity, and their influencing role on team status. The pairwise combinations are obtained to effectively reduce the disbandment probability of medical teams operating in OHCs, which could help platform managers, team founders and those connected with MTs deal with the team-disbandment crisis, providing both theoretical and practical implications to healthcare providers and researchers alike.
The purpose of this chapter is to examine voice as an empowerment practice in a manufacturing company. The case study follows a qualitative approach to analyse employee…
The purpose of this chapter is to examine voice as an empowerment practice in a manufacturing company. The case study follows a qualitative approach to analyse employee voice and types of empowerment from a structural perspective. Findings suggest a variety of voice arrangements to empowering employees such as voice surveys, meetings, e-suggestions, opinion boxes and informal means such as casual meetings and walkarounds. In addition, employee voice is linked to types of empowerment such as information sharing, upward problem solving, task autonomy and attitudinal shaping. Further research would benefit from an exploration of employees’ feelings regarding voice mechanisms to examine the psychological perspective of empowerment.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the leadership behaviors of managers of virtual teams (VTs), particularly in the areas of trust building and conflict…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the leadership behaviors of managers of virtual teams (VTs), particularly in the areas of trust building and conflict management. This study aims to expand the research of VT performance by offering first-person accounts from VT leaders on the strategies implemented to drive VT performance.
This study used a grounded theory approach to examine the leadership behaviors through in-depth interviews with eight field managers of VTs employed by different technology companies. Interview questions focused on trust-building and conflict management techniques. This structured qualitative study incorporates elements of narrative inquiry interwoven in the findings.
Building a high-trust environment was found to be critical to VT performance. VT managers indicated that effective conflict resolution skills were also important.
Although the sample size is within the suggested range for a valid phenomenological study, the results may lack generalizability. Participants were limited to the technology industry; leaders of high-performing VTs in other industries could offer differing results.
This study’s contribution is the exploration and identification of innovative techniques that VT managers implemented to build trust and resolve conflict. A lack of holistic training programs for the VT leader is also considered along with suggestions for future research and implications for the VT managers.
This study’s contribution is the exploration and identification of innovative techniques that VT managers implemented that drive VT performance, particularly related to building high levels of trust and managing conflict effectively. Practices are suggested whereby both the VT leader and the organization take an active role in ensuring that the VT has the opportunity to perform optimally.
In this chapter, we consider how neuroscience methods can enhance the study of team processes, as well as facilitate the development of teams. We overview exciting new…
In this chapter, we consider how neuroscience methods can enhance the study of team processes, as well as facilitate the development of teams. We overview exciting new neuroscience technology that can be applied to the assessment of teams in real time. While research that has already used this technology to study team engagement and workload is summarized, we also consider other team-based concepts to which it might be applied, such as groupthink and shared mental models. We further suggest that emotional contagion and neurological mirroring concepts can come together to help us form a better understanding of emotions and their effects in teams. We conclude the chapter with a consideration of how neurological methods can potentially help develop team processes and provide insights for both members and team leaders.