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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P. Fox, David Farabee and Brie Williams

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application.

Findings

Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the evidence supporting an overhaul of solitary confinement policy in the USA and globally where solitary confinement remains in wide use and offers recommendations for immediate steps that can be taken toward achieving evidence-based solitary confinement reform.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Stories and Lessons from the World's Leading Opera, Orchestra Librarians, and Music Archivists, Volume 2: Europe and Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-659-9

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Jakari N. Griffith, Candalyn B. Rade and Kemi Salawu Anazodo

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of research conducted over the past ten years (2008–2018) that examines the relationship between criminal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of research conducted over the past ten years (2008–2018) that examines the relationship between criminal record and work in the USA. Furthermore, a research agenda is presented that may help to better inform future investigations of the relationships shared between these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review 58 peer-reviewed research articles identified in four electronic article databases: Business Source Premier, PsycINFO, ProQuest Sociology Collection and ProQuest Criminology Collection.

Findings

Of the 58 articles fitting the final inclusion criteria, 37 evaluated employee specific related outcomes, whereas 24 took the perspective of the employer (including some overlap). Studies employed a variety of methodologies and techniques, with qualitative interviews, archival data and audit methods as the most prevalent. Few studies examined the relationships between criminal record and work in ways that demonstrated improved employment outcomes for both employer and the employed together.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to synthesize interdisciplinary literature related to criminal record and employment, including an assessment of the varying methodological treatments and perspectives used in research studies to assess this relationship. The authors believe the findings from this research effort will provide much needed research direction for investigators seeking to make contributions to improving employment outcomes.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

Chad B. Newswander and Lynita K. Newswander

A careful study demonstrates that President Bush has implemented the faith-based initiative as a method of governmentality, one which appears to be biased toward…

Abstract

A careful study demonstrates that President Bush has implemented the faith-based initiative as a method of governmentality, one which appears to be biased toward Christianity. This paper examines the definition of Foucaultʼs governmentality as it relates to the ever-expanding structure of contemporary American governance and justifies the categorization of faith-based initiatives as an example of pastoral power. Ultimately, these arguments characterize the current state of governmentality as “born-again,” and call specific attention to what appears to be a strong affiliation of “charitable choice” with evangelical Christianity. By relying on evangelical Christianity to govern, the pastoral-panopticon coupled with governmental resources has brought back an older method of regulation which is less obvious in its intrusion, and more dangerous for it.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Rod Mullen, Naya Arbiter, Claudia Rosenthal Plepler and Douglas James Bond

Over nearly six decades in prison, therapeutic communities (TCs) have waxed and waned in California. While there have been dramatic and demonstrable sucess with some of…

Abstract

Purpose

Over nearly six decades in prison, therapeutic communities (TCs) have waxed and waned in California. While there have been dramatic and demonstrable sucess with some of the most intractable populations in California prisons, the TC model has met substantial challenges, both bureaucratic and political. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a six-decade review of in-prison TCs in California based both on the research literature and from personal experience over 30 years providing both in-prison and community based TCs in California.

Findings

Despite well-documented success reducing the recidivism of violent offenders in California prisons (which is now the bulk of the population), the government has ignored the success of well implemented in-prison TCs, and has implemented a CBT model which has recently been documented to have been ineffective in reducing recidivism. The State is now at a crossroads.

Research limitations/implications

Documented research findings of success do not necessarily result in the implementation of the model.

Practical implications

There is evidence that violent felons are amenable to treatment.

Social implications

Public concern over the return of violent felons from prison can be ameliorated by the evidence of the effectiveness of TC treatment in prison.

Originality/value

There is no other publication which captures the narrative of the TC in California prisons over six decades.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 40 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Anisha Vyas, Cathy Spain and David Rawlinson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact working in a therapeutic community (TC) has on staff practice and personal development.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact working in a therapeutic community (TC) has on staff practice and personal development.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight female members of staff who work in the TC participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used.

Findings

The findings of this paper show three superordinate themes: confidence gained within TC; the staff impact of the intensity of TC; and staff value for specific TC principles.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include researcher bias as both authors work in the TC and/or in the service. Reasonable adjustments were made in order to account for this.

Practical implications

Implications for future research include understanding and supporting the needs of staff and further exploration of the impact of staff working within TCs for people diagnosable with emotionally unstable personality disorders.

Originality/value

The research was carried out at one of the longest running TCs for people with emotional instability in the country. It offers a unique opportunity to garner the views of staff members with up to 27 years of experience. Findings may be of value to practitioners, administrators, policy makers and researchers interested in therapeutic communities.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Ivy Hammond, Sarah Godoy, Mikaela Kelly and Eraka Bath

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The available research on specialized interventions for youth experiencing commercial sexual exploitation almost exclusively focuses on the impact and efficacy related to cisgender girls, despite the inclusion of youth who identify as transgender in these programs. This paper aims to present a case study on the experience of a transgender adolescent girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation and provides a narrative of the multifarious challenges she faced while involved in institutional systems of care.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducted an in-depth case review of all records on “Jade,” a white adolescent transgender girl who experienced commercial sexual exploitation, from a specialty court program in the juvenile justice system between 2012 and 2016. Her experiences throughout childhood exemplify many of the unique challenges that transgender girls and young women with histories of exploitation or trafficking may encounter within service delivery and socioecological systems. This paper applied concepts adapted from the gender minority stress theoretical model to understand how minority gender identity can shape the experiences and outcomes of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation.

Findings

Jade’s narrative underscores the interplay of gender-based sexual violence, heteronormative structural barriers, transphobia and their intersectional impact on her experience while receiving specialized care. The intersectional hardships she experienced likely contributed to adverse biopsychosocial outcomes, including high rates of medical and behavioral health diagnoses and expectations of further rejection.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the extraordinary challenges and barriers faced by an often under-recognized and overlooked subset of the youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation, who may receive services that do not account for their unique needs related to gender expression and identity. This paper exemplifies how internalized stigma along with expectations of further rejection and victimization have implications for clinical and multidisciplinary intervention settings. Jade’s case underscores the need for improved access to supportive services for youth with minority gender identities, including peer community-building opportunities. Finally, this paper identifies a critical gap in US legislation and social policy. This gap contributes to the structural harms faced by transgender and gender-nonconforming youth receiving services during or following experiences of commercial sexual exploitation.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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